Página 5 dos resultados de 124249 itens digitais encontrados em 1.478 segundos

‣ DO INDIAN RESEARCHERS READ INDIAN RESEARCH? A REAPPRAISAL, FOUR YEARS LATER

Andrade, Chittaranjan; Kiran, Shashi; Rao, Sanjay Kumar N.; Choudhury, Partha
Fonte: Medknow Publications Publicador: Medknow Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2000 Português
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A previous study found that many papers in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry (UP) had failed to reference relevant papers previously published in the same journal. The present study examined whether any change in referencing patterns had occurred The database comprised 182 eligible articles published in the UP during 1993-1996. In general, few articles cited previous UP papers (median citations, 0-1); however, few articles omitted to cite previous (relevant) UP research (median omissions, 0-1). The average number of articles cited: omitted was 2:1. Original articles cited as well as omitted more UP references than brief communications. The larger the number of total references cited, the larger was the number of UP references both cited and omitted. No significant changes in referencing patterns was evident across the years. Indexing of articles, an important method of identifying relevant, previously published research was grossly adequate in 89% of articles; the average article received 2 index entries. While UP papers appear to be receiving greater attention, it is suggested that room for improvement remains.

‣ The Reproducibility and Applicability of an EFD® Dispenser in the Prosthetic Technology of Maxillofacial Prostheses

Blokland, L.; Borsboom, P. C. F.; Stokman, M. A.; Reintsema, H.; van Oort, R. P.
Fonte: Springer India Publicador: Springer India
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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A reproducible method of dosing pigments can be beneficial and more efficient in the current colour matching procedure in maxillofacial prosthetics. In this study the reproducibility and applicability for pigment dosing of a commercial available EFD® dispenser were tested. The reproducibility of a Performus™ II type EFD® dispenser was tested by repeating dosing experiments with a set of eight syringes filled with pigment pastes (Factor 2; Flagstaff, USA). To evaluate conventional colour matching, four conventionally colour matched samples were polymerized and compared to the original ones. To investigate the reproducibility of the dispenser in practice, a fifth recipe was dispensed 10 times and colour differences were evaluated visually and as well calculated from measurements with a colour and translucency meter (CTM, PBSensortechnology bv). All dispensed amounts of pigment pastes showed a coefficient of variation in weight of less than 10 %. Evaluating the reproductions of four skin batches compared to the original batches, a ∆E2000 colour difference of 3–7 was measured. Evaluating ten reproductions of one skin coloured batch made with the dispenser, color difference ∆E2000 values compared to the average L*a*b* values...

‣ Changes and recovery of soil bacterial communities influenced by biological soil disinfestation as compared with chloropicrin-treatment

Mowlick, Subrata; Inoue, Takashi; Takehara, Toshiaki; Kaku, Nobuo; Ueki, Katsuji; Ueki, Atsuko
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/08/2013 Português
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Soil bacterial composition, as influenced by biological soil disinfestation (BSD) associated with biomass incorporation was investigated to observe the effects of the treatment on the changes and recovery of the microbial community in a commercial greenhouse setting. Chloropicrin (CP) was also used for soil disinfestation to compare with the effects of BSD. The fusarium wilt disease incidence of spinach cultivated in the BSD- and CP-treated plots was reduced as compared with that in the untreated control plots, showing effectiveness of both methods to suppress the disease. The clone library analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that members of the Firmicutes became dominant in the soil bacterial community after the BSD-treatment. Clone groups related to the species in the class Clostridia, such as Clostridium saccharobutylicum, Clostridium tetanomorphum, Clostridium cylindrosporum, Oxobacter pfennigii, etc., as well as Bacillus niacini in the class Bacilli were recognized as the most dominant members in the community. For the CP-treated soil, clones affiliated with the Bacilli related to acid-tolerant or thermophilic bacteria such as Tuberibacillus calidus, Sporolactobacillus laevolacticus, Pullulanibacillus naganoensis...

