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‣ University Technology Enterprise Network in Portugal: A Bottom-up Approach to Improve Regional Innovation Ecosystems

Resende, David Nunes; Marco Bravo
Fonte: Center for Technology Transfer UŁ Publicador: Center for Technology Transfer UŁ
Tipo: Parte de Livro
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In the new paradigm of Open Innovation (OI), traditional cooperative research agreements or sponsored research are no longer effective enough to meet the needs of the system and the market. Today, any Innovation Ecosystem has a myriad of players, such as: big and small companies, startups, R&D institutions, brokers, and other intermediaries. The UTEN (University Technology Enterprise Network) Program, launched in March 2007 by The University of Texas at Austin’s IC2 Institute to accelerate the development of a sustainable, globally competitive, professional technology transfer (TT) and commercialization network, was founded with the propose of improving the Portuguese international competitiveness in university–based science/technology commercialization. We argue that initiatives taken place in the project have gotten UTEN network presently run in OI fostered mostly by the TT Offices and their own networks and officers. This paper shows the actions taken to develop UTEN and improve the Portuguese Innovation Ecosystem. The data we offer in support of our argument is a collection of implementation that started with 14 Portuguese Universities and select international partners in a five-year program. Our indicators show that UTEN has leveraged this growth by stimulating new competencies in international technology transfer and commercialization...

‣ Diabetes Technology, Innovation, and the U.S. Health Insurance System

Quinn, Bruce
Fonte: Diabetes Technology Society Publicador: Diabetes Technology Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/09/2013 Português
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The flow of funds in the U.S. health care system is crucial both for the provision of services to patients and to encourage innovation that enables long-term improvement of health services. Rising concern about health care costs often includes concerns about inappropriate adoption of costly or unnecessary technology. Many innovations in diabetes technology may involve personal technology, which does not qualify under existing health insurance categories such as “durable medical equipment” or under a currently defined telehealth technology. In such cases, the diabetes technology industry may be developing types of technology that are so innovative they do not have clearly established payment mechanisms in the existing U.S. fee for service health care reimbursement system. This article describes key features of the U.S. health care payment system relevant to developers of new diabetes technologies.

‣ Key success factors in transforming traditional family business for success and long-term survival in changing markets

Srisomburananont, Thitipong, 1976-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 155 p.; 9310797 bytes; 9310603 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Most of family-owned enterprises start their operations in the traditional businesses such as manufacturing, trading, or providing services. Some of them are very successful and become major global players in the industries, for example, SC Johnson, Coming, and Li & Fung. However, technological changes often have impacts on the behaviors of the market. New technology can add tremendous capacity for a firm to pursue economy of scale or it can reduce marginal cost to zero. Moreover, in the globalization era, multinational companies expand their business territories by entering to the new markets. They exploit the advance in technology, which allows them to provide better products/services than those of local firms. Technology becomes key driver for the increase in competition in the market because the firms that adopt the technology tend to have competitive advantage over firms that did not. It also drives customers to demand more comprehensive products and services. In order to survive and be forefront in the industry, these family firms need to transform themselves or adopt some technologies to enhance and regain their competitiveness. Not all companies realize the importance of doing so or know how to do so. But still, there are some companies that are able to transform successfully. This thesis will analyze keys to success for these family businesses in transforming themselves to maintain competitiveness in changing markets.; by Thitipong Srisomburananont.; Thesis (S.M.M.O.T.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

‣ Hydrogen : what fuel cell vehicles and advanced nuclear reactors have in common

Demirdöven, Nurettin, 1974-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 104 p.; 5506898 bytes; 5512523 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This thesis reports on two technology and policy issues directly related to hydrogen economy. The first issue concentrates on the end-use application of hydrogen as a transportation fuel, and deals with the following question: what is the place of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles among the new, more-efficient advanced vehicle technologies. Our analysis indicates that fuel cell vehicles using hydrogen from fossils fuels offer no significant energy efficiency advantage over hybrid vehicles in urban driving cycle. Therefore, there is a strong justification for federal support for hybrid vehicles that will achieve similar results, quicker. The second issue focuses on another important technology and policy question related to large scale hydrogen production: are there any comparative efficiency, cost and/or political advantages of using an advanced nuclear reactor coupled to a thermochemical conversion plant to produce hydrogen with respect using a conventional nuclear reactor coupled to an electrolysis plant? The results suggest that given the existing technical and cost uncertainties, developing an advanced nuclear reactor technology solely for the use of thermochemical hydrogen production is not good energy (R&D) policy. Electrolysis is a more promising alternative provided a more efficient electrolysis technology can be coupled to an advanced nuclear energy (i.e. electricity) source at a reasonable cost. Therefore...

