Página 5 dos resultados de 1719 itens digitais encontrados em 0.041 segundos

‣ Maximizing the benefits of mass transit stations : amenities, services, and the improvement of urban space within spaces

Montañez, Carlos Javier, 1975-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 88 leaves; 3251202 bytes; 3251009 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Little attention has been paid to the quality of the spaces within rapid mass transit stations in the United States, and their importance as places in and of themselves. For many city dwellers who rely on rapid transit service as their primary mode of travel, descending and ascending into and from transit stations is an integral part of daily life and their urban experience. Beyond being simply a piece of infrastructure offering mobility throughout a city, transit stations are an important part of the daily morning and evening rituals for many transit riders in cities with such rapid transit systems. Given their importance, it is surprising how underutilized are the interiors of stations as well as how poorly stations reveal what lies within their walls. The purpose of this thesis is to examine how ancillary uses affect the station environment; how non-elevated mass rapid transit stations within the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Area (MBTA) system are being improved through ancillary uses; which uses are particularly beneficial to transit authorities and riders alike as well as which uses require additional operations considerations; and to make suggestions as to how to further improve the station environments through the continued use of ancillary uses.; by Carlos Javier Montañez.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

‣ Changes in single family housing prices due to the planning and construction of Interstate 476 in Pennsylvania

Komiyama, Noriko, 1976-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 66 leaves; 2925445 bytes; 2925254 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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It has been suggested in various studies that increasing accessibility to a transportation network would influence local property values and their pattern of change over time. This thesis examines the capitalization into single-family housing prices of the construction investment for Interstate 476 (I-476), which had faced public opposition for more than two decades. While the majority of previous capitalization studies have been limited to the areas adjacent to transportation facilities, this thesis analyzes the effect over time of increased accessibility on a larger part of the Philadelphia Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). Repeat sale single-family home price indices for zip codes covering the five counties in the greater Philadelphia area for 18 years are used. I find that the area within 7,500m of 1-476 had higher annual appreciation rates than the entire Philadelphia MSA by 0.3% - 2.6% between 1989 and 1994. The higher appreciation began after all the necessary construction approvals were obtained in 1987 and lasted two years after the opening of the last section of the highway.; by Noriko Komiyama.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2004.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 64-66).

‣ Planning for community economic development in the Near North Side of Chicago : a study for the YMCA Robert E. Brooker Inter-Agency Center

Ducharme, Donna Margaret
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: iii, 172 leaves; 14589658 bytes; 14589414 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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by Donna Margaret Ducharme.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 1982.; MICROFICHE COPY AVAILABLE IN ARCHIVES AND ROTCH.; Bibliography: leaves 162-164.

‣ Trainers by design : a case study of inter-firm learning, institution building and local governance in western Mexico; Case study of inter-firm learning, institution building and local governance in western Mexico

Lowe, Nichola J
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 233 leaves; 9433410 bytes; 9433219 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Studies of international economic development often feature the competitive gains from inter-firm cooperation. By cooperating, firms within a region can draw on their collective resources and experience to test out new production processes and techniques; share the risks associated with system-wide upgrades and improvements; and identify and transition to more secure niche markets. What many development analysts and practitioners often forget, however, is that local economic actors do not always realize these benefits themselves, nor in unison. In recent times, sophisticated manufacturers have been known instead to employ less cooperative survival strategies, including disassociating themselves from their existing manufacturing base and especially from local colleagues with less training and experience. What then leads firms to work together and cooperate? This is the central question of this dissertation and case study of apparel manufacturing in Guadalajara, Mexico. Since the mid-1990s, a growing number of sophisticated, medium sized apparel makers in the region have been working with smaller sized, less experienced or barebones subcontractors and in the process, have established dynamic upgrading and learning alliances. Together these firms are having to "unlearn" an entrenched relational pattern based on strict production hierarchies and centralized forms of control; establish a new set of rules and routines that are more suitable for open learning and joint decision making; and finally...

