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‣ Bacterial signal transduction network in a genomic perspective†

Galperin, Michael Y.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2004 Português
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Bacterial signalling network includes an array of numerous interacting components that monitor environmental and intracellular parameters and effect cellular response to changes in these parameters. The complexity of bacterial signalling systems makes comparative genome analysis a particularly valuable tool for their studies. Comparative studies revealed certain general trends in the organization of diverse signalling systems. These include (i) modular structure of signalling proteins; (ii) common organization of signalling components with the flow of information from N-terminal sensory domains to the C-terminal transmitter or signal output domains (N-to-C flow); (iii) use of common conserved sensory domains by different membrane receptors; (iv) ability of some organisms to respond to one environmental signal by activating several regulatory circuits; (v) abundance of intracellular signalling proteins, typically consisting of a PAS or GAF sensor domains and various output domains; (vi) importance of secondary messengers, cAMP and cyclic diguanylate; and (vii) crosstalk between components of different signalling pathways. Experimental characterization of the novel domains and domain combinations would be needed for achieving a better understanding of the mechanisms of signalling response and the intracellular hierarchy of different signalling pathways.

‣ Identification of FleQ from Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a c-di-GMP-responsive transcription factor

Hickman, Jason W.; Harwood, Caroline S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2008 Português
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High levels of the intracellular signaling molecule cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) supress motility and activate exopolysaccharide (EPS) production in a variety of bacterial species. In many bacteria part of the effect of c-di-GMP is on gene expression, but the mechanism involved is not known for any species. We have identified the protein FleQ as a c-di-GMP-responsive transcriptional regulator in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. FleQ is known to activate expression of flagella biosynthesis genes. Here we show that it also represses transcription of genes including the pel operon involved in EPS biosynthesis, and that this repression is relieved by c-di-GMP. Our in vivo data indicate that FleQ represses pel transcription and that pel transcription is not repressed when intracellular c-di-GMP levels are high. FleN, a known antiactivator of FleQ also participates in control of pel expression. In in vitro experiments we found that FleQ binds to pel promoter DNA and that this binding is inhibited by c-di-GMP. FleQ binds radiolabeled c-di-GMP in vitro. FleQ does not have amino acid motifs that resemble previously defined c-di-GMP binding domains. Our results show that FleQ is a new type of c-di-GMP binding protein that controls the transcriptional regulation of EPS biosynthesis genes in P. aeruginosa.

‣ c-di-GMP is an Effective Immunomodulator and Vaccine Adjuvant Against Pneumococcal Infection

Ogunniyi, Abiodun D.; Paton, James C.; Kirby, Alun C.; McCullers, Jonathan A.; Cook, Jan; Hyodo, Mamoru; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Karaolis, David K. R.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) is a unique bacterial intracellular signaling molecule capable of stimulating enhanced protective innate immunity against various bacterial infections. The effects of intranasal pretreatment with c-di-GMP, or intraperitoneal coadministration of c-di-GMP with the pneumolysin toxoid (PdB) or PspA before pneumococcal challenge, was investigated in mice. We found that c-di-GMP had no significant direct short-term effect on the growth rate of S. pneumoniae either in vitro or in vivo. However, intranasal pretreatment of mice with c-di-GMP resulted in significant decrease in bacterial load in lungs and blood after serotypes 2 and 3 challenge, and significant decrease in lung titers after serotype 4 challenge. Potential cellular mediators of these enhanced protective responses were identified in lungs and draining lymph nodes. Intraperitoneal coadministration of c-di-GMP with PdB or PspA before challenge resulted in significantly higher antigen-specific antibody titers and increased survival of mice, compared to that obtained with alum adjuvant. These findings demonstrate that local or systemic c-di-GMP administration stimulates innate and adaptive immunity against invasive pneumococcal disease. We propose that c-di-GMP can be used as an effective broad spectrum immunomodulator and vaccine adjuvant to prevent infectious diseases.