‣ Effective information integration and reutilization : solutions to technological deficiency and legal uncertainty

Zhu, Hongwei
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 159 p.; 11804398 bytes; 11811052 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The amount of electronically accessible information has been growing exponentially. How to effectively use this information has become a significant challenge. A post 9/11 study indicated that the deficiency of semantic interoperability technology hindered the ability to integrate information from disparate sources in a meaningful and timely fashion to allow for preventive precautions. Meanwhile, organizations that provided useful services by combining and reusing information from publicly accessible sources have been legally challenged. The Database Directive has been introduced in the European Union and six legislative proposals have been made in the U.S. to provide legal protection for non-copyrightable database contents, but the Directive and the proposals have differing and sometimes conflicting scope and strength, which creates legal uncertainty for valued-added data reuse practices. The need for clearer data reuse policy will become more acute as information integration technology improves to make integration much easier. This Thesis takes an interdisciplinary approach to addressing both the technology and the policy challenges, identified above, in the effective use and reuse of information from disparate sources.; (cont.) The technology component builds upon the existing Context Interchange (COIN) framework for large-scale semantic interoperability. We focus on the problem of temporal semantic heterogeneity where data sources and receivers make time-varying assumptions about data semantics. A collection of time-varying assumptions are called a temporal context. We extend the existing COIN representation formalism to explicitly represent temporal contexts...

‣ Strategy, structure, and performance of IT services firms

De Laigue, François J. (François Jean-Marie)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 120 p.; 5461291 bytes; 5466288 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Sales of services are becoming a major source of revenues across industries. The shift towards services has been exacerbated as human capital has gained in importance in the "knowledge economy." And yet, products businesses have historically attracted, and are still attracting, most of the attention of managers and scholars. Centering on the information technology services industry, this thesis analyzes the strategy, structure, and performance of services firms. We analyze the information technology services industry and propose a framework to determine the drivers of performance of information technology services firms. The framework is applied to a database of 831 information technology services firms from 1990 to 2004. Chapter II provides an insight into the dynamics of the information technology industry. Chapter III then focuses on the specificities, characteristics and structure of the information technology services firms. In Chapter IV, the business model of services firms is contrasted with that of products firms. Inter-relations between the two business models are proposed. Chapter V introduces a strategic management framework and applies it to the definition of drivers of performance of IT services firms, which are analyzed in Chapter VI...

‣ Quantitative analysis of alternative transportation under environmental constraints

Sandoval López, Reynaldo
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 75 leaves; 2827952 bytes; 2831022 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This thesis focuses on the transportation sector and its role in emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and conventional pollutant emissions. Specifically, it analyzes the potential for hydrogen based transportation, introducing this technological option within a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the economy. The transportation sector accounts for an important part of CO2 emissions and analyses that have imposed carbon limits on the economy have shown relatively limited reductions in transportation emissions with current technology, thus the interest in technological options that would make it economic to reduce emissions. The US Federal government has been particularly focused on developing fuel cell technology for vehicles that, when powered by hydrogen, would offer a technological solution that potentially eliminates emissions of both CO2 and other conventional pollutants from the transportation sector. This work examines the economic conditions under which such a technology might successfully compete in the market. The thesis begins with an overview of the fuel-cell vehicle technology and the technologies used to produce hydrogen. This review serves as a basis for modeling this technological option.; (cont.) The main conclusions are the following: * Under market conditions and in the absence of climate policy that would price carbon...

‣ SP.772 Internet Technology in Local and Global Communities, Spring 2005; Internet Technology in Local and Global Communities

Gray, Paul E.; Gaudi, Manish
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
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The MIT-Africa Internet Technology Initiative (MIT-AITI) organization is an innovative approach by MIT students to integrate computers and internet technology into the education of students in African schools. The program focuses upon programming principles, cutting-edge internet technology, free open-source systems, and even an entrepreneurship seminar to introduce students in Africa to the power of technology and to equip them with skills that will allow them to be creative, resourceful, and prosperous. The mission statement of the AITI program is based on the idea that information technology carries the potential to empower people around the globe with knowledge. The AITI program is implemented with emphasis on classroom teaching, community-oriented projects, and independent learning. MIT-AITI achieves this goal by sending MIT students to three African nations in order to teach both students and teachers through intensive classroom and lab sessions for six weeks. Hence, MIT-AITI provides MIT students with an opportunity for community service where they can apply their extensive engineering skills. Moreover, MIT-AITI creates a long-term cultural and technical understanding between MIT and African educational institutions.

