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‣ 1st Symposium in immunology of sport and physical activity: proceedings book

Symposium in Immunology of Sport and Physical Activity, 1, Coimbra, 2010; Teixeira, Ana Maria Miranda Botelho (ed); Rama, Luís Manuel Pinto Lopes (ed)
Fonte: Centro de Investigação do Desporto e da Actividade Física Publicador: Centro de Investigação do Desporto e da Actividade Física
Tipo: Livro
Português
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FCT e Salimetrics

‣ Immunology of Dermatophytosis

ALMEIDA, Sandro Rogerio
Fonte: SPRINGER Publicador: SPRINGER
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The immune response to infection by dermatophytes ranges from a non-specific host mechanism to a humoral and cell-mediated immune response. The currently accepted view is that a cell-mediated immune response is responsible for the control of dermatophytosis. Indeed, some individuals develop a chronic or recurrent infection mediated by the suppression of a cell-mediated immune response. The immune response to Trichophyton is unusual in that this fungus can elicit both immediate hypersensitivity (IH) and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) in different individuals when they are submitted to a skin test reaction. Understanding the nature and function of the immune response to dermatophytes is an exciting challenge that might lead to novel approaches in the treatment and immunological prophylaxis of dermatophytosis.

‣ Leukotrienes Are Potent Adjuvant during Fungal Infection: Effects on Memory T Cells

MEDEIROS, Alexandra I.; SA-NUNES, Anderson; TURATO, Walter M.; SECATTO, Adriana; FRANTZ, Fabiani G.; SORGI, Carlos A.; SEREZANI, Carlos H.; DEEPE JR., George S.; FACCIOLI, Lucia H.
Fonte: AMER ASSOC IMMUNOLOGISTS Publicador: AMER ASSOC IMMUNOLOGISTS
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Leukotrienes (LTs) are potent lipid mediators involved in the control of host defense. LTB(4) induces leukocyte accumulation, enhances phagocytosis and bacterial clearance, and increases NO synthesis. LTB(4) is also important in early effector T cell recruitment that is mediated by LTB(4) receptor 1, the high-affinity receptor for LTB(4). The aims of this study were to evaluate whether LTs are involved in the secondary immune response to vaccination in a murine model of Histoplasma capsulatum infection. Our results demonstrate that protection of wild-type mice immunized with cell-free Ags from H. capsulatum against histoplasmosis was associated with increased LTB(4) and IFN-gamma production as well as recruitment of memory T cells into the lungs. In contrast, cell-free Ag-immunized mice lacking 5-lipoxygenase(-/-), a critical enzyme involved in LT synthesis, displayed a marked decrease on recruitment of memory T cells to the lungs associated with increased synthesis of TGF-beta as well as IL-10. Strikingly, these effects were associated with increased mortality to 5-lipoxygenase(-/-)-infected mice. These data establish an important immunomodulatory role of LTs, in both the primary and secondary immune responses to histoplasmosis. The Journal of Immunology...

‣ Exhaled nitric oxide as a predictor of exacerbation in children with moderate-to-severe asthma: a prospective, 5-month study

CABRAL, Anna Lucia B.; VOLLMER, William M.; BARBIROTTO, Rosa M.; MARTINS, Milton A.
Fonte: AMER COLL ALLERGY ASTHMA IMMUNOLOGY Publicador: AMER COLL ALLERGY ASTHMA IMMUNOLOGY
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Background: Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) are recommended as the first line of treatment in children with moderate-to-severe asthma. Exhaled nitric oxide (ENO) has been proposed as a clinically useful marker of control that might help identify patients in whom ICS dose may be safely reduced. Objective: To evaluate the ability of ENO to predict future asthma exacerbations in children with moderate-to-severe asthma undergoing ICS tapering. Methods: This is an observational study with no control group. ENO was measured biweekly for 14 weeks in 32 children with moderate-to-severe asthma who were undergoing ICS tapering. Clinical evaluations and spirometry were performed concomitantly, and families kept daily diaries to record symptoms between visits. We used generalized estimating equations to model the In (odds) of an asthma exacerbation in the subsequent 2-week interval as a function of ENO level at the start of the interval while adjusting for age, sex, asthma severity, and current medication use. Results: We were able to successfully lower ICS doses in 10 (56%) of the 18 children with moderate asthma and in 3 (21%) of the 14 children with severe asthma. In 83 of the 187 follow-up clinical evaluations, children were determined to have had an exacerbation during the preceding 2 weeks. ENO levels...