‣ Galileo Lofts : a real estate development feasibility study; Galileo Lofts at MIT : housing and urban park

Ledohowski, Lea J. (Lea Joel); Perrine, James J
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 246 leaves; 9891138 bytes; 9890718 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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In August 2004, a development proposal titled "Galileo Lofts at MIT: Housing and Urban Park" was submitted to the Cambridge Redevelopment Authority for the provision of new housing and a public park on Parcel 7, in Kendall Square, Cambridge, MA. This study is a feasibility analysis of the development proposal. A market analysis and a marketability study were conducted to determine the appropriateness of the proposal for the East Cambridge, Kendall Square market. Demographic analysis identified two primary submarkets: 1) Cambridge Condo Submarket (i.e. demand for the location); 2) Loft Product Submarket (i.e. demand for the product type). To analyze supply and pricing, transaction data for the sale of condominiums within a one-mile radius of the proposed site, and data for the sale of comparable loft condominiums in the Greater Boston Area, were downloaded. Tests performed include descriptive statistics, regression analysis, and attribution analysis. A capital budget was estimated and a development model created to determine the financial feasibility of the proposal. Results indicated that the demand for residential products in the East Cambridge neighborhood priced for the "entry-level buyer" (i.e. up to $550,000) was not being met by current levels of supply...

‣ Institutional synergies in the delivery of urban upgrading services : lessons from the Slum Networking Program in Ahmedabad, India

Samad, Taimur
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 77 leaves
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This thesis examines factors associated with the limited success of the Slum Networking Project (SNP) implemented in the city of Ahmedabad, India between 1995 and 2001. The SNP was conceived as a partnership between associations of slum residents, the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation (AMC), non-governmental organizations (NGOs), trade unions and the private sector with the aim to increase access to basic services in slums. This analysis reflects upon three central assumptions in the literature associated with service delivery to the urban poor through the lens of the SNP experience. First, the thesis asks why a promising and innovative public-private partnership ultimately proved unsustainable. The thesis suggests that public-private partnerships in service delivery to slums are most likely to work when: (i) the likelihood of conflict is recognized and mitigated; and (ii) participants have strong professional or economic incentives - beyond philanthropy - to make the partnership work. Second, this thesis examines how participation and community involvement under the SNP evolved in a nonlinear fashion.; (cont.) This analysis demonstrates that participation and beneficiary involvement emerged out of conflict. negotiation and with the critical...

‣ A design analysis of the Brookline Farm Urban Renewal Project and its impact on social mixing

Pruitt, Sheri Maria
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 48 leaves
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by Sheri Maria Pruitt.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 1982.; MICROFICHE COPY AVAILABLE IN ARCHIVES AND ROTCH; Bibliography: leaf 48.

‣ How green was my electricity? : designing incentives to co-optimize waste management and energy development in New England; Designing incentives to co-optimize waste management and energy development in New England

Larsen, Walker (Walker Andrew)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 157 p.
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Waste management is a complex issue, often out of sight and mind, but with the potential for significant negative environmental, social, and economic impacts. Electricity resource planning is equally complex and can potentially lead to equally negative consequences when done poorly. This is especially so within New England, the geographic boundary of this thesis due to significant physical constraints on land and electricity resources. Historically these two processes have been dealt with nationally as very separate issues. However, there has been recent acknowledgment within both public and private camps regarding the potential overlaps of waste management and energy development, which includes electricity resource planning. This thesis has endeavored to analyze the current state of waste management and energy development policy to further expose the potential benefits of increased coordination. With this accomplished, the thesis further provides policy recommendations designed to co-optimize waste management and energy development to decrease dependence on landfill disposal and increase the installed capacity of non-fossil fuel-based electricity resources in New England. The author believes substantial environmental, economic, and social benefits can be gained through increased waste management and energy development coordination...

‣ Watering the slums : how a utility and its street-level bureaucrats connected the poor in Bangalore; How a utility and its street-level bureaucrats connected the poor in Bangalore

Connors, Genevieve
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 275 p.
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This dissertation is about how urban water utilities behave and what makes them interested in serving the poor. The infrastructure literature tends to treat public service agencies as monolithic entities and to ignore the great diversity of tasks and behavior patterns within them. As a consequence, common explanations for why utilities fail poor people tend to focus on attributes of the external environment in which utilities sit and not on the potential to elicit interest from within. This research corrects for this bias by applying a "street-level bureaucracy" approach to a study of a large urban water utility. The aim is to quash the notion so common in the water literature of a unified agency operating on the supply side and to rekindle an interest in the actions of workers. To do this, I examine the case of the Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board (BWSSB) and its contrasting outcomes within the same case. Over a five year period from 2000 to 2005, the utility revised its operational policies to accommodate the legal and financial realities of slums and connected 5,000 households or five percent of the slum population to the water network. Although the BWSSB demonstrated an unusual commitment to the poor, its efforts were not an unmitigated success. Progress was slow and staff failed to connect households to the network in many of the slums targeted. This dissertation digs deep inside the utility to explain these contrasting outcomes holding the city...

