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‣ Recurrent Dominant Mutations Affecting Two Adjacent Residues in the Motor Domain of the Monomeric Kinesin KIF22 Result in Skeletal Dysplasia and Joint Laxity

Boyden, Eric D.; Campos-Xavier, A. Belinda; Kalamajski, Sebastian; Cameron, Trevor L.; Suarez, Philippe; Tanackovich, Goranka; Andria, Generoso; Ballhausen, Diana; Briggs, Michael D.; Hartley, Claire; Cohn, Daniel H.; Davidson, H. Rosemarie; Hall, C
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/12/2011 Português
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367.2939%
Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint laxity, leptodactylic type (lepto-SEMDJL, aka SEMDJL, Hall type), is an autosomal dominant skeletal disorder that, in spite of being relatively common among skeletal dysplasias, has eluded molecular elucidation so far. We used whole-exome sequencing of five unrelated individuals with lepto-SEMDJL to identify mutations in KIF22 as the cause of this skeletal condition. Missense mutations affecting one of two adjacent amino acids in the motor domain of KIF22 were present in 20 familial cases from eight families and in 12 other sporadic cases. The skeletal and connective tissue phenotype produced by these specific mutations point to functions of KIF22 beyond those previously ascribed functions involving chromosome segregation. Although we have found Kif22 to be strongly upregulated at the growth plate, the precise pathogenetic mechanisms remain to be elucidated.

‣ A Human Homeotic Transformation Resulting from Mutations in PLCB4 and GNAI3 Causes Auriculocondylar Syndrome

Rieder, Mark J.; Green, Glenn E.; Park, Sarah S.; Stamper, Brendan D.; Gordon, Christopher T.; Johnson, Jason M.; Cunniff, Christopher M.; Smith, Joshua D.; Emery, Sarah B.; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Amiel, Jeanne; Holder, Muriel; Heggie, Andrew A.; B
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/05/2012 Português
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367.2939%
Auriculocondylar syndrome (ACS) is a rare, autosomal-dominant craniofacial malformation syndrome characterized by variable micrognathia, temporomandibular joint ankylosis, cleft palate, and a characteristic “question-mark” ear malformation. Careful phenotypic characterization of severely affected probands in our cohort suggested the presence of a mandibular patterning defect resulting in a maxillary phenotype (i.e., homeotic transformation). We used exome sequencing of five probands and identified two novel (exclusive to the patient and/or family studied) missense mutations in PLCB4 and a shared mutation in GNAI3 in two unrelated probands. In confirmatory studies, three additional novel PLCB4 mutations were found in multigenerational ACS pedigrees. All mutations were confirmed by Sanger sequencing, were not present in more than 10,000 control chromosomes, and resulted in amino-acid substitutions located in highly conserved protein domains. Additionally, protein-structure modeling demonstrated that all ACS substitutions disrupt the catalytic sites of PLCB4 and GNAI3. We suggest that PLCB4 and GNAI3 are core signaling molecules of the endothelin-1-distal-less homeobox 5 and 6 (EDN1-DLX5/DLX6) pathway. Functional studies demonstrated a significant reduction in downstream DLX5 and DLX6 expression in ACS cases in assays using cultured osteoblasts from probands and controls. These results support the role of the previously implicated EDN1-DLX5/6 pathway in regulating mandibular specification in other species...

‣ Defective Initiation of Glycosaminoglycan Synthesis due to B3GALT6 Mutations Causes a Pleiotropic Ehlers-Danlos-Syndrome-like Connective Tissue Disorder

Malfait, Fransiska; Kariminejad, Ariana; Van Damme, Tim; Gauche, Caroline; Syx, Delfien; Merhi-Soussi, Faten; Gulberti, Sandrine; Symoens, Sofie; Vanhauwaert, Suzanne; Willaert, Andy; Bozorgmehr, Bita; Kariminejad, Mohamad Hasan; Ebrahimiadib, Nazanin;
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/06/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
367.2939%
Proteoglycans are important components of cell plasma membranes and extracellular matrices of connective tissues. They consist of glycosaminoglycan chains attached to a core protein via a tetrasaccharide linkage, whereby the addition of the third residue is catalyzed by galactosyltransferase II (β3GalT6), encoded by B3GALT6. Homozygosity mapping and candidate gene sequence analysis in three independent families, presenting a severe autosomal-recessive connective tissue disorder characterized by skin fragility, delayed wound healing, joint hyperlaxity and contractures, muscle hypotonia, intellectual disability, and a spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with bone fragility and severe kyphoscoliosis, identified biallelic B3GALT6 mutations, including homozygous missense mutations in family 1 (c.619G>C [p.Asp207His]) and family 3 (c.649G>A [p.Gly217Ser]) and compound heterozygous mutations in family 2 (c.323_344del [p.Ala108Glyfs∗163], c.619G>C [p.Asp207His]). The phenotype overlaps with several recessive Ehlers-Danlos variants and spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint hyperlaxity. Affected individuals’ fibroblasts exhibited a large decrease in ability to prime glycosaminoglycan synthesis together with impaired glycanation of the small chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycan decorin...

‣ Mutations in PGAP3 Impair GPI-Anchor Maturation, Causing a Subtype of Hyperphosphatasia with Mental Retardation

Howard, Malcolm F.; Murakami, Yoshiko; Pagnamenta, Alistair T.; Daumer-Haas, Cornelia; Fischer, Björn; Hecht, Jochen; Keays, David A.; Knight, Samantha J.L.; Kölsch, Uwe; Krüger, Ulrike; Leiz, Steffen; Maeda, Yusuke; Mitchell, Daphne; Mundlos, Stef
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/02/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
367.2939%
Glycosylphophatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins play important roles in many biological processes, and mutations affecting proteins involved in the synthesis of the GPI anchor are reported to cause a wide spectrum of intellectual disabilities (IDs) with characteristic additional phenotypic features. Here, we describe a total of five individuals (from three unrelated families) in whom we identified mutations in PGAP3, encoding a protein that is involved in GPI-anchor maturation. Three siblings in a consanguineous Pakistani family presented with profound developmental delay, severe ID, no speech, psychomotor delay, and postnatal microcephaly. A combination of autozygosity mapping and exome sequencing identified a 13.8 Mb region harboring a homozygous c.275G>A (p.Gly92Asp) variant in PGAP3 region 17q11.2–q21.32. Subsequent testing showed elevated serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a GPI-anchored enzyme, in all three affected children. In two unrelated individuals in a cohort with developmental delay, ID, and elevated ALP, we identified compound-heterozygous variants c.439dupC (p.Leu147Profs∗16) and c.914A>G (p.Asp305Gly) and homozygous variant c.314C>G (p.Pro105Arg). The 1 bp duplication causes a frameshift and nonsense-mediated decay. Further evidence supporting pathogenicity of the missense mutations c.275G>A...