‣ Decreased AIRE Expression and Global Thymic Hypofunction in Down Syndrome

LIMA, Flavia A.; MOREIRA-FILHO, Carlos A.; RAMOS, Patricia L.; BRENTANI, Helena; LIMA, Leandro de A.; ARRAIS, Magaly; BENTO-DE-SOUZA, Luiz C.; BENTO-DE-SOUZA, Luciana; DUARTE, Maria I.; COUTINHO, Antonio; CARNEIRO-SAMPAIO, Magda
Fonte: AMER ASSOC IMMUNOLOGISTS Publicador: AMER ASSOC IMMUNOLOGISTS
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The Down syndrome (DS) immune phenotype is characterized by thymus hypotrophy, higher propensity to organ-specific autoimmune disorders, and higher susceptibility to infections, among other features. Considering that AIRE (autoimmune regulator) is located on 21q22.3, we analyzed protein and gene expression in surgically removed thymuses from 14 DS patients with congenital heart defects, who were compared with 42 age-matched controls with heart anomaly as an isolated malformation. Immunohistochemistry revealed 70.48 +/- 49.59 AIRE-positive cells/mm(2) in DS versus 154.70 +/- 61.16 AIRE-positive cells/mm(2) in controls (p < 0.0001), and quantitative PCR as well as DNA microarray data confirmed those results. The number of FOXP3-positive cells/mm(2) was equivalent in both groups. Thymus transcriptome analysis showed 407 genes significantly hypoexpressed in DS, most of which were related, according to network transcriptional analysis (FunNet), to cell division and to immunity. Immune response-related genes included those involved in 1) Ag processing and presentation (HLA-DQB1, HLA-DRB3, CD1A, CD1B, CD1C, ERAP) and 2) thymic T cell differentiation (IL2RG, RAG2, CD3D, CD3E, PRDX2, CDK6) and selection (SH2D1A, CD74). It is noteworthy that relevant AIRE-partner genes...

‣ A randomized, comparative study of formoterol and terbutaline dry powder inhalers in the treatment of mild to moderate asthma exacerbations in the pediatric acute care setting

BUSSAMRA, Maria H.; STELMACH, Rafael; RODRIGUES, Joaquim C.; CUKIER, Alberto
Fonte: AMER COLL ALLERGY ASTHMA IMMUNOLOGY Publicador: AMER COLL ALLERGY ASTHMA IMMUNOLOGY
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Background: Formoterol is a fast-acting, long-acting beta-agonist. Its on-demand use by outpatients has been beneficial in controlling asthma. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of formoterol as rescue medication for pediatric asthma exacerbation. Methods: A randomized, double-blind study was conducted on parallel groups involving 79 pediatric patients (mean [SD] age, 9.92 [2.5] years) with mild to moderate asthma exacerbations. They were treated with up to 3 doses of formoterol aerolizer, 12 mu g, or terbutaline Turbuhaler, 0.5 mg (dry powder inhalers). Respiratory rate, clinical score, pulse oximetry, and spirometry were analyzed at baseline and 15 minutes after administration of each bronchodilator dose. All the patients received oral prednisolone, 1 mg/kg, at study entry, followed by a single daily dose for 4 days. Forty-one patients were treated with formoterol and 38 with terbutaline. The groups were comparable in age and in severity of asthma exacerbation. Results: Both treatments resulted in similar clinical and functional improvement; 37 patients (47%) required 1 bronchodilator dose. Increases of 19.5% and 1.5.3% occurred in forced expiratory volume in 1 second in the formoterol and terbutaline groups, respectively. Therapeutic failures occurred in 2 patients. No adverse effects were observed. At 1-week follow-up...