‣ Synthetic quorum-sensing circuit to control consortial biofilm formation and dispersal in a microfluidic device

Hong, Seok Hoon; Hegde, Manjunath; Kim, Jeongyun; Wang, Xiaoxue; Jayaraman, Arul; Wood, Thomas K.
Fonte: Nature Pub. Group Publicador: Nature Pub. Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/01/2012 Português
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To utilize biofilms for chemical transformations in biorefineries they need to be controlled and replaced. Previously, we engineered the global regulator Hha and cyclic diguanylate-binding BdcA to create proteins that enable biofilm dispersal. Here we report a biofilm circuit that utilizes these two dispersal proteins along with a population-driven quorum-sensing switch. With this synthetic circuit, in a novel microfluidic device, we form an initial colonizer biofilm, introduce a second cell type (dispersers) into this existing biofilm, form a robust dual-species biofilm and displace the initial colonizer cells in the biofilm with an extracellular signal from the disperser cells. We also remove the disperser biofilm with a chemically induced switch, and the consortial population could tune. Therefore, for the first time, cells have been engineered that are able to displace an existing biofilm and then be removed on command allowing one to control consortial biofilm formation for various applications.

‣ Allosteric tertiary interactions pre-organize the c-di-GMP riboswitch and accelerate ligand binding

Wood, Sharla; Ferré-D’Amaré, Adrian R.; Rueda, David
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) is a bacterial second messenger important for physiologic adaptation and virulence. Class-I c-di-GMP riboswitches are phylogenetically widespread and thought to mediate pleiotropic genetic responses to the second messenger. Previous studies suggest that the RNA aptamer domain switches from an extended free state to a compact, c-di-GMP-bound conformation in which two helical stacks dock side-by-side. Single molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) experiments reveal that the free RNA exists in four distinct populations that differ in dynamics in the extended and docked conformations. In the presence of c-di-GMP and Mg2+, a stably docked population (>30 min) becomes predominant. smFRET mutant analysis demonstrates that tertiary interactions distal to the c-di-GMP binding site strongly modulate the RNA population structure, even in the absence of c-di-GMP. These allosteric interactions accelerate ligand recognition by pre-organizing the RNA, favoring rapid c-di-GMP binding.

‣ Cyclic Di-GMP Stimulates Biofilm Formation and Inhibits Virulence of Francisella novicida

Zogaj, Xhavit; Wyatt, Geoff C.; Klose, Karl E.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2012 Português
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Francisella tularensis is a Gram-negative bacterium that is highly virulent in humans, causing the disease tularemia. F. novicida is closely related to F. tularensis and exhibits high virulence in mice, but it is avirulent in healthy humans. An F. novicida-specific gene cluster (FTN0451 to FTN0456) encodes two proteins with diguanylate cyclase (DGC) and phosphodiesterase (PDE) domains that modulate the synthesis and degradation of cyclic di-GMP (cdGMP). No DGC- or PDE-encoding protein genes are present in the F. tularensis genome. F. novicida strains lacking either the two DGC/PDE genes (cdgA and cdgB) or the entire gene cluster (strain KKF457) are defective for biofilm formation. In addition, expression of CdgB or a heterologous DGC in strain KKF457 stimulated F. novicida biofilms, even in a strain lacking the biofilm regulator QseB. Genetic evidence suggests that CdgA is predominantly a PDE, while CdgB is predominantly a DGC. The F. novicida qseB strain showed reduced cdgA and cdgB transcript levels, demonstrating an F. novicida biofilm signaling cascade that controls cdGMP levels. Interestingly, KKF457 with elevated cdGMP levels exhibited a decrease in intramacrophage replication and virulence in mice, as well as increased growth yields and biofilm formation in vitro. Microarray analyses revealed that cdGMP stimulated the transcription of a chitinase (ChiB) known to contribute to biofilm formation. Our results indicate that elevated cdGMP in F. novicida stimulates biofilm formation and inhibits virulence. We suggest that differences in human virulence between F. novicida and F. tularensis may be due in part to the absence of cdGMP signaling in F. tularensis.