‣ Early Results of A Simple Distraction Dynamic External Fixator in Management of Comminuted Intra-Articular Fractures of Base of Middle Phalanx

Mansha, Muhammad; Miranda, Sanjay
Fonte: Springer India Publicador: Springer India
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Treatment for comminuted fracture dislocations of the proximal interphalangeal joint (pilon injuries) remains a challenge. We present our short term results of twelve pilon fracture dislocations treated by closed reduction and application of a distraction dynamic external fixator. The aim of the study was to assess the clinical outcomes and compare them to the original description by Hynes and Giddins. A cohort of 12 consecutive patients with pilon fracture of the proximal interphalangeal joint (comminuted fracture of the base of middle phalanx, longitudinally unstable with joint subluxation), were treated with this method over the study period. Data was collected by an independent observer at last follow-up appointment in the clinic. The outcome measures recorded were; level of residual pain, arc of motion, X-ray appearance, return to work and satisfaction with the procedure. The study group comprises of 7 male and 5 female patients at a mean age of 38.1 years (range 21–70 years). The average range of movement achieved was 13–87° at a mean follow-up of 16.4 weeks (Range 12–42 weeks). Early return to work, good pain relief and high level of patient satisfaction were achieved. No serious complication was noted during this period. We used the construct with slight modification of the original description and we feel this modification may help to reduce the pin site infection. We found the results reproducible and based on our experience we recommend this technique to treat these complex intra-articular fractures of base of middle phalanx.

‣ Two-stage microbial community experimental design

Tickle, Timothy L; Segata, Nicola; Waldron, Levi; Weingart, Uri; Huttenhower, Curtis
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Microbial community samples can be efficiently surveyed in high throughput by sequencing markers such as the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Often, a collection of samples is then selected for subsequent metagenomic, metabolomic or other follow-up. Two-stage study design has long been used in ecology but has not yet been studied in-depth for high-throughput microbial community investigations. To avoid ad hoc sample selection, we developed and validated several purposive sample selection methods for two-stage studies (that is, biological criteria) targeting differing types of microbial communities. These methods select follow-up samples from large community surveys, with criteria including samples typical of the initially surveyed population, targeting specific microbial clades or rare species, maximizing diversity, representing extreme or deviant communities, or identifying communities distinct or discriminating among environment or host phenotypes. The accuracies of each sampling technique and their influences on the characteristics of the resulting selected microbial community were evaluated using both simulated and experimental data. Specifically, all criteria were able to identify samples whose properties were accurately retained in 318 paired 16S amplicon and whole-community metagenomic (follow-up) samples from the Human Microbiome Project. Some selection criteria resulted in follow-up samples that were strongly non-representative of the original survey population; diversity maximization particularly undersampled community configurations. Only selection of intentionally representative samples minimized differences in the selected sample set from the original microbial survey. An implementation is provided as the microPITA (Microbiomes: Picking Interesting Taxa for Analysis) software for two-stage study design of microbial communities.

‣ Properties of the newly isolated extracellular thermo-alkali-stable laccase from thermophilic actinomycetes, Thermobifida fusca and its application in dye intermediates oxidation

Chen, Cheng-Yu; Huang, Yu-Chun; Wei, Chien-Mei; Meng, Menghsiao; Liu, Wen-Hsiung; Yang, Chao-Hsun
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/08/2013 Português
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Laccases are diphenol oxidases that have numerous applications to biotechnological processes. In this study, the laccase was produced from the thermophilic actinomycetes, Thermobifida fusca BCRC 19214. After 36 h of fermentation in a 5-liter fermentor, the culture broth accumulated 4.96 U/ml laccase activity. The laccase was purified 4.64-fold as measured by specific activity from crude culture filtrate by ultrafiltration concentration, Q-Sepharose FF and Sephacryl™ S-200 column chromatography. The overall yield of the purified enzyme was 7.49%. The molecular mass of purified enzyme as estimated by SDS-PAGE and by gel filtration on Sephacryl™ S-200 was found to be 73.3 kDa and 24.7 kDa, respectively, indicating that the laccase from T. fusca BCRC 19214 is a trimer. The internal amino acid sequences of the purified laccase, as determined by LC-MS/MS, had high homology with a superoxide dismutase from T. fusca YX. Approximately 95% of the original activity remained after treatment at 50°C for 3 h. and approximately 75% of the original activity remained after treatment at pH 10.0 for 24 h. This laccase could oxidize dye intermediates, especially 2,6-dimethylphenylalanine and p-aminophenol, to produce coloring. This is the first report on laccase properties from thermophilic actinomycetes. These properties suggest that this newly isolated laccase has potential for specific industrial applications.

