Página 6 dos resultados de 287434 itens digitais encontrados em 0.161 segundos

‣ Housing and Health: Time Again for Public Health Action

Krieger, James; Higgins, Donna L.
Fonte: © American Journal of Public Health 2002 Publicador: © American Journal of Public Health 2002
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2002 Português
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Poor housing conditions are associated with a wide range of health conditions, including respiratory infections, asthma, lead poisoning, injuries, and mental health. Addressing housing issues offers public health practitioners an opportunity to address an important social determinant of health. Public health has long been involved in housing issues. In the 19th century, health officials targeted poor sanitation, crowding, and inadequate ventilation to reduce infectious diseases as well as fire hazards to decrease injuries. Today, public health departments can employ multiple strategies to improve housing, such as developing and enforcing housing guidelines and codes, implementing “Healthy Homes” programs to improve indoor environmental quality, assessing housing conditions, and advocating for healthy, affordable housing. Now is the time for public health to create healthier homes by confronting substandard housing.

‣ The Contribution of the World Health Organization to a New Public Health and Health Promotion

Kickbusch, Ilona
Fonte: © American Journal of Public Health 2003 Publicador: © American Journal of Public Health 2003
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2003 Português
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The author traces the development of the concept of health promotion from 1980s policies of the World Health Organization. Two approaches that signify the modernization of public health are outlined in detail: the European Health for All targets and the settings approach. Both aim to reorient health policy priorities from a risk factor approach to strategies that address the determinants of health and empower people to participate in improving the health of their communities.

‣ Rural Health Disparities, Population Health, and Rural Culture

Hartley, David
Fonte: © American Journal of Public Health 2004 Publicador: © American Journal of Public Health 2004
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2004 Português
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In this commentary, I place the maturing field of rural health research and policy in the context of the rural health disparities documented in Health United States, 2001, Urban and Rural Health Chartbook. Because of recent advances in our understanding of the determinants of health, the field must branch out from its traditional focus on access to health care services toward initiatives that are based on models of population health.

‣ Associations between urbanisation and components of the health-risk transition in Thailand. A descriptive study of 87,000 Thai adults

Lim, Lynette; Kjellstrom, Tord; Sleigh, Adrian; Khamman, Suwanee; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Dixon, Jane; Banwell, Cathy
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Journal article; Published Version Formato: 13 pages
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BACKGROUND: Social and environmental changes have accompanied the ongoing rapid urbanisation in a number of countries during recent decades. Understanding of its role in the health-risk transition is important for health policy development at national and local level. Thailand is one country facing many of the health challenges of urbanisation. OBJECTIVE: To identify potential associations between individual migration between rural and urban areas and exposure to specific social, economic, environmental and behavioural health determinants. DESIGN: Baseline data from a cohort of 87,134 Thai open university students surveyed in 2005 (mean age 31 years). Four urbanisation status groups were defined according to self-reported location of residence (rural: R or urban: U) in 2005 and when the respondent was 10 12 years old (yo). RESULTS: Fourty-four percent were living in rural areas in 2005 and when they were 10 12yo (Group RR: ruralites); 20% always lived in urban areas (UU: urbanites); 32% moved from rural to urban areas (RU: urbanisers); 4% moved in the other direction (UR: de-urbanisers). The ruralites and urbanites often were the two extremes, with the urbanisers maintaining some of the determinants patterns from ruralites and the deurbanisers maintaining patterns from urbanites. There was a strong relationship between urbanisation status...

‣ Searching for solutions: health concerns expressed in letters to an East African newspaper column

Asera, Rosa; Bagarukayo, Henry; Shuey, Dean; Barton, Thomas
Fonte: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University Publicador: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 34130 bytes; application/pdf
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This study examined health care questions from an unusual data set: 1252 unsolicited letters written over a three–year period to an advice column in an East African newspaper. Analysis of the letters was a non-intrusive method of ascertaining prevalent health questions and opinions. People wrote seeking information, advice, solutions, and reassurance about health problems. Emotions expressed in the letters ranged from hope to fear and frustration. The written format allowed questions which are generally too embarrassing or stigmatized to present in other public or interpersonal settings. More than half the total letters raised questions about sexual behaviour, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV/AIDS. The letters present not only personal health concerns, but also expectations of health-care quality and reflections on the medical options presently available in Uganda. As a whole, the letters express dissatisfaction not only with the outcomes of health encounters, but with the process. Of the letter writers with specific physical complaints, more than one-third had already sought medical care and were dissatisfied with the results. The letters were seeking solutions, especially for alleviation of symptoms and discomfort. Almost equally prevalent was a plea for accurate and relevant health information; people not only want to feel better...