‣ Analyzing the proliferation resistance of advanced nuclear fuel cycles : in search of an assessment methodology for use in fuel cycle simulations

Pierpoint, Lara Marie
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 126 p.
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A methodology to assess proliferation resistance of advanced nuclear energy systems is investigated. The framework, based on Multi-Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT), is envisioned for use within early-stage fuel cycle simulations. Method assumptions and structure are explained, and reference technology cases are presented to test the model. Eleven metrics are presented to evaluate the proliferation resistance of once-through, COmbined Non-Fertile and Uranium (CONFU), Mixed-Oxide (MOX), and Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) fuel cycles. The metrics are roughly categorized in three groups: material characteristics, material handling characteristics, and "inherent" facility characteristics. Each metric is associated with its own utility function, and is weighted according to the proliferation threat of interest. Results suggest that transportation steps are less proliferation-resistant than stationary facilities, and that the ABR fuel cycle employing reactors with low conversion ratios are particularly safe. Nearly all steps of the fuel cycles analyzed are more proliferation resistant to a terrorist threat than to a host nation threat (which has more resources to devote toward proliferation activities). The open light water reactor (LWR) and MOX cycles appear to be the most vulnerable of all cycles analyzed. CONFU proliferation resistance is similar to that of the ABR with conversion ratios 0.5 and 1.0; these are all approximately in between the values ascribed to LWR/MOX (at the low end) and ABR with conversion ratio zero (with the highest proliferation resistance). Preliminary studies were conducted to determine the sensitivity of the results to weighting function structure and values. Several different weighting functions were applied to the utility values calculated for the once-through and CONFU fuel cycles. The tests showed very little change in the ultimate trends and conclusions drawn from each fuel cycle calculation. These conclusions...

‣ Bodies of information : reinventing bodies and practice in medical education; Reinventing bodies and practice in medical education

Prentice, Rachel
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 253 p.
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This dissertation recounts the development of graphic models of human bodies and virtual reality simulators for teaching anatomy and surgery to medical students, residents, and physicians. It considers how researchers from disciplinary cultures in medicine, engineering, and computer programming come together to build these technologies, bringing with them values and assumptions about bodies from each of their disciplines, values and assumptions that must be negotiated and that often are made material and embedded in these new technologies. It discusses how the technological objects being created privilege the body as a dynamic and interactive system, in contrast to the description and taxonomic body of traditional anatomy and medicine. It describes the ways that these technologies create new sensory means of knowing bodies. And it discusses the larger cultural values that these technologies reify or challenge. The methodology of this dissertation is ethnography. I consider in-depth one laboratory at a major medical school, as well as other laboratories and researchers in the field of virtual medicine. I study actors in the emerging field of virtual medicine as they work in laboratories, at conferences, and in collaborations with one another. I consider the social formations that are developing with this new discipline. Methods include participant observation of laboratory activities...

‣ Evaluating the impact of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies in U.S. light duty vehicle fleet

Bandivadekar, Anup P
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 182 p.
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The unrelenting increase in oil use by the U.S. light-duty vehicle (LDV) fleet presents an extremely challenging energy and environmental problem. A variety of propulsion technologies and fuels have the promise to reduce petroleum use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from motor vehicles. Previous work in this domain has compared individual vehicle or fuel alternatives. The aim of this research was to deepen the understanding of the likely scale and timing of the fleet-wide impact of emerging technologies. A model of the light-duty vehicle fleet showed that fuel consumption of mainstream gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE) technology vehicles will determine the trajectory of fleet fuel use and GHG emissions over the next two decades. Using vehicle simulations and historical data, the trade-off between vehicle performance, size and fuel consumption was quantified. It was shown that up to 26 percent reduction in future LDV fuel use is possible with mainstream gasoline ICE vehicles alone if emphasis of vehicle technology is on reducing fuel consumption rather than improving performance. Addressing this vehicle performance-size-fuel consumption trade-off should be the priority for policymakers. By considering both supply and demand side constraints on building up vehicle production rates...

‣ Patents and licensing and the commercialization of academic biomedical research

Wehby, Richard George, 1957-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 74 leaves; 4039582 bytes; 4047132 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This thesis is part of a larger body of research being undertaken by Dr. Fiona Murray and colleagues examining value creation and sharing between and among the three principal players in the commercialization of academic biomedical research: universities, biotech firms, and big pharma. The Recombinant Capital database provided access to contracts for biomedical technology licensed from academe to biotech, and also subsequent contracts that included that same technology from biotech to big pharma. These two contracts comprise a contract "pair". Importantly, these contract "pairs" were unredacted, that is., all parts of the contracts, including the commercial terms, were available. This thesis will lay the foundation for later work by examining the contracts between university and biotech, from the University's point of view. The goal is to identify factors that give the university more power in a pricing negotiation, and that predict higher economic value for the contract. The Specific Aim is to determine if certain University factors have a significant effect on predicting the economic value of the university-biotech licensing agreement. Four groups of readily quantifiable factors that contain attributes that might add power to the University in its pricing negotiation with the Biotech firm were identified: Institutional factors...