‣ The overlapping host responses to bacterial cyclic dinucleotides

Abdul-Sater, Ali A.; Grajkowski, Andrzej; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Plumlee, Courtney; Levi, Asaaf; Schreiber, Michael T.; Lee, Carolyn; Shuman, Howard; Beaucage, Serge L.; Schindler, Christian
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Macrophages respond to infection with Legionella pneumophila by the induction of inflammatory mediators, including type I Interferons (IFN-Is). To explore whether the bacterial second messenger cyclic 3’-5’ diguanylate (c-diGMP) activates some of these mediators, macrophages were infected with L. pneumophila strains in which the levels of bacterial c-diGMP had been altered. Intriguingly, there was a positive correlation between c-diGMP levels and IFN-I expression. Subsequent studies with synthetic derivatives of cdiGMP, and newly described 3’-5’ diadenylate (c-diAMP), determined that these molecules activate overlapping inflammatory responses in human and murine macrophages. Moreover, UV cross-linking studies determined that both dinucleotides physically associate with a shared set of host proteins. Fractionation of macrophage extracts on a biotin-c-diGMP affinity matrix led to the identification of a set of candidate host binding proteins. These studies suggest that mammalian macrophages can sense and mount a specific inflammatory response to bacterial dinucleotides.

‣ Coordinated Cyclic-Di-GMP Repression of Salmonella Motility through YcgR and Cellulose

Zorraquino, Violeta; García, Begoña; Latasa, Cristina; Echeverz, Maite; Toledo-Arana, Alejandro; Valle, Jaione; Lasa, Iñigo; Solano, Cristina
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2013 Português
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Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a secondary messenger that controls a variety of cellular processes, including the switch between a biofilm and a planktonic bacterial lifestyle. This nucleotide binds to cellular effectors in order to exert its regulatory functions. In Salmonella, two proteins, BcsA and YcgR, both of them containing a c-di-GMP binding PilZ domain, are the only known c-di-GMP receptors. BcsA, upon c-di-GMP binding, synthesizes cellulose, the main exopolysaccharide of the biofilm matrix. YcgR is dedicated to c-di-GMP-dependent inhibition of motility through its interaction with flagellar motor proteins. However, previous evidences indicate that in the absence of YcgR, there is still an additional element that mediates motility impairment under high c-di-GMP levels. Here we have uncovered that cellulose per se is the factor that further promotes inhibition of bacterial motility once high c-di-GMP contents drive the activation of a sessile lifestyle. Inactivation of different genes of the bcsABZC operon, mutation of the conserved residues in the RxxxR motif of the BcsA PilZ domain, or degradation of the cellulose produced by BcsA rescued the motility defect of ΔycgR strains in which high c-di-GMP levels were reached through the overexpression of diguanylate cyclases. High c-di-GMP levels provoked cellulose accumulation around cells that impeded flagellar rotation...

‣ Study of the Response Regulator Rrp1 Reveals Its Regulatory Role in Chitobiose Utilization and Virulence of Borrelia burgdorferi

Sze, Ching Wooen; Smith, Alexis; Choi, Young Hee; Yang, Xiuli; Pal, Utpal; Yu, Aiming; Li, Chunhao
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2013 Português
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Life cycle alternation between arthropod and mammals forces the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, to adapt to different host milieus by utilizing diverse carbohydrates. Glycerol and chitobiose are abundantly present in the Ixodes tick. B. burgdorferi can utilize glycerol as a carbohydrate source for glycolysis and chitobiose to produce N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), a key component of the bacterial cell wall. A recent study reported that Rrp1, a response regulator that synthesizes cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP), governs glycerol utilization in B. burgdorferi. In this report, we found that the rrp1 mutant had growth defects and formed membrane blebs that led to cell lysis when GlcNAc was replaced by chitobiose in the growth medium. The gene chbC encodes a key chitobiose transporter of B. burgdorferi. We found that the expression level of chbC was significantly repressed in the mutant and that constitutive expression of chbC in the mutant successfully rescued the growth defect, indicating a regulatory role of Rrp1 in chitobiose uptake. Immunoblotting and transcriptional studies revealed that Rrp1 is required for the activation of bosR and rpoS and that its impact on chbC is most likely mediated by the BosR-RpoS regulatory pathway. Tick-mouse infection studies showed that although the rrp1 mutant failed to establish infection in mice via tick bite...