‣ Shades of gray : race, class and coalition building in the fight to save New Orleans' public housing; Race, class and coalition building in the fight to save New Orleans' public housing

Wilch, Rachel Meredith
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 87 leaves
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To what extent does the opposition to planned demolition of New Orleans' public housing engage leadership and participation across race and class lines? In the wake of Hurricane Katrina, the Housing Authority of New Orleans (HANO) announced plans to demolish 5,000 of the city's 7,000 public housing units. On the surface a diverse array of activists oppose the plan; however, it is unclear how these anti-demolition forces organize themselves, what their objectives are beyond the near term, and whether they empower politically marginalized public housing residents. This thesis addresses those issues, and more broadly examines the challenges of participatory planning and decision making in a post-disaster context. I use a case study approach centered on interviews with key informants and a survey of key media coverage. I draw on a scholarly literature to ground my assessment in models of "empowered participation." First, to frame my investigation in New Orleans' distant and recent past, I explore the city's development history, the growth of public housing, and the post-Katrina struggle to save threatened units. This discussion explains some of the pre- and post-storm relationships between public housing and social stratification. Second...

‣ Route 66, where are you? : four cities and the development of a shared cultural resource; Route sixty-six, where are you? : four cities and the development of a shared cultural resource

Dodge, Anne Clayton
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 117 p.
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Although small towns, rural areas, state organizations, and federal programs are all pursuing the redevelopment of the Route 66 corridor, this paper focuses on how four urban communities currently are engaging with this cultural resource: Albuquerque, New Mexico; Tulsa, Oklahoma; Rancho Cucamonga, California; and Flagstaff, Arizona. More specifically, the paper answers two central questions; have urban places along the Route 66 corridor engaged in the preservation, development, and interpretation of the route, and if so, how and why have those forms of engagement differed from one another. Four case study chapters describe how engagement has taken different forms in different cities depending upon the city's overall economic and political context, the city's other redevelopment efforts, and the degree to which the city's built fabric has survived the last twenty to thirty years of the corridor's economic decline. Each chapter concludes with site-specific recommendations for each city. After examining several local contexts for corridor redevelopment, the paper analyzes Route 66 as a national cultural resource and recommends strategies for local and interstate development and interpretation.; (cont.) Currently, Route 66 preservationists...

‣ The politics of the urban informal sector and dominant social institutions : a case study on the Self-Employed Women's Association (SEWA)

Venkatesh, Harini, 1978-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 113 p.; 5055463 bytes; 5074470 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Since the 1970's the economics of the urban informal sector (UIS) has received tremendous attention in development literature. Recently, scholars have delved into the politics within which this sector is embedded. With respect to the politics of its external relationship, conventional wisdom argued that quintessential to achieving positive outcomes for the UIS poor was the practice of autonomy of groups representing-the latter from dominant social institutions such as unions of formal sector workers, political parties and the government since political processes operating through these institutions was unresponsive to the needs of the UIS poor. The objective of this research is to revisit the history of an organization that has delivered positive outcomes for the UIS poor with the ultimate objective of answering the following questions: What is the nature of relationship between the UIS poor and dominant social institutions, primarily, the government? What are the conditions, if any, under which there could be a more cooperative and complementary relationship between these actors, while ensuring positive outcomes for the UIS poor? Can these conditions be generalized or are they time, place and case specific? I analyze the case study of the Self-Employed Women's Association (SEWA) to answer these questions. SEWA is one of India's most successful voluntary organizations having its roots in the trade union movement in India and has since 1972 organized more than 300...

