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‣ Missense Mutations in TCF8 Cause Late-Onset Fuchs Corneal Dystrophy and Interact with FCD4 on Chromosome 9p

Riazuddin, S. Amer; Zaghloul, Norann A.; Al-Saif, Amr; Davey, Lisa; Diplas, Bill H.; Meadows, Danielle N.; Eghrari, Allen O.; Minear, Mollie A.; Li, Yi-Ju; Klintworth, Gordon K.; Afshari, Natalie; Gregory, Simon G.; Gottsch, John D.; Katsanis, Nicholas
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/01/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
486.03344%
Fuchs corneal dystrophy (FCD) is a degenerative genetic disorder of the corneal endothelium that represents one of the most common causes of corneal transplantation in the United States. Despite its high prevalence (4% over the age of 40), the underlying genetic basis of FCD is largely unknown. Here we report missense mutations in TCF8, a transcription factor whose haploinsufficiency causes posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD), in a cohort of late-onset FCD patients. In contrast to PPCD-causing mutations, all of which are null, FCD-associated mutations encode rare missense changes suggested to cause loss of function by an in vivo complementation assay. Importantly, segregation of a recurring p.Q840P mutation in a large, multigenerational FCD pedigree showed this allele to be sufficient but not necessary for pathogenesis. Execution of a genome-wide scan conditioned for the presence of the 840P allele identified an additional late-onset FCD locus on chromosome 9p, whereas haplotype analysis indicated that the presence of the TCF8 allele and the disease haplotype on 9p leads to a severe FCD manifestation with poor prognosis. Our data suggest that PPCD and FCD are allelic variants of the same disease continuum and that genetic interaction between genes that cause corneal dystrophies can modulate the expressivity of the phenotype.

‣ Involvement of ER Stress in Dysmyelination of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease with PLP1 Missense Mutations Shown by iPSC-Derived Oligodendrocytes

Numasawa-Kuroiwa, Yuko; Okada, Yohei; Shibata, Shinsuke; Kishi, Noriyuki; Akamatsu, Wado; Shoji, Masanobu; Nakanishi, Atsushi; Oyama, Manabu; Osaka, Hitoshi; Inoue, Ken; Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Yamanaka, Shinya; Kosaki, Kenjiro; Takahashi, Takao; Okano, Hid
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/04/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
487.53332%
Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is a form of X-linked leukodystrophy caused by mutations in the proteolipid protein 1 (PLP1) gene. Although PLP1 proteins with missense mutations have been shown to accumulate in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in disease model animals and cell lines transfected with mutant PLP1 genes, the exact pathogenetic mechanism of PMD has not previously been clarified. In this study, we established induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from two PMD patients carrying missense mutation and differentiated them into oligodendrocytes in vitro. In the PMD iPSC-derived oligodendrocytes, mislocalization of mutant PLP1 proteins to the ER and an association between increased susceptibility to ER stress and increased numbers of apoptotic oligodendrocytes were observed. Moreover, electron microscopic analysis demonstrated drastically reduced myelin formation accompanied by abnormal ER morphology. Thus, this study demonstrates the involvement of ER stress in pathogenic dysmyelination in the oligodendrocytes of PMD patients with the PLP1 missense mutation.

‣ Missense Mutations in the Copper Transporter Gene ATP7A Cause X-Linked Distal Hereditary Motor Neuropathy

Kennerson, Marina L.; Nicholson, Garth A.; Kaler, Stephen G.; Kowalski, Bartosz; Mercer, Julian F.B.; Tang, Jingrong; Llanos, Roxana M.; Chu, Shannon; Takata, Reinaldo I.; Speck-Martins, Carlos E.; Baets, Jonathan; Almeida-Souza, Leonardo; Fischer, Dirk;
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/03/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
486.03344%
Distal hereditary motor neuropathies comprise a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders. We recently mapped an X-linked form of this condition to chromosome Xq13.1-q21 in two large unrelated families. The region of genetic linkage included ATP7A, which encodes a copper-transporting P-type ATPase mutated in patients with Menkes disease, a severe infantile-onset neurodegenerative condition. We identified two unique ATP7A missense mutations (p.P1386S and p.T994I) in males with distal motor neuropathy in two families. These molecular alterations impact highly conserved amino acids in the carboxyl half of ATP7A and do not directly involve the copper transporter's known critical functional domains. Studies of p.P1386S revealed normal ATP7A mRNA and protein levels, a defect in ATP7A trafficking, and partial rescue of a S. cerevisiae copper transport knockout. Although ATP7A mutations are typically associated with severe Menkes disease or its milder allelic variant, occipital horn syndrome, we demonstrate here that certain missense mutations at this locus can cause a syndrome restricted to progressive distal motor neuropathy without overt signs of systemic copper deficiency. This previously unrecognized genotype-phenotype correlation suggests an important role of the ATP7A copper transporter in motor-neuron maintenance and function.