‣ Genetic Analysis of the Role of yfiR in the Ability of Escherichia coli CFT073 To Control Cellular Cyclic Dimeric GMP Levels and To Persist in the Urinary Tract

Raterman, Erica L.; Shapiro, Daniel D.; Stevens, Daniel J.; Schwartz, Kevin J.; Welch, Rodney A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2013 Português
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During urinary tract infections (UTIs), uropathogenic Escherichia coli must maintain a delicate balance between sessility and motility to achieve successful infection of both the bladder and kidneys. Previous studies showed that cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) levels aid in the control of the transition between motile and nonmotile states in E. coli. The yfiRNB locus in E. coli CFT073 contains genes for YfiN, a diguanylate cyclase, and its activity regulators, YfiR and YfiB. Deletion of yfiR yielded a mutant that was attenuated in both the bladder and the kidneys when tested in competition with the wild-type strain in the murine model of UTI. A double yfiRN mutant was not attenuated in the mouse model, suggesting that unregulated YfiN activity and likely increased cytoplasmic c-di-GMP levels cause a survival defect. Curli fimbriae and cellulose production were increased in the yfiR mutant. Expression of yhjH, a gene encoding a proven phosphodiesterase, in CFT073 ΔyfiR suppressed the overproduction of curli fimbriae and cellulose and further verified that deletion of yfiR results in c-di-GMP accumulation. Additional deletion of csgD and bcsA, genes necessary for curli fimbriae and cellulose production, respectively, returned colonization levels of the yfiR deletion mutant to wild-type levels. Peroxide sensitivity assays and iron acquisition assays displayed no significant differences between the yfiR mutant and the wild-type strain. These results indicate that dysregulation of c-di-GMP production results in pleiotropic effects that disable E. coli in the urinary tract and implicate the c-di-GMP regulatory system as an important factor in the persistence of uropathogenic E. coli in vivo.

‣ The cyclic-di-GMP signaling pathway in the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi

Novak, Elizabeth A.; Sultan, Syed Z.; Motaleb, Md. A.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/05/2014 Português
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In nature, the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi cycles between the unrelated environments of the Ixodes tick vector and mammalian host. In order to survive transmission between hosts, B. burgdorferi must be able to not only detect changes in its environment, but also rapidly and appropriately respond to these changes. One manner in which this obligate parasite regulates and adapts to its changing environment is through cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) signaling. c-di-GMP has been shown to be instrumental in orchestrating the adaptation of B. burgdorferi to the tick environment. B. burgdorferi possesses only one set of c-di-GMP-metabolizing genes (one diguanylate cyclase and two distinct phosphodiesterases) and one c-di-GMP-binding PilZ-domain protein designated as PlzA. While studies in the realm of c-di-GMP signaling in B. burgdorferi have exploded in the last few years, there are still many more questions than answers. Elucidation of the importance of c-di-GMP signaling to B. burgdorferi may lead to the identification of mechanisms that are critical for the survival of B. burgdorferi in the tick phase of the enzootic cycle as well as potentially delineate a role (if any) c-di-GMP may play in the transmission and virulence of B. burgdorferi during the enzootic cycle...

‣ Bile Acids and Bicarbonate Inversely Regulate Intracellular Cyclic di-GMP in Vibrio cholerae