‣ Dominion Geometries : Colonial construction and Postcolonial persistence of the Imperial in the New Delhi Plan; Colonial construction and Postcolonial persistence of the Imperial in the New Delhi Plan

Gupta, Anubhav, 1978-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 159, [1] p.; 8402207 bytes; 8408942 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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New Delhi is not only the capital of India but the capital of the world's largest democracy. Conceived and built by the British, the New Delhi plan translated British India's home policy in sandstone. The government's administrative hierarchy and centralization of power was directly represented in the physical plan that impressed its magnificence and power over a country awakening to freedom. A realized grand vision imperial plan in an ideologically contradictory circumstance of independence and democracy is the unique departure point for this work. Divided in two parts corresponding to the colonial and postcolonial timeframes, this thesis attempts to answer the central questions of: -How was the Imperial constructed in colonial Delhi? -How and why has it persisted in the postcolonial evolution of New Delhi? At the macro level, this research engages intersecting themes of political ideology, physical planning, policy, culture and evolution in contemporary city form. the motivation for this research emerges from my own subscription to the fact that "[New Delhi today is] a kind of an overgrown capitol complex, resolutely detached from the rest of the city." In my view, it is the persistence or resistance of the "Imperial" in the post colonial democratization of New Delhi that is largely responsible for the fractures in the city's identity...

‣ The politics of consensus-building : case study of diesel vehicles and urban air pollution in South Korea

Kim, Dong-Young, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 379 p.
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Look at the three efforts to resolve public disputes over diesel passenger cars and urban air quality management in South Korea. this dissertation explores the main obstacles in nascent democracies to meeting the necessary conditions for successful dispute resolution prescribed by Western scholars of consensus-building theory and practice. The first two cases did not resolve the disputes. even though they produced a consensus agreement through deliberation. The agreements were challenged and adjusted through regulatory processes. This type of unstable consensus building is regarded as one of pathologies of consensus building efforts in analytic decision-making. This paper analyzes why this problem happened. with the new analytic framework. which incorporates Kingdon's multiple stream framework and the theory of consensus building. This paper found that the final dispute resolution was made in conventional politics stream by adversarial power game in politics rather than in consensus building stream. Most cases did not have necessary factors for successful consensus building effort. Most of all, the first two consensus building efforts were strategically initiated by policy entrepreneurs who were not neutral in managing many other necessary factors of successful consensus building.; (cont.) As a result...

‣ Wills and ways : policy dynamics of HOPE IV from 1992-2002

Zhang, Yan, 1972-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 216 p.; 15429685 bytes; 15457806 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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(cont.) thorough analysis of the stability and change of HOPE VI policy offers insights into the potentials and the pitfalls of this major public housing program and similar federal policies in the American political system. I will suggest strategic ways to deploy political advocacy and to facilitate genuine policy learning in the domain of housing and urban development in general. Qualitative in approach, this study relies on extensive document reviews and in-depth interviews with key policymakers and practitioners involved in the program.; Congress created what became known as the HOPE VI (Homeownership and Opportunity for People Everywhere) program in 1992 to revitalize severely distressed public housing developments. To date, HOPE VI has constituted the primary vehicle and the most strenuous governmental effort ever undertaken to salvage public housing in America. Over the past decade, after several transformations in its goals and foci, the program evolved from a modest attempt to remedy the ills of troubled projects into an ambitious plan to reinvent the public housing system by engaging the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and Public Housing Authorities (PHAs) in a new way of doing business. This dissertation aims to develop a historically aware and empirically sound account of how and why HOPE VI policy evolved when it did. Recognizing the ambiguity and serendipity in the policymaking process...

‣ University-community relations and the need for a representational discourse : exploring town-gown at the University of Pennsylvania

Bierbaum, Ariel H. (Ariel Hope)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 123 p.; 8377958 bytes; 8384005 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This thesis examines university-community relations, arguing that the current discourse requires rigorous theoretical attention to the use of representation in media and in physical design to adequately gauge and understand this relationship. Modeled after Naomi Carmon's framework of urban redevelopment, the author provides a new framework for understanding eras of university-community partnerships. Then, the author synthesizes a series of theoretical constructs to develop the representational discourse, to be used in a more rigorous analysis of university-community relationships. Drawing on John Gaventa's framework of power, the study closely examines the University of Pennsylvania and analyzes the University's use of imaging, narrative, and other forms of representation since the 1960s as a way to ensure and perpetuate its dominance. Ultimately, this thesis seeks to inform the ever-evolving discourse around neighborhood change in relation to "anchor institutions," and offers recommendations for points of intervention on the part of communities, planning practitioners, university officials, and theoreticians.; by Ariel H. Bierbaum.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2005.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 117-123).