‣ Impact and clinical significance of pedicle length on spinal canal and intervertebral foramen area

Yuan, Chenxi; Zhu, Hai; Song, Dawei; Wei, Wang; Zhu, Ruofu; Mei, Xin; Zou, Jun; Yang, Huilin
Fonte: e-Century Publishing Corporation Publicador: e-Century Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/01/2014 Português
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The aim of this study was to measure changes in the cross-sectional area of the spinal canal and the area of the intervertebral foramen for each pedicle segment before and after the pedicle extension using computer-simulated transpedicular osteotomy to provide a theoretical basis for clinical decompression in the lumbar spinal canal. Using spiral CT scanning of the original lumbar spine, a finite element model was established. The pedicle was cut and extended by 2 mm, 4 mm, 6 mm, and 8 mm for respective modeling. The changes in the area of each plane of the vertebral canal and the area of the intervertebral foramen were measured. With the gradual extension of the pedicle, the areas of the spinal canal and intervertebral foramen also significantly increased compared with those of the original lumbar spine (P<0.05). The extension of the pedicle using transpedicular osteotomy can significantly increase the cross-sectional area of the lumbar canal and the area of the intervertebral foramen. This finding provides a new theoretically practicable method for the clinical decompression of the lumbar spinal canal.

‣ Social interaction plays a critical role in neurogenesis and recovery after stroke

Venna, V R; Xu, Y; Doran, S J; Patrizz, A; McCullough, L D
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Stroke survivors often experience social isolation. Social interaction improves quality of life and decreases mortality after stroke. Male mice (20–25 g; C57BL/6N), all initially pair housed, were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Mice were subsequently assigned into one of three housing conditions: (1) Isolated (SI); (2) Paired with their original cage mate who was also subjected to stroke (stroke partner (PH-SP)); or (3) Paired with their original cage mate who underwent sham surgery (healthy partner (PH-HP)). Infarct analysis was performed 72 h after stroke and chronic survival was assessed at day 30. Immediate post-stroke isolation led to a significant increase in infarct size and mortality. Interestingly, mice paired with a healthy partner had significantly lower mortality than mice paired with a stroke partner, despite equivalent infarct damage. To control for changes in infarct size induced by immediate post-stroke isolation, additional cohorts were assessed that remained pair housed for three days after stroke prior to randomization. Levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were assessed at 90 days and cell proliferation (in cohorts injected with 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine, BrdU) was evaluated at 8 and 90 days after stroke. All mice in the delayed housing protocol had equivalent infarct volumes (SI...

‣ 708 Common and 2010 rare DISC1 locus variants identified in 1542 subjects: analysis for association with psychiatric disorder and cognitive traits