‣ Host genetic background affects regulatory T-cell activity that influences the magnitude of cellular immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

PAULA, Marina Oliveira; FONSECA, Denise Morais; WOWK, Pryscilla Fanini; GEMBRE, Ana Flavia; FEDATTO, Paola Fernanda; SERGIO, Ssia Alves; SILVA, Celio Lopes; BONATO, Vania Luiza Deperon
Fonte: NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP Publicador: NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Using two mouse strains with different abilities to generate interferon (IFN)-gamma production after Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, we tested the hypothesis that the frequency and activity of regulatory T (Treg) cells are influenced by genetic background. Our results demonstrated that the suppressive activity of spleen Treg cells from infected or uninfected BALB/c mice was enhanced, inhibiting IFN-gamma and interleukin (IL)-2 production. Infected C57BL/6 mice exhibited a decrease in the frequency of lung Treg cells and an increased ratio CD4(+):CD4(+)Foxp3(+) cells compared with infected BALB/c mice and uninfected C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, infected C57BL/6 mice also had a decrease in the immunosuppressive capacity of spleen Treg cells, higher lung IFN-gamma and IL-17 production, and restricted the infection better than BALB/c mice. Adoptive transfer of BALB/c Treg cells into BALB/c mice induced an increase in bacterial colony-forming unit (CFU) counts. Furthermore, BALB/c mice treated with anti-CD25 antibody exhibited lung CFU counts significantly lower than mice treated with irrelevant antibody. Our results show that in BALB/c mice, the Treg cells have a stronger influence than that in C57BL/6 mice. These data suggest that BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice may use some different mechanisms to control M. tuberculosis infection. Therefore...

‣ Histoplasma capsulatum Cell Wall beta-Glucan Induces Lipid Body Formation through CD18, TLR2, and Dectin-1 Receptors: Correlation with Leukotriene B(4) Generation and Role in HIV-1 Infection

SORGI, Carlos Arterio; SECATTO, Adriana; FONTANARI, Caroline; TURATO, Walter Miguel; BELANGER, Caroline; MEDEIROS, Alexandra Ivo de; KASHIMA, Simone; MARLEAU, Sylvie; COVAS, Dimas Tadeu; BOZZA, Patricia Torres; FACCIOLI, Lucia Helena
Fonte: AMER ASSOC IMMUNOLOGISTS Publicador: AMER ASSOC IMMUNOLOGISTS
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Histoplasma capsulatum (Hc) is a facultative, intracellular parasite of worldwide significance. Infection with Hc produces a broad spectrum of diseases and may progress to a life-threatening systemic disease, particularly in individuals with HIV infection. Resolution of histoplasmosis is associated with the activation of cell-mediated immunity, and leukotriene B(4) plays an important role in this event. Lipid bodies (LBs) are increasingly being recognized as multifunctional organelles with roles in inflammation and infection. In this study, we investigated LB formation in histoplasmosis and its putative function in innate immunity. LB formation in leukocytes harvested from Hc-infected C57BL/6 mice peaks on day 2 postinfection and correlates with enhanced generation of lipid mediators, including leukotriene B(4) and PGE(2). Pretreatment of leukocytes with platelet-activating factor and BLT1 receptor antagonists showed that both lipid mediators are involved in cell signaling for LB formation. Alveolar leukocytes cultured with live or dead Hc also presented an increase in LB numbers. The yeast alkali-insoluble fraction 1, which contains mainly beta-glucan isolated from the Hc cell wall, induced a dose- and time-dependent increase in LB numbers...

‣ Prospective analysis between the therapy of immunosuppressive medication and allogeneic microchimerism after liver transplantation

ARAUJO, M. B.; LEONARDI, L. S.; LEONARDI, M. I.; BOIN, I. F. S. F.; MAGNA, L. A.; DONADI, E. A.; KRAEMER, M. H. S.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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After liver transplantation, migration of donor-derived hematopoietic cells to recipient can be detected in pheripheral blood. This state is termed microchimerism. The aim of this study was to investigate prospectively the presence of allogeneic microchimerism, the occurrence of acute cellular rejection and the level of immunosuppression in transplanted patients. Microchimerism occurrence between 10 days and 12 months after liver transplantation was analyzed in 47 patients aged between 15 and 65 by a two-stage nested PCR/SSP technique to detect donor MHC HLA-DR gene specifically. A pre-transplant blood sample was colleted from each patient to serve as individual negative control. Microchimerism was demonstrated in 32 (68%) of the 47 patients; of these, only 10 patients (31.2%) presented rejection. Early microchimerism was observed in 25 patients (78.12%) and late microchimerism in 7 patients (21.8%). Among the patients with microchimerism, 14 were given CyA and 18 were given FK506. In the group without microchimerism, 12 patients were given CyA and 03 were given FK506. There was a significant association between the presence of microchimerism and the absence of rejection (p=0.02) and also between microchimerism and the type of immunosuppression used. Our data indicate that microchimerism and probably differentiation of donor-derived leukocytes can have relevant immunologic effects both in terms of sensitization of recipient and in terms of immunomodulation toward tolerance induction. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.; FAPESP-Sao Paulo State Research Foundation; FAEP (Teaching and Research Support Found)-UNICAMP; Universidade de São Paulo - Immunology Molecular Laboratory of the Clinical Hospital of the Medical Faculty of RibeirAo Preto (FMRP-USP-SP)