‣ Barriers to the adoption of telemedicine as explained by the disruptive innovation framework; Barriers to the growth of telemedicine explained by the disruptive innovation framework

Malik, Shaheen, 1974-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 91 leaves; 760001 bytes; 933852 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Despite its development and suitability to many specialties of medicine for the past forty years and the driving demands of an aging population, telemedicine has not made significant progress in deployment or commercialization. Why is this? Three case studies of health networks were used to identify the barriers to the widespread use of telemedicine in home healthcare and other applications of medicine. These barriers were further described and analyzed using the framework for disruptive technologies presented in Clayton Christensen' s The Innovator' s Dilemma. Although many studies assert that the slow adoption rate of telemedicine is explained by questions of efficacy and cost, this analysis proposes that the change in value networks posed by telemedicine technology is the greatest reason for its anemic implementation. Telemedicine changes the structure of the healthcare sector changing the organizational dynamics and values of the many players. The changes in structure are explored using the case studies and the successes and failures experienced by the health networks when implementing telemedicine across medical specialties. In order to harness this technology, recommendations are directed at organizations that need to evaluate new technologies differently and change their behavior with respect to competitors. Public policy needs to recognize the need for a greater thrust in long-term investments in telemedicine research...

‣ Application platform suite software vendors' strategies in standards driven industry networks

Phua, Boon Chung, 1969-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 215 leaves; 13016970 bytes; 13043504 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The emergence of industry standards often has disruptive impacts on the behavior of markets. It can drive commoditization, substitution and convergence. It also changes the industry structure creating new business models and value chains, coupled with the entrance of new firms and the exit of incumbents still entrenched in proprietary technology. Studies have been conducted on the impact of industry standards in the personal computer and microprocessor industries which resulted in the disintegration of the industries into a horizontally organized cluster of hundreds of firms, and the emergence of value-capture powerhouses within the industry. This thesis studies the shifts in industry structure in the field of Application Platform Suite (APS) software resulting from the emergence of Java programming language as the industry standard for non-Microsoft-based application development. APS software runs and manages the critical e-business applications managing the interactions between users and the enterprise backend IT systems. BEA Systems and IBM are the two dominant Java-based APS value-capture powerhouses within this industry. This thesis surveys and summarizes the existing body of research on industry dynamics, growth strategy, technology strategy and competitive strategy...

‣ Electric powertrains : opportunities and challenges in the US light-duty vehicle fleet

Kromer, Matthew A
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 153 p.
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Managing impending environmental and energy challenges in the transport sector requires a dramatic reduction in both the petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of in-use vehicles. This study quantifies the potential of electric and hybrid-electric powertrains, such as gasoline hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs), fuel-cell vehicles (FCVs), and battery-electric vehicles (BEVs), to offer such reductions. The evolution of key enabling technologies was evaluated over a 30 year time horizon. These results were integrated with software simulations to model vehicle performance and tank-to-wheel energy consumption; the technology evaluation was also used to estimate costs. Well-to-wheel energy and GHG emissions of future vehicle technologies were estimated by integrating the vehicle technology evaluation with assessments of different fuel pathways. While electric powertrains can reduce or eliminate the transport sector's reliance on petroleum, their GHG and energy reduction potential are constrained by continued reliance on fossil-fuels for producing electricity and hydrogen. In addition, constraints on growth of new vehicle technologies and slow rates of fleet turnover imply that these technologies take decades to effect meaningful change.; (cont.) As such...

‣ The strategic choice between "standardization" and "differentiation" in R&D

Adachi, Satoru
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 59 leaves
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In today's world of advanced technology and global reach, one company cannot necessarily make a significant technological innovation. A company that pursues a technological advantage needs to manage global collaboration or competition appropriately. Over the years, the "standardization" of technology has been one of the major strategies with which to encourage technological innovation and acquire a competitive advantage. However, a standardized technology does not necessarily contribute to creating a competitive advantage, and the "differentiation" of technology sometimes provides a better competitive advantage than standardization can. This thesis focuses on the strategic differences between the "standardization" and "differentiation" of a technology. The purpose is to gain insight into standardization and differentiation, looking them as drivers of R&D activities in a company pursuing technical competence. The thesis suggests advantages and disadvantages of each strategy and analyzes circumstances that affect strategic differences. The first part of the thesis establishes the fact that the strategic difference has a less impact on business activities and commercial success than on R&D.; (cont.) The second part clarifies the impact of the difference on R&D activities...