Thomson, P A; Parla, J S; McRae, A F; Kramer, M; Ramakrishnan, K; Yao, J; Soares, D C; McCarthy, S; Morris, S W; Cardone, L; Cass, S; Ghiban, E; Hennah, W; Evans, K L; Rebolini, D; Millar, J K; Harris, S E; Starr, J M; MacIntyre, D J; ; McIntosh, A M; Wat
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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A balanced t(1;11) translocation that transects the Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) gene shows genome-wide significant linkage for schizophrenia and recurrent major depressive disorder (rMDD) in a single large Scottish family, but genome-wide and exome sequencing-based association studies have not supported a role for DISC1 in psychiatric illness. To explore DISC1 in more detail, we sequenced 528 kb of the DISC1 locus in 653 cases and 889 controls. We report 2718 validated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of which 2010 have a minor allele frequency of <1%. Only 38% of these variants are reported in the 1000 Genomes Project European subset. This suggests that many DISC1 SNPs remain undiscovered and are essentially private. Rare coding variants identified exclusively in patients were found in likely functional protein domains. Significant region-wide association was observed between rs16856199 and rMDD (P=0.026, unadjusted P=6.3 × 10−5, OR=3.48). This was not replicated in additional recurrent major depression samples (replication P=0.11). Combined analysis of both the original and replication set supported the original association (P=0.0058, OR=1.46). Evidence for segregation of this variant with disease in families was limited to those of rMDD individuals referred from primary care. Burden analysis for coding and non-coding variants gave nominal associations with diagnosis and measures of mood and cognition. Together...

‣ Genetic Diversity of Echinococcus granulosus in Center of Iran

Pestechian, Nader; Hosseini Safa, Ahmad; Tajedini, Mohammadhasan; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Mousavi, Mohammad; Yousofi, Hosseinali; Haghjooy Javanmard, Shaghayegh
Fonte: The Korean Society for Parasitology and Tropical Medicine Publicador: The Korean Society for Parasitology and Tropical Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Hydatid cyst caused by Echinococcus granulosus is one of the most important parasitic diseases around the world and many countries in Asia, including Iran, are involved with this infection. This disease can cause high mortality in humans as well as economic losses in livestock. To date, several molecular methods have been used to determine the genetic diversity of E. granulosus. So far, identification of E. granulosus using real-time PCR fluorescence-based quantitative assays has not been studied worldwide, also in Iran. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity of E. granulosus from center of Iran using real-time PCR method. A total of 71 hydatid cysts were collected from infected sheep, goat, and cattle slaughtered in Isfahan, Iran during 2013. DNA was extracted from protoscolices and/or germinal layers from each individual cyst and used as template to amplify the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) (420 bp). Five cattle isolates out of 71 isolates were sterile and excluded from further investigation. Overall, of 66 isolates, partial sequences of the cox1 gene of E. granulosus indicated the presence of genotypes G1 in 49 isolates (74.2%), G3 in 15 isolates (22.7%), and G6 in 2 isolates (3.0%) in infected intermediate hosts. Sixteen sequences of G1 genotype had microgenetic variants...

‣ Epileptic Seizure Prediction based on Ratio and Differential Linear Univariate Features

Rasekhi, Jalil; Mollaei, Mohammad Reza Karami; Bandarabadi, Mojtaba; Teixeira, César A.; Dourado, António
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 Português
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Bivariate features, obtained from multichannel electroencephalogram recordings, quantify the relation between different brain regions. Studies based on bivariate features have shown optimistic results for tackling epileptic seizure prediction problem in patients suffering from refractory epilepsy. A new bivariate approach using univariate features is proposed here. Differences and ratios of 22 linear univariate features were calculated using pairwise combination of 6 electroencephalograms channels, to create 330 differential, and 330 relative features. The feature subsets were classified using support vector machines separately, as one of the two classes of preictal and nonpreictal. Furthermore, minimum Redundancy Maximum Relevance feature reduction method is employed to improve the predictions and reduce the number of false alarms. The studies were carried out on features obtained from 10 patients. For reduced subset of 30 features and using differential approach, the seizures were on average predicted in 60.9% of the cases (28 out of 46 in 737.9 h of test data), with a low false prediction rate of 0.11 h−1. Results of bivariate approaches were compared with those achieved from original linear univariate features, extracted from 6 channels. The advantage of proposed bivariate features is the smaller number of false predictions in comparison to the original 22 univariate features. In addition...