‣ A single nucleotide deletion at the C1 inhibitor gene as the cause of hereditary angioedema: insights from a Brazilian family

FERRARO, M. F.; MORENO, A. S.; CASTELLI, E. C.; DONADI, E. A.; PALMA, M. S.; ARCURI, H. A.; LANGE, A. P.; BORK, K.; SARTI, W.; ARRUDA, L. K.
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Background: Hereditary angioedema is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by episodes of subcutaneous and submucosal edema. It is caused by deficiency of the C1 inhibitor protein, leading to elevated levels of bradykinin. More than 200 mutations in C1 inhibitor gene have been reported. The aim of this study was to analyze clinical features of a large family with an index case of hereditary angioedema and to determine the disease-causing mutation in this family. Methods: Family pedigree was constructed with 275 individuals distributed in five generations. One hundred and sixty-five subjects were interviewed and investigated for mutation at the C1 inhibitor gene. Subjects reporting a history of recurrent episodes of angioedema and/or abdominal pain attacks underwent evaluation for hereditary angioedema. Results: We have identified a novel mutation at the C1 inhibitor gene, c.351delC, which is a single-nucleotide deletion of a cytosine on exon 3, resulting in frameshift with premature stop codon. Sequencing analysis of the hypothetical truncated C1 inhibitor protein allowed us to conclude that, if transcription occurs, this protein has no biological activity. Twenty-eight members of the family fulfilled diagnostic criteria for hereditary angioedema and all of them presented the c.351delC mutation. Variation in clinical presentation and severity of disease was observed among these patients. One hundred and thirty-seven subjects without hereditary angioedema did not have the c.351delC mutation. Conclusion: The present study provides definitive evidence to link a novel genetic mutation to the development of hereditary angioedema in patients from a Brazilian family.; CAPES; FAPESP; CNPq; Sao Paulo State Research Funding Agency (FAPESP); Brazilian National Research Council National Institutes of Science and Technology...

‣ Measurement of IgE antibodies to shrimp tropomyosin is superior to skin prick testing with commercial extract and measurement of IgE to shrimp for predicting clinically relevant allergic reactions after shrimp ingestion

YANG, Ariana C.; ARRUDA, L. Karla; SANTOS, Ana Beatriz R.; BARBOSA, Michelle C. R.; CHAPMAN, Martin D.; GALVAO, Clovis E. S.; KALIL, Jorge; MORATO-CASTRO, Fabio F.
Fonte: MOSBY-ELSEVIER Publicador: MOSBY-ELSEVIER
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Background: Shrimp is a frequent cause of food allergy. Tropomyosin is the major allergen in shrimp, and it shares homology to tropomyosins from other crustaceans, dust mites, cockroach, and parasites. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the value of detection of IgE to shrimp tropomyosin in the diagnosis of shrimp allergy. Methods: We have studied 35 patients with asthma, rhinitis, or both who were sensitized to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. All subjects underwent skin prick testing in addition to double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFC); oral open challenges; or both with shrimp. Measurements of IgE to shrimp and shrimp tropomyosin were carried out by means of CAP and chimeric ELISA, respectively. Results: Oral challenges confirmed the diagnosis of shrimp allergy in 7 patients. IgE measurement to shrimp tropomyosin was positive in 71.4% of the patients with shrimp allergy. Of the 28 patients without shrimp allergy, only 7.1% (2/28) had IgE to shrimp tropomyosin compared with 25% (7/28) who had IgE to shrimp and 35.7% (10/28) who had positive skin prick test responses to shrimp. Sensitivity was similar for all 3 methods (71.4%); in contrast, specificity of IgE to shrimp tropomyosin (92.8%) was greater than that of IgE to shrimp (75%) and skin prick testing (64.2%). With regard to diagnostic efficiency...