‣ Geographic distribution of admissions to hospital with a mental health diagnosis and use of community mental health services, 2004

Public Health Information Development Unit
Fonte: Public Health Information Development Unit, the University of Adelaide Publicador: Public Health Information Development Unit, the University of Adelaide
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em //2006 Português
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This set of maps outlines the distribution of clients of mental health services in South Australia. This resource was produced for the Mental Health Directorate, Central Northern Adelaide Health Service and complements other health atlases including the Social Health Atlas of South Australia and the Social Health Atlas of the Central Northern Adelaide Health Service. Together, these provide important information for policy makers, planners, service providers and community members working towards the future health and wellbeing of South Australians.

‣ The sick and the well: adult health in Britain during the health transition

Riley, James; Alter, George
Fonte: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University Publicador: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 99968 bytes; application/pdf
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Using adult life-long histories of health experience among a group of men and women born in Britain between 1725 and 1874, this paper examines individual health during the mortality decline. The risk of initiating a new sickness declined sharply between the cohorts born in the eighteenth century and those born during 1825-74, but the average duration of each episode increased. As successive cohorts added to their life expectancy, survival time rose more sharply than did well time. Continuity rather than change is apparent in another aspect of their health experience, the capacity of prior health to predict future sickness and wellness. Among the men and the women and in the eighteenth-century cohorts as well as the cohorts of 1825-74, the degree of wellness or sickness evident early in adult life strongly predicted future sick time for 15 to 20 years, and strongly predicted future sickness events for a longer period still. Moreover, women surpassed men in their propensity to hold on to the health status exhibited in early adulthood.; no

‣ Investing in Human Resources for Health; The Need for a Paradigm Shift

Zhao, Feng; Squires, Neil; Weakliam, David; Van Lerberghe, Wim; Soucat, Agnes
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Journal Article; Publications & Research
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Development partner strategies and support in the area of human resources for health (HRH) have been shaped by key reports and events over the past decade. Since 2004, when The Lancet published the Joint Learning Initiative’s call to overcome the HRH crisis, the global health community has been trying to address the critical issues surrounding HRH. The 10-year action plan on HRH proposed in The world health report 20062 and the establishment in the same year of the Global Health Workforce Alliance have drawn unprecedented attention to HRH. Thanks to a growing body of evidence,2 HRH issues have gradually made their way into the global health arena. Consensus has emerged on the “power of health workers”1 and their critical importance to health system strengthening and disease control programs.

‣ Comparative assessment of transport risks - how it can contribute to health impact assessment of transport policies

Kjellstrom, Tord; van Kerkhoff, Lorrae; Bammer, Gabriele; McMichael, Anthony
Fonte: World Health Organization (WHO Press) Publicador: World Health Organization (WHO Press)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Health impact assessment (HIA) and comparative risk assessment (CRA) are important tools with which governments and communities can compare and integrate different sources of information about various health impacts into a single framework for policy-makers and planners. Both tools have strengths that may be combined usefully when conducting comprehensive assessments of decisions that affect complex health issues, such as the health risks and impacts of transport policy and planning activities. As yet, however, HIA and CRA have not been applied widely to the area of transport. We draw on the limited experience of the application of these tools in the context of road transport to explore how comparative assessment of transport risks can contribute to HIA of transport policies.

‣ Self-assessed health among Indigenous Australians: how valid is a global question?