Koestler, Benjamin J.; Waters, Christopher M.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2014 Português
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Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterium that persists in aquatic reservoirs and causes the diarrheal disease cholera upon entry into a human host. V. cholerae employs the second messenger molecule 3′,5′-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) to transition between these two distinct lifestyles. c-di-GMP is synthesized by diguanylate cyclase (DGC) enzymes and hydrolyzed by phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzymes. Bacteria typically encode many different DGCs and PDEs within their genomes. Presumably, each enzyme senses and responds to cognate environmental cues by alteration of enzymatic activity. c-di-GMP represses the expression of virulence factors in V. cholerae, and it is predicted that the intracellular concentration of c-di-GMP is low during infection. Contrary to this model, we found that bile acids, a prevalent constituent of the human proximal small intestine, increase intracellular c-di-GMP in V. cholerae. We identified four c-di-GMP turnover enzymes that contribute to increased intracellular c-di-GMP in the presence of bile acids, and deletion of these enzymes eliminates the bile induction of c-di-GMP and biofilm formation. Furthermore, this bile-mediated increase in c-di-GMP is quenched by bicarbonate, the intestinal pH buffer secreted by intestinal epithelial cells. Our results lead us to propose that V. cholerae senses distinct microenvironments within the small intestine using bile and bicarbonate as chemical cues and responds by modulating the intracellular concentration of c-di-GMP.

‣ Crystal structure of an HD‐GYP domain cyclic‐di‐GMP phosphodiesterase reveals an enzyme with a novel trinuclear catalytic iron centre

Bellini, Dom; Caly, Delphine L.; McCarthy, Yvonne; Bumann, Mario; An, Shi‐Qi; Dow, J. Maxwell; Ryan, Robert P.; Walsh, Martin A.
Fonte: Blackwell Scientific Publications Publicador: Blackwell Scientific Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Bis‐(3′,5′) cyclic di‐guanylate (c‐di‐GMP) is a key bacterial second messenger that is implicated in the regulation of many crucial processes that include biofilm formation, motility and virulence. Cellular levels of c‐di‐GMP are controlled through synthesis by GGDEF domain diguanylate cyclases and degradation by two classes of phosphodiesterase with EAL or HD‐GYP domains. Here, we have determined the structure of an enzymatically active HD‐GYP domain protein from Persephonella marina (PmGH) alone, in complex with substrate (c‐di‐GMP) and final reaction product (GMP). The structures reveal a novel trinuclear iron binding site, which is implicated in catalysis and identify residues involved in recognition of c‐di‐GMP. This structure completes the picture of all domains involved in c‐di‐GMP metabolism and reveals that the HD‐GYP family splits into two distinct subgroups containing bi‐ and trinuclear metal centres.

‣ Stimulation of Innate Immunity by In Vivo Cyclic di-GMP Synthesis Using Adenovirus

Koestler, Benjamin J.; Seregin, Sergey S.; Rastall, David P. W.; Aldhamen, Yasser A.; Godbehere, Sarah; Amalfitano, Andrea; Waters, Christopher M.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2014 Português
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The bacterial second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) stimulates inflammation by initiating innate immune cell recruitment and triggering the release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. These properties make c-di-GMP a promising candidate for use as a vaccine adjuvant, and numerous studies have demonstrated that administration of purified c-di-GMP with different antigens increases protection against infection in animal models. Here, we have developed a novel approach to produce c-di-GMP inside host cells as an adjuvant to exploit a host-pathogen interaction and initiate an innate immune response. We have demonstrated that c-di-GMP can be synthesized in vivo by transducing a diguanylate cyclase (DGC) gene into mammalian cells using an adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vector. Expression of DGC led to the production of c-di-GMP in vitro and in vivo, and this was able to alter proinflammatory gene expression in murine tissues and increase the secretion of numerous cytokines and chemokines when administered to animals. Furthermore, coexpression of DGC modestly increased T-cell responses to a Clostridium difficile antigen expressed from an adenovirus vaccine, although no significant differences in antibody titers were observed. This adenovirus c-di-GMP delivery system offers a novel method to administer c-di-GMP as an adjuvant to stimulate innate immunity during vaccination.