‣ Mapping Student Search Paths Through Immunology Problems by Computer Based Testing

Stevens, Ronald H.; Kwak, Anthony R.; McCoy, J. Michael
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/11/1990 Português
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The development and use of uncued computer based testing in Immunology has encouraged second year UCLA medical students to become more independent, active learners and problem solvers. We have used the Windows-based IMMEX software this year to show that these problem solving exercises are a valid form of testing and that student performance did not correlate with computer anxiety or performance on objective examinations. More importantly, we have developed a graphical display of the student's solution path through the problems which allows a visualization of the problem solving processes associated with successful or unsuccessful solutions. This approach provides an analysis of the student's reasoning about complex concepts in immunology and will make it possible in the future to specifically and personally address each student's educational needs.

‣ Mucosal immunology: from bench to the bedside and beyond.

Ferguson, A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1996 Português
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This paper, written by the President of the Society for Mucosal Immunology, marks the 9th International Congress of Mucosal Immunology, in Sydney: Mucosal Solutions. Current molecular, cellular and animal work in mucosal immunity has great potential when applied to issues of human and animal health. However, practical and technical problems in the transfer of theoretical concepts into clinically based research must not be underestimated. Ideally, studies in disease need to be designed and run jointly by clinicians and scientists, as illustrated by examples drawn from Crohn's disease. Ethical aspects of research in mucosal physiology and disease are challenging, but not insurmountable.

‣ Center for Disease Control Diagnostic Immunology Proficiency Testing Program results for 1977.

Taylor, R N; Fulford, K M; Przybyszewski, V A; Pope, V
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1978 Português
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A summary of the yearly data accumulated and analyzed in the diagnostic immunology portion of the Center for Disease Control 1977 Proficiency Testing Program provides information on the trends in testing protocols from over 900 participating laboratories. One hundred and fourteen specimens prepared by the Center for the Disease Control were distributed quarterly or in special surveys. The specimens chosen provided feedback from a broad range of tests commonly performed in diagnostic immunology laboratories and included those for rubella antibodies, hepatitis B surface antigen, bacterial antibodies, rheumatoid factor, immunoglobulins and other serum-specific proteins, syphilis serology, and carcinoembryonic antigen. This summary provides an overview of the trends observed since last year's report.

‣ Towards a Mathematical Foundation of Immunology and Amino Acid Chains

Shen, Wen-Jun; Wong, Hau-San; Xiao, Quan-Wu; Guo, Xin; Smale, Stephen
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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We attempt to set a mathematical foundation of immunology and amino acid chains. To measure the similarities of these chains, a kernel on strings is defined using only the sequence of the chains and a good amino acid substitution matrix (e.g. BLOSUM62). The kernel is used in learning machines to predict binding affinities of peptides to human leukocyte antigens DR (HLA-DR) molecules. On both fixed allele (Nielsen and Lund 2009) and pan-allele (Nielsen et.al. 2010) benchmark databases, our algorithm achieves the state-of-the-art performance. The kernel is also used to define a distance on an HLA-DR allele set based on which a clustering analysis precisely recovers the serotype classifications assigned by WHO (Nielsen and Lund 2009, and Marsh et.al. 2010). These results suggest that our kernel relates well the chain structure of both peptides and HLA-DR molecules to their biological functions, and that it offers a simple, powerful and promising methodology to immunology and amino acid chain studies.; Comment: updated on June 25, 2012

‣ A Beginners Guide to Systems Simulation in Immunology

Figueredo, Grazziela P.; Siebers, Peer-Olaf; Aickelin, Uwe; Foan, Stephanie
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Some common systems modelling and simulation approaches for immune problems are Monte Carlo simulations, system dynamics, discrete-event simulation and agent-based simulation. These methods, however, are still not widely adopted in immunology research. In addition, to our knowledge, there is few research on the processes for the development of simulation models for the immune system. Hence, for this work, we have two contributions to knowledge. The first one is to show the importance of systems simulation to help immunological research and to draw the attention of simulation developers to this research field. The second contribution is the introduction of a quick guide containing the main steps for modelling and simulation in immunology, together with challenges that occur during the model development. Further, this paper introduces an example of a simulation problem, where we test our guidelines.; Comment: Proceedings of the 11th Int. Conf. on Artificial Immune Systems, pp 57-71, 2012

‣ Keratinocytes from human skin respond as typical immune cells after the stimulation with _Trichophyton rubrum_