‣ A histological comparison of the original and regenerated tail in the green anole, Anolis carolinensis

Fisher, Rebecca E.; Geiger, Lauren A.; Stroik, Laura K.; Hutchins, Elizabeth D.; George, Rajani M.; DeNardo, Dale F.; Kusumi, Kenro; Rawls, J. Alan; Wilson-Rawls, Jeanne
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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This study provides a histological comparison of the mature regenerated and original tail of the lizard Anolis carolinensis. These data will provide a framework for future studies of this emerging model organism whose genome was recently published. This study demonstrated that the cartilage skeleton of the regenerated tail enclosed a spinal cord with an ependymal core, but there was no evidence that dorsal root ganglia or peripheral nerves are regenerated. The cartilage tube contained foramina that allowed the vasculature to cross, but was otherwise a rigid structure. The original tail has muscle groups arranged in quadrants in a regular pattern that attach to the vertebral column. The regenerated tail has irregular muscle bundles of variable number that form unusual attachments to each other and to the cartilage tube. Furthermore, the data show that there was increased connective tissue within the muscle bundles. Implications for functionality of the regenerated tail and for future biomechanical studies are discussed.

‣ Detection and classification of Breast Cancer in Wavelet Sub-bands of Fractal Segmented Cancerous Zones

Shirazinodeh, Alireza; Noubari, Hossein Ahmadi; Rabbani, Hossein; Dehnavi, Alireza Mehri
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 Português
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Recent studies on wavelet transform and fractal modeling applied on mammograms for the detection of cancerous tissues indicate that microcalcifications and masses can be utilized for the study of the morphology and diagnosis of cancerous cases. It is shown that the use of fractal modeling, as applied to a given image, can clearly discern cancerous zones from noncancerous areas. In this paper, for fractal modeling, the original image is first segmented into appropriate fractal boxes followed by identifying the fractal dimension of each windowed section using a computationally efficient two-dimensional box-counting algorithm. Furthermore, using appropriate wavelet sub-bands and image Reconstruction based on modified wavelet coefficients, it is shown that it is possible to arrive at enhanced features for detection of cancerous zones. In this paper, we have attempted to benefit from the advantages of both fractals and wavelets by introducing a new algorithm. By using a new algorithm named F1W2, the original image is first segmented into appropriate fractal boxes, and the fractal dimension of each windowed section is extracted. Following from that, by applying a maximum level threshold on fractal dimensions matrix, the best-segmented boxes are selected. In the next step...

‣ SORTA: a system for ontology-based re-coding and technical annotation of biomedical phenotype data

Pang, Chao; Sollie, Annet; Sijtsma, Anna; Hendriksen, Dennis; Charbon, Bart; de Haan, Mark; de Boer, Tommy; Kelpin, Fleur; Jetten, Jonathan; van der Velde, Joeri K.; Smidt, Nynke; Sijmons, Rolf; Hillege, Hans; Swertz, Morris A.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/09/2015 Português
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There is an urgent need to standardize the semantics of biomedical data values, such as phenotypes, to enable comparative and integrative analyses. However, it is unlikely that all studies will use the same data collection protocols. As a result, retrospective standardization is often required, which involves matching of original (unstructured or locally coded) data to widely used coding or ontology systems such as SNOMED CT (clinical terms), ICD-10 (International Classification of Disease) and HPO (Human Phenotype Ontology). This data curation process is usually a time-consuming process performed by a human expert. To help mechanize this process, we have developed SORTA, a computer-aided system for rapidly encoding free text or locally coded values to a formal coding system or ontology. SORTA matches original data values (uploaded in semicolon delimited format) to a target coding system (uploaded in Excel spreadsheet, OWL ontology web language or OBO open biomedical ontologies format). It then semi- automatically shortlists candidate codes for each data value using Lucene and n-gram based matching algorithms, and can also learn from matches chosen by human experts. We evaluated SORTA’s applicability in two use cases. For the LifeLines biobank...