‣ A Cyclic-di-GMP Receptor Required for Bacterial Exopolysaccharide Production

Matewish, Jody M; Kessler, Jennifer L; Hyodo, Mamoru; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Lee, Vincent T.; Lory, Stephen
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Bis-(3′,5′)-cyclic-dimeric-guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) has been shown to be a global regulatory molecule that modulates the reciprocal responses of bacteria to activate either virulence pathways or biofilm formation. The mechanism of c-di-GMP signal transduction, including recognition of c-di-GMP and subsequent phenotypic regulation, remain largely uncharacterized. The key components of these regulatory pathways are the various adaptor proteins (c-di-GMP receptors). There is compelling evidence suggesting that, in addition to PilZ domains, there are other unidentified c-di-GMP receptors. Here we show that the PelD protein of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a novel c-di-GMP receptor that mediates c-di-GMP regulation of PEL polysaccharide biosynthesis. Analysis of PelD orthologues identified a number of conserved residues that are required for c-di-GMP binding as well as synthesis of the PEL polysaccharide. Secondary structure similarities of PelD to the inhibitory site of diguanylate cyclase suggest that a common fold can act as a platform to bind c-di-GMP. The combination of a c-di-GMP binding site with a variety of output signalling motifs within one protein domain provides an explanation for the specificity for different cellular responses to this regulatory dinucleotide.d

‣ Structure of the PilZ-FimXEAL-c-di-GMP complex responsible for the regulation of bacterial type IV pilus biogenesis

Carvalho, Cristiane Rodrigues Guzzo; Dunger, Ricardo German; Salinas, Roberto Kopke; Farah, Shaker Chuck
Fonte: Academic Press; London Publicador: Academic Press; London
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Signal transduction pathways mediated by cyclic-bis(3'→5')-dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) control many important and complex behaviors in bacteria. C-di-GMP is synthesized through the action of GGDEF domains that possess diguanylate cyclase activity and is degraded by EAL or HD-GYP domains with phosphodiesterase activity. There is mounting evidence that some important c-di-GMP-mediated pathways require protein-protein interactions between members of the GGDEF, EAL, HD-GYP and PilZ protein domain families. For example, interactions have been observed between PilZ and the EAL domain from FimX of Xanthomonas citri (Xac). FimX and PilZ are involved in the regulation of type IV pilus biogenesis via interactions of the latter with the hexameric PilB ATPase associated with the bacterial inner membrane. Here, we present the crystal structure of the ternary complex made up of PilZ, the FimX EAL domain (FimXEAL) and c-di-GMP. PilZ interacts principally with the lobe region and the N-terminal linker helix of the FimXEAL. These interactions involve a hydrophobic surface made up of amino acids conserved in a non-canonical family of PilZ domains that lack intrinsic c-di-GMP binding ability and strand complementation that joins β-sheets from both proteins. Interestingly...

‣ LapD is a bis-(3′,5′)-cyclic dimeric GMP-binding protein that regulates surface attachment by Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0–1

Newell, Peter D.; Monds, Russell D.; O'Toole, George A.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The second messenger cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) regulates surface attachment and biofilm formation by many bacteria. For Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0–1, c-di-GMP impacts the secretion and localization of the adhesin LapA, which is absolutely required for stable surface attachment and biofilm formation by this bacterium. In this study we characterize LapD, a unique c-di-GMP effector protein that controls biofilm formation by communicating intracellular c-di-GMP levels to the membrane-localized attachment machinery via its periplasmic domain. LapD contains degenerate and enzymatically inactive diguanylate cyclase and c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase (EAL) domains and binds to c-di-GMP through a degenerate EAL domain. We present evidence that LapD utilizes an inside-out signaling mechanism: binding c-di-GMP in the cytoplasm and communicating this signal to the periplasm via its periplasmic domain. Furthermore, we show that LapD serves as the c-di-GMP receptor connecting environmental modulation of intracellular c-di-GMP levels by inorganic phosphate to regulation of LapA localization and thus surface commitment by P. fluorescens.

‣ Candida albicans Ethanol Stimulates Pseudomonas aeruginosa WspR-Controlled Biofilm Formation as Part of a Cyclic Relationship Involving Phenazines