Alfonso E. Islas-Rodríguez; Luz A. García-Madrid
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Manuscript
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_Trichophyton rubrum_ is the main agent causing dermatophytosis (1). Keratinocytes are considered to be the first physical barrier of defense against pathogens (2). But not only a physical barrier. They recognize antigens through Toll like receptors (TLR) (3). The activation of this TLR, present on the surface of the keratinocytes, induce the expression of different pro-inflammatory cytokines, co-stimulatory molecules and antimicrobial peptides such as [beta]-defensins (4). The main objective of this work is to determine if lipopolysaccharides of G – bacteria (LPS), lipotheichoic acid from G+ bacteria (LTA), and conidias, isolated from _T. rubrum_ were able to activate the expression of TLR2 and TLR6 on the cell surface of a primary culture of human keratinocytes through Flow cytometry. Furthermore we are looking for the presence of [beta]-defensins 1 and 2, IL-1b and IL-8 in the supernatant, of the above mentioned culture of cells, by Western blot. From the flow cytometry data, the preliminary results showed an important dispersion in terms of proliferation, increase in size and granularity of keratinocytes, from primary cultures of skin from healthy donors...

‣ The beguining of immunology: antisera and the characterization of specificity in the immune; Origens da imunologia: os anti-soros e a caracterização da especificidade na resposta imune

Sant’Anna, Osvaldo Augusto; Faria, Marcella
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo de convidado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/03/2005 Português
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‣ IMMUNOSENESCENCE AND ITS IMPACT ON MEDICAL PRACTICE. A NEW LOOK AT AN OLD PROBLEM.; IMUNOSENESCÊNCIA E SEU IMPACTO NA PRÁTICA MÉDICA. UM NOVO OLHAR PARA UM VELHO PROBLEMA.

Lorencetti, Pedro G.; 1. Universidade Federal do Paraná – UFPR, Curitiba, Brasil; 2. Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.; van der Geest, Kornelis
Fonte: Setor de Ciência da Saúde - Universidade Federal do Paraná Publicador: Setor de Ciência da Saúde - Universidade Federal do Paraná
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/10/2014 Português
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Background: Ageing is a very complex process that modulates all the organ systems of the human body, and its impact on the immune system is called Immunosenescence. This condition is the result of several immune modulations due to genetic and environmental interactions and is responsible for important clinical conditions in elderly subjects, such as a higher incidence of infectious and autoimmune diseases, neoplasias and decreased vaccine efficacy. Objective: In this current review we will discuss the most common clinical problems in the elderly population related to Immunosenescence and new findings in basic science relevant to this topic. Conclusion: A better understanding of Imunosenescence is important to prevention of common age related diseases and for the promotion of healthy ageing.; Introdução:O envelhecimento é um processo complexo que influencia todos os sistemas do corpo humano e seu impacto no sistema imune é chamado Imunosenescência. Essa condição é resultado de várias modulações imunológicas causadas por interações entre fatores genéticos e ambientais e é responsável por importantes condições clínicas em indivíduos idosos como alta prevalência de doenças infecciosas e autoimunes, neoplasias e menor eficácia de vacinas. Objetivo: Nesta revisão serão discutidos os problemas clínicos mais comuns na população idosa relacionados a Imunosenescência...

‣ Immunotherapy and complexity: overcoming barriers to control of advanced cancer

Lage,Agustin
Fonte: Medical Education Cooperation with Cuba Publicador: Medical Education Cooperation with Cuba
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2014 Português
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Recent advances in fundamental immunology are changing paradigms for management of advanced cancer, now acknowledged as a chronic disease whose prevalence will increase, and one whose complexity makes it difficult to control. Immunotherapy is emerging as an alternative, with new monoclonal antibodies, therapeutic vaccines and deeper understanding of fundamental phenomena in the interaction between tumor and immune system. These novel insights concern mechanisms of programmed contraction of the immune response, characterization of molecular and cellular markers of immunosenescence, the dual role of inflammation, characterization of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and cancer stem cells, and the phenomena of immunogenic apoptosis and oncogene addiction. Additionally, new data drive a deeper understanding of four barriers to overcome in control of advanced cancer: the complexity of biological systems, tumor heterogeneity, tumor mutation rates, and human genome-environment mismatch. The new landscape points to six main strategies: manage advanced cancer as a chronic disease, find relevant molecular markers for patient stratification, develop a rationale for therapeutic combinations, target regulatory control loops in the immune system...