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‣ Mutations of the FHL1 Gene Cause Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy

Gueneau, Lucie; Bertrand, Anne T.; Jais, Jean-Philippe; Salih, Mustafa A.; Stojkovic, Tanya; Wehnert, Manfred; Hoeltzenbein, Maria; Spuler, Simone; Saitoh, Shinji; Verschueren, Annie; Tranchant, Christine; Beuvin, Maud; Lacene, Emmanuelle; Romero, Norma B
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/09/2009 Português
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Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) is a rare disorder characterized by early joint contractures, muscular dystrophy, and cardiac involvement with conduction defects and arrhythmias. So far, only 35% of EDMD cases are genetically elucidated and associated with EMD or LMNA gene mutations, suggesting the existence of additional major genes. By whole-genome scan, we identified linkage to the Xq26.3 locus containing the FHL1 gene in three informative families belonging to our EMD- and LMNA-negative cohort. Analysis of the FHL1 gene identified seven mutations, in the distal exons of FHL1 in these families, three additional families, and one isolated case, which differently affect the three FHL1 protein isoforms: two missense mutations affecting highly conserved cysteines, one abolishing the termination codon, and four out-of-frame insertions or deletions. The predominant phenotype was characterized by myopathy with scapulo-peroneal and/or axial distribution, as well as joint contractures, and associated with a peculiar cardiac disease characterized by conduction defects, arrhythmias, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in all index cases of the seven families. Heterozygous female carriers were either asymptomatic or had cardiac disease and/or mild myopathy. Interestingly...

‣ PRPS1 Mutations: Four Distinct Syndromes and Potential Treatment

de Brouwer, Arjan P.M.; van Bokhoven, Hans; Nabuurs, Sander B.; Arts, Willem Frans; Christodoulou, John; Duley, John
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/04/2010 Português
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Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetases (PRSs) catalyze the first step of nucleotide synthesis. Nucleotides are central to cell function, being the building blocks of nucleic acids and serving as cofactors in cellular signaling and metabolism. With this in mind, it is remarkable that mutations in phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase 1 (PRPS1), which is the most ubiquitously expressed gene of the three PRS genes, are compatible with life. Mutations described thus far in PRPS1 are all missense mutations that result in PRS-I superactivity or in variable levels of decreased activity, resulting in X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease-5 (CMTX5), Arts syndrome, and X-linked nonsyndromic sensorineural deafness (DFN2). Patients with PRS-I superactivity primarily present with uric acid overproduction, mental retardation, ataxia, hypotonia, and hearing impairment. Postlingual progressive hearing loss is found as an isolated feature in DFN2 patients. Patients with CMTX5 and Arts syndrome have peripheral neuropathy, including hearing impairment and optic atrophy. However, patients with Arts syndrome are more severely affected because they also have central neuropathy and an impaired immune system. The neurological phenotype in all four PRPS1-related disorders seems to result primarily from reduced levels of GTP and possibly other purine nucleotides including ATP...

‣ Mutations in DHDPSL Are Responsible For Primary Hyperoxaluria Type III

Belostotsky, Ruth; Seboun, Eric; Idelson, Gregory H.; Milliner, Dawn S.; Becker-Cohen, Rachel; Rinat, Choni; Monico, Carla G.; Feinstein, Sofia; Ben-Shalom, Efrat; Magen, Daniella; Weissman, Irith; Charon, Celine; Frishberg, Yaacov
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/09/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
367.2939%
Primary hyperoxaluria (PH) is an autosomal-recessive disorder of endogenous oxalate synthesis characterized by accumulation of calcium oxalate primarily in the kidney. Deficiencies of alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) or glyoxylate reductase (GRHPR) are the two known causes of the disease (PH I and II, respectively). To determine the etiology of an as yet uncharacterized type of PH, we selected a cohort of 15 non-PH I/PH II patients from eight unrelated families with calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis for high-density SNP microarray analysis. We determined that mutations in an uncharacterized gene, DHDPSL, on chromosome 10 cause a third type of PH (PH III). To overcome the difficulties in data analysis attributed to a state of compound heterozygosity, we developed a strategy of “heterozygosity mapping”—a search for long heterozygous patterns unique to all patients in a given family and overlapping between families, followed by reconstruction of haplotypes. This approach enabled us to determine an allelic fragment shared by all patients of Ashkenazi Jewish descent and bearing a 3 bp deletion in DHDPSL. Overall, six mutations were detected: four missense mutations, one in-frame deletion, and one splice-site mutation. Our assumption is that DHDPSL is the gene encoding 4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate aldolase...