‣ Speedy speciation in a bacterial microcosm: new species can arise as frequently as adaptations within a species

Koeppel, Alexander F; Wertheim, Joel O; Barone, Laura; Gentile, Nicole; Krizanc, Danny; Cohan, Frederick M
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Microbiologists are challenged to explain the origins of enormous numbers of bacterial species worldwide. Contributing to this extreme diversity may be a simpler process of speciation in bacteria than in animals and plants, requiring neither sexual nor geographical isolation between nascent species. Here, we propose and test a novel hypothesis for the extreme diversity of bacterial species—that splitting of one population into multiple ecologically distinct populations (cladogenesis) may be as frequent as adaptive improvements within a single population's lineage (anagenesis). We employed a set of experimental microcosms to address the relative rates of adaptive cladogenesis and anagenesis among the descendants of a Bacillus subtilis clone, in the absence of competing species. Analysis of the evolutionary trajectories of genetic markers indicated that in at least 7 of 10 replicate microcosm communities, the original population founded one or more new, ecologically distinct populations (ecotypes) before a single anagenetic event occurred within the original population. We were able to support this inference by identifying putative ecotypes formed in these communities through differences in genetic marker association, colony morphology and microhabitat association; we then confirmed the ecological distinctness of these putative ecotypes in competition experiments. Adaptive mutations leading to new ecotypes appeared to be about as common as those improving fitness within an existing ecotype. These results suggest near parity of anagenesis and cladogenesis rates in natural populations that are depauperate of bacterial diversity.

‣ Translation and Linguistic Validation of the Korean Version of the Dysfunctional Voiding Symptom Score

Lee, Hahn-Ey; Farhat, Walid; Park, Kwanjin
Fonte: The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences Publicador: The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Although studies on pediatric dysfunctional voiding are increasing, there have not been enough efforts to validate the Dysfunctional Voiding Symptom Score (DVSS) questionnaire. Therefore, we aimed to translate and validate the DVSS into Korean. The DVSS questionnaire was validated between January and October, 2013. Two bilinguals independently translated the English version of the DVSS questionnaire into Korean, and then reconciled the forward translation of the Korean version. The original DVSS was back-translated into English, then assessed for equivalence to the original. Cognitive debriefing interviews with 5 patients to test the interpretation of the translation were made, then modified and distributed to 48 patients for re-evaluation. A statistical analysis of inter-scale correlation, and test re-test consistency was performed with the Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The changes from patient interviews were reflected in the final version. In an intra-class correlation, the Cronbach's alpha was high in all of the questions (0.97, P < 0.001). Test re-test Cronbach's alpha analysis of reproducibility was higher than 0.8 for all of the 10 questions (P < 0.001). Translation and linguistic validation of Korean version of the DVSS questionnaire was completed by a proper process...

‣ ACUTE PORPHYRIA AMONGST PSYCHIATRIC PATIENTS

Golechha, G. R.; Chatterjee, S. B.; Sethi, B. B.; Agarwal, S. S.
Fonte: Medknow Publications Publicador: Medknow Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1981 Português
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A total of 519 consecutive patients, admitted to psychiatric wards of two different hospitals, were screened for evidence of increased excretion of porphobilinogen in the urine by original Watson Schwartz test and modified Watson Schwartz test supported with quantitative estimation of porphobilinogen by Remington's method in search of cases of acute porphyria amongst psychiatric patients. An additional 273 normal healthy volunteers were also screened as controls. Two cases (0.38%) were found which could be unequivocally diagnosed to be suffering from acute intermittent porphyria amongst psychiatric patients. These cases belonged to the category of missed diagnosis being labelled as hysterical. Seven more cases were positive by modified Watson Schwartz test but the test was only transiently positive and the Ehrlichaldehyde reactor substance was unstable. In the absence of detailed enzymatic and family studies, these cases have been kept under the category of suspected prophyria. A significant number of psychiatric patients (12.9%) gave positive original Watson-Schwartz test but were negative for modified test. Similar reaction was seen in 2.6% of healthy controls. The significance of this finding needs to be evaluated.