‣ Understanding urban assets : using remote sensing to manage stormwater run-off; Using remote sensing to manage stormwater run-off

Williams, Sarah Elizabeth, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 160 p.; 7696000 bytes; 7705177 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Many small suburban and rural communities have experienced increased growth as businesses and families leave city center is search of affordable land prices available at the cities periphery. As one might expect this increased growth is have an effect on the visual and environmental character of these communities. In some areas the rapid growth is also causing increases in stormwater run-off. High levels of run-off are in turn having adverse effects on these communities environment health, as it is degrading local water quality and damaging stream channels. Development in many of these same communities is causing them to fall under the regulation requirements of the Phase II, National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES). Phase II has caused several of these small communities to think about the effects of stormwater for the first time. At the same time new high-resolution satellite imagery, with resolutions ranging from 4 to 1 meter square, became available from a series of satellites launched between 1999 and 2003. These new systems, with their increased resolutions, hold the potential to help small communities identify and manage their town's land resources. Of particular relevance is the possibility of using data acquired from these satellites to identify impervious surface coverage. Having a better understanding of impervious surfaces...

‣ Where and how much : density scenarios for the residential build-out of Gaoming, China

Hu, Karen Jia Ying
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 95 p.; 21682453 bytes; 21682250 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The author will use Gaoming District in the western part of China's Pearl River Delta (PRD) as an opportunity to examine the impact a range of residential densities along planned public transportation corridors can have on the rate and degree of agricultural land conversion in urbanizing areas. The author will use collected field data on the existing densities of old and new residential building construction in Gaoming, Gaoming District's 2004 Master Plan, projected population and economic growth figures from the Gaoming planning Department, and the parameters of land leasing and revenue generation in China as inputs in her analysis. The author will then present scenarios where a range of residential densities is created from variations in the degree of government planning, public transportation investment and land leasing methods. Moreover, the author will present instructions to build an economic model for planners to understand the land valuation process by which private developers bid for land. Lastly, the author will make recommendations to the planners and officials for how they can generate more revenue from land and work towards the sustainable build-out of Gaoming.; by Karen Jia Ying Hu.; Thesis (S.M. and M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

‣ Risk prevention and policy formulation : responding to the 1999 mud-floods catastrophe in El Litoral Central, Venezuela

Parisca-Blanco, Sonia
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 116 p.; 6923392 bytes; 6930052 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Fifteen days of constant and intense rainfall in Venezuela culminated on December 16 1999, in catastrophic landslides and flooding along 25 miles of the Vargas State coastal strip. This catastrophe ravaged the Caracas seaside, ripping up houses and infrastructure and literally reshaping the coastline and beaches. Historical records indicate that similar natural events leading to landslides have occurred in this region before-each fifty years on average. Moreover, the evidence of obliterated structures over hazard-prone areas in Vargas State's cities has led the assumption that land-use planning was not successfully used as a hazard- mitigating technique. Today, after the 1999 mud-flood catastrophe, Venezuela's government is implementing land-use mitigation strategies. However, their efficiency in face of future similar events is not guaranteed. Depending on the tools and instruments used to implement these strategies, these programs will perform successfully --saving lives, time, and resources and promoting the economic and social growth of the region-or fail just as they have in the past. With the aid of government, dwellers have returned slowly to reconstruct their damaged properties, forgetting the strength of nature and the footprints of the rivers...

‣ There's no justice in transit! : transit equity, land use, and air quality in Boston; There is no justice in transit! : transit equity, land use, and air quality in Boston

Machala, Laura Beth
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 120 p.
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As a result of air pollution created by the Central Artery/Tunnel Project (CA/T), aka "the Big Dig," transit and other air quality mitigation projects were incorporated into the State Implementation Plan (SIP). The SIP is mandated by the Clean Air Act (CAA) for areas that do not attain or need to maintain air quality above federally mandated levels. Originally, the transit commitments that were made to mitigate the effects of the Big Dig were located :in urban and suburban areas. However, while an urban/suburban balance was arguably intended in the SIP, over the years, the urban SIP commitments have been largely neglected. As a result, transit justice in Greater Boston has been negatively effected. If the SIP is truly meant to improve air quality, its focus should be on making cities more viable and healthy places to live and on curtailing sprawling suburban land use. Furthermore, SIP requirements should change to influence a more equitable distribution of transit investment in Boston and other metropolitan areas.; by Laura Beth Machala.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2007.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 103-111).