Chen, Annie I.; Dolben, Emily F.; Okegbe, Chinweike; Harty, Colleen E.; Golub, Yuriy; Thao, Sandy; Ha, Dae Gon; Willger, Sven D.; O'Toole, George A.; Harwood, Caroline S.; Dietrich, Lars E. P.; Hogan, Deborah A.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/10/2014 Português
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In chronic infections, pathogens are often in the presence of other microbial species. For example, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common and detrimental lung pathogen in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) and co-infections with Candida albicans are common. Here, we show that P. aeruginosa biofilm formation and phenazine production were strongly influenced by ethanol produced by the fungus C. albicans. Ethanol stimulated phenotypes that are indicative of increased levels of cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP), and levels of c-di-GMP were 2-fold higher in the presence of ethanol. Through a genetic screen, we found that the diguanylate cyclase WspR was required for ethanol stimulation of c-di-GMP. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that ethanol stimulates WspR signaling through its cognate sensor WspA, and promotes WspR-dependent activation of Pel exopolysaccharide production, which contributes to biofilm maturation. We also found that ethanol stimulation of WspR promoted P. aeruginosa colonization of CF airway epithelial cells. P. aeruginosa production of phenazines occurs both in the CF lung and in culture, and phenazines enhance ethanol production by C. albicans. Using a C. albicans adh1/adh1 mutant with decreased ethanol production, we found that fungal ethanol strongly altered the spectrum of P. aeruginosa phenazines in favor of those that are most effective against fungi. Thus...

‣ Cyclic di-GMP is Essential for the Survival of the Lyme Disease Spirochete in Ticks

He, Ming; Ouyang, Zhiming; Troxell, Bryan; Xu, Haijun; Moh, Akira; Piesman, Joseph; Norgard, Michael V.; Gomelsky, Mark; Yang, X. Frank
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) is a bacterial second messenger that modulates many biological processes. Although its role in bacterial pathogenesis during mammalian infection has been documented, the role of c-di-GMP in a pathogen's life cycle within a vector host is less understood. The enzootic cycle of the Lyme disease pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi involves both a mammalian host and an Ixodes tick vector. The B. burgdorferi genome encodes a single copy of the diguanylate cyclase gene (rrp1), which is responsible for c-di-GMP synthesis. To determine the role of c-di-GMP in the life cycle of B. burgdorferi, an Rrp1-deficient B. burgdorferi strain was generated. The rrp1 mutant remains infectious in the mammalian host but cannot survive in the tick vector. Microarray analyses revealed that expression of a four-gene operon involved in glycerol transport and metabolism, bb0240-bb0243, was significantly downregulated by abrogation of Rrp1. In vitro, the rrp1 mutant is impaired in growth in the media containing glycerol as the carbon source (BSK-glycerol). To determine the contribution of the glycerol metabolic pathway to the rrp1 mutant phenotype, a glp mutant, in which the entire bb0240-bb0243 operon is not expressed, was generated. Similar to the rrp1 mutant...

‣ Cyclic-di-GMP-Mediated Repression of Swarming Motility by Pseudomonas aeruginosa: the pilY1 Gene and Its Impact on Surface-Associated Behaviors▿

Kuchma, S. L.; Ballok, A. E.; Merritt, J. H.; Hammond, J. H.; Lu, W.; Rabinowitz, J. D.; O'Toole, George A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The intracellular signaling molecule cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) has been shown to influence surface-associated behaviors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, including biofilm formation and swarming motility. Previously, we reported a role for the bifA gene in the inverse regulation of biofilm formation and swarming motility. The bifA gene encodes a c-di-GMP-degrading phosphodiesterase (PDE), and the ΔbifA mutant exhibits increased cellular pools of c-di-GMP, forms hyperbiofilms, and is unable to swarm. In this study, we isolated suppressors of the ΔbifA swarming defect. Strains with mutations in the pilY1 gene, but not in the pilin subunit pilA gene, show robust suppression of the swarming defect of the ΔbifA mutant, as well as its hyperbiofilm phenotype. Despite the ability of the pilY1 mutation to suppress all the c-di-GMP-related phenotypes, the global pools of c-di-GMP are not detectably altered in the ΔbifA ΔpilY1 mutant relative to the ΔbifA single mutant. We also show that enhanced expression of the pilY1 gene inhibits swarming motility, and we identify residues in the putative VWA domain of PilY1 that are important for this phenotype. Furthermore, swarming repression by PilY1 specifically requires the diguanylate cyclase (DGC) SadC...