‣ ROC-supervised principal component analysis in connection with the diagnosis of diseases

Nikas, Jason B; Low, Walter C
Fonte: e-Century Publishing Corporation Publicador: e-Century Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Principal component analysis (PCA) is a data analysis method that can deal with large volumes of data. Owing to the complexity and volume of the data generated by today's advanced technologies in genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, PCA has become predominant in the medical sciences. Despite its popularity, PCA leaves much to be desired in terms of accuracy and may not be suitable for certain medical applications, such as diagnostics, where accuracy is paramount. In this study, we introduced a new PCA method, one that is carefully supervised by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. In order to assess its performance with respect to its ability to render an accurate differential diagnosis, and to compare its performance with that of standard PCA, we studied the striatal metabolomic profile of R6/2 Huntington disease (HD) transgenic mice, as well as that of wild type (WT) mice, using high field in vivo proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy (9.4-Tesla). We tested both the standard PCA and our ROC-supervised PCA (using in each case both the covariance and the correlation matrix), 1) with the original R6/2 HD mice and WT mice, 2) with unknown mice, whose status had been determined via genotyping, and 3) with the ability to separate the original R6/2 mice into the two age subgroups (8 and 12 wks old). Only our ROC-supervised PCA (both with the covariance and the correlation matrix) passed all tests with a total accuracy of 100%; thus...

‣ A case study for online plan adaptation using helical tomotherapy

Neilson, Christopher E.; Yartsev, Slav
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
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Helical tomotherapy's ability to provide daily megavoltage (MV) computed tomography (CT) images for patient set-up verification allows for the creation of adapted plans. As plans become more complex by introducing sharper dose gradients in an effort to spare healthy tissue, inter-fraction changes of organ position with respect to plan become a limiting factor in the correct dose delivery to the target. Tomotherapy's planned adaptive option provides the possibility to evaluate the dose distribution for each fraction and subsequently adapt the original plan to the current anatomy. In this study, 30 adapted plans were created using new contours based on the daily MVCT studies of a bladder cancer patient with considerable anatomical variations. Dose to the rectum and two planning target volumes (PTVs) were compared between the original plan, the dose that was actually delivered to the patient, and the theoretical dose from the 30 adapted plans. The adaptation simulation displayed a lower dose to 35% and 50% of the rectum compared to no adaptation at all, while maintaining an equivalent dose to the PTVs. Although online adaptation is currently too time-consuming, it has the potential to improve the effectiveness of radiotherapy.

‣ Corporoplasty with small soft axial prostheses (VIRILIS I®) and bovine pericardial graft (HYDRIX®) in Peyronie's disease

Zucchi, Alessandro; Silvani, Mauro; Pecoraro, Stefano
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The surgical techniques used by Austoni and Egydio in the treatment of Peyronie's disease are based on geometric principles. The aim of this paper is to report our multicentric experience and technical changes to Austoni's original technique, focusing on several tips and tricks to make this technique easy to perform, even by less experienced practitioners. We performed operations in three different Italian institutions. We implanted a small soft Virilis I® axial prostheses (Ø 7 Fr.), using a bovine pericardium collagen matrix patch (Hydrix®) to cover the defect in the tunica albuginea. Sixty patients with a mean age of 58 years (range 44–76 years) underwent surgery between September 2005 and January 2010. After surgery, mean lengthening of the shaft was 2 cm (range 1.2–2.3 cm) with complete correction of penile recurvatum. Thirty-nine patients resumed sexual activity 60 days later, 14 after 90 days and 7 after 120 days. The international index of erectile function (IIEF) score was 15.5 before surgery and it improved to 23 at 12 and 24 months after surgery. Furthermore, the visual analogue scale (VAS) showed good results in terms of the recovery of natural sexual intercourse (over 80% of couples) and of the original length and girth of the penis. The soft implant we used takes advantage of erection that occurs spontaneously...