‣ Are distributed energy technologies a viable alternative for institutional settings? : lessons from MIT Cogeneration Plant

Tapia-Ahumada, Karen de los Angeles
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 135, [1] p.; 21235148 bytes; 21234609 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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During the last decades, distributed energy (DE) resources received considerable attention and support because of the confluence of technology development - particularly gas turbines - and deregulation - which would allow access to the distribution systems. DE was seen as addressing numerous issues, including transmission constraints, reliability, power quality, energy efficiency, and environmental quality through combined heat and power (CHP) applications. Numerous barriers, such as stranded asset requirements and lack of uniform interconnection standards, were recognized but viewed as manageable. Nevertheless, the penetration of DE/CHP has been considerably less than anticipated by many. More recent developments in the DE technology, regulatory environment, and fuel prices call for a re-examination of the cost-benefit balance for DE owners and of the societal implications that underpin public policy. This study addresses the MIT Cogeneration Plant in that context, motivated by the fact MIT was an early mover in adopting CHP technology in institutional settings. After a decade addressing numerous obstacles, the plant was put into operation about a decade ago with the expectations of reducing energy costs, improving the quality of power...

‣ Technological change for environmental improvement : the case of the Mexican automobile sector

Aoki, Chizuru, 1968-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 278 p.; 26979551 bytes; 26979305 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The main objective of this research was to articulate the processes and factors of technological change that promote environmental improvement while contributing to development goals in the Mexican automobile sector. The motivation stemmed from the need for air pollution mitigation in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The research analyzed three cases of environmental technology introduction in passenger vehicles, and synthesized the case findings into a conceptual model. The case studies were complemented with quantitative analyses of parameters of national technological capability acquisition, and scenario analysis of emission mitigation potential. The research showed that environmental technological change in the Mexican auto sector is increasingly influenced by external factors, specifically global sector development and conditions in countries with major auto producers and export markets. Environmental technological change could be articulated within the framework of conventional technological change, with some differences, such as: the need to account for environmental policy as a distinct factor, different motivations of private sector actors in acquiring technological capabilities and deploying technology, and interactions and conflicts between environmental policy and other factors...

‣ Shaping the terms of competition : environmental regulation and corporate strategies to reduce diesel vehicle emissions; Environmental regulation and corporate strategies to reduce diesel vehicle emissions

Ng, Christine Bik-Kay, 1979-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 343 p.
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Environmental regulations are typically portrayed as an outside force stimulating development of environmental technologies in regulated industries. In reality, firms influence regulation by communicating their technological progress, which helps form a basis for future standards. Because of differences in each firm's technological capability and environmental performance, regulations affect the competitive position of firms. Firms with advanced technologies stand to gain competitive benefit from more stringent environmental regulations, and may therefore choose to introduce a more costly but cleaner technology ahead of regulation. Such a competitive regulatory strategy has the potential to bring competitive benefits to the lead firm(s) and environmental benefits to the public. This research explains the conditions under which competitive regulatory strategies are pursued in the diesel vehicle and fuel industry. Growing public concern about the health effects of diesel exhaust has led countries to implement several cycles of increasingly stringent emission and fuel regulations over the past two decades.; (cont.) Taking a comparative case study approach, this work studies multiple regulatory cycles for light-duty vehicles, heavy-duty engines...

‣ The impact of manufacturing offshore on technology development paths in the automotive and optoelectronics industries

Fuchs, Erica R. H. (Erica Renee H.), 1977-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 209 p.
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This dissertation presents a two-case study of the impact of manufacturing offshore on the technology trajectory of the firm and the industry. It looks in particular at the automotive and optoelectronics industries. The dissertation uses an innovative combination of engineering modeling and qualitative research methods to provide insights into this question. The results suggest an important difference between the two cases. In the automotive case, the results do not show that manufacturing offshore changes the path of technology development. In the optoelectronics case, the results do suggest that manufacturing offshore may be changing the path of technology development. The cross-case analysis reveals several important similarities between the two cases: (1) the relative economic positions of the emerging technology and the prevailing design shift when production is transferred to developing East Asia; (2) while the emerging design is more cost-competitive in the U.S. production structure, the prevailing design is more cost-competitive in the developing East Asia production structure; (3) firms initially do not understand the implications of moving offshore for the competitiveness of their designs; (4) firms choose to produce the prevailing design offshore; and (5) although the firms' decisions to produce the prevailing design offshore are rational in a static model...