Sibthorpe, Beverly; Anderson, Ian Philip; Cunningham, Joan
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Objectives. This study assessed the validity of a global measure of self-assessed health among Indigenous Australians. Methods. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with self-assessed health in a nationally representative sample. Results. Among 8782 adult respondents, poorer self-assessed health was strongly associated with several factors, including age, number of health conditions, and recent health actions. The association with health conditions was attenuated when the respondent's primary language was not English. Conclusions. Self-assessed health may be a valid measure among indigenous Australians whose primary language is English. However, although the measure draws on common experiences of health and illness, it may obscure differences in how people incorporate these experiences into social actions.

‣ Inequalities in self-reported health: a meta-regression analysis

Costa-i-Font, Joan; Hernández-Quevedo, Cristina
Fonte: LSE Health and Social Care, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: LSE Health and Social Care, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /03/2013 Português
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There is a growing amount of health economics literature in Europe using standardised cross-country health inequality indexes. Yet, limited efforts have been put forward to examine the extent to which such evidence is subject to any specific methodological and publication biases despite studies relying upon different samples, heterogeneous health system institutions and which use different empirical strategies and data manipulation procedures. We draw upon appropriate statistical methods to examine the presence of publication bias in the health economics literature measuring health inequalities of self-reported health. In addition, we test for other biases including the effect of precision estimates based on meta-regression analysis (MRA). We account for a set of biases in estimates of income-related health inequalities that rely on concentration index-related methods and self-reported health measures. Our findings suggest evidence of publication bias that primarily depends on the cardinalisation of self-reported health and study-specific precision. However, no robust evidence of other publication biases has been identified.

‣ The health care needs of the physically disabled patient in a home-based care environment: Implications for the training of ancillary health care workers

Jooste,Karien; Chabeli,Mary; Springer,Monica
Fonte: Health SA Gesondheid (Online) Publicador: Health SA Gesondheid (Online)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2010 Português
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According to existing literature, ancillary health care workers (AHCWs) often do not meet the health care needs of patients with physical disabilities (physically disabled patients) in a home-based environment, because of inadequate training programmes. The purpose of this research study was to explore the health care needs of physically disabled patients in long-term, home-based care in the northern suburbs of Johannesburg and, based on results, to offer recommendations for the training of AHCWs. Qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual means were employed in data collection and analysis. The population consisted of eight physically disabled participants who employed an AHCW to assist them with their long-term home care. Purposive sampling was used with subsequent snowballing to identify further participants for the study. Individual interviews were conducted, where participants had to answer the questions (1)'What are your health care needs?' and (2) 'How should these be met?' Data saturation was ensured, after which Tesch's method of data analysis was followed. Three categories of health care needs were identified (1) physical health care needs, (2) interpersonal relationship needs and (3) social needs, and 12 themes were derived from these categories. These categories of health care needs should be addressed in the training of AHCWs. From the themes...

‣ Health impact assessment of agriculture and food policies: lessons learnt from the Republic of Slovenia

Lock,Karen; Gabrijelcic-Blenkus,Mojca; Martuzzi,Marco; Otorepec,Peter; Wallace,Paul; Dora,Carlos; Robertson,Aileen; Zakotnic,Jozica Maucec
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2003 Português
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The most important public health priority in agricultural policy-making is currently food safety, despite the relatively higher importance of food security, nutrition, and other agricultural-related health issues in terms of global burden of disease. There is limited experience worldwide of using health impact assessment (HIA) during the development of agriculture and food policies, which perhaps reflects the complex nature of this policy sector. This paper presents methods of HIA used in the Republic of Slovenia, which is conducting a HIA of proposed agricultural and food policies due to its accession to the European Union. It is the first time that any government has attempted to assess the health effects of agricultural policy at a national level. The HIA has basically followed a six-stage process: policy analysis; rapid appraisal workshops with stakeholders from a range of backgrounds; review of research evidence relevant to the agricultural policy; analysis of Slovenian data for key health-related indicators; a report on the findings to a key cross-government group; and evaluation. The experience in Slovenia shows that the HIA process has been a useful mechanism for raising broader public health issues on the agricultural policy agenda...

‣ Improving equity in the provision of primary health care: lessons from decentralized planning and management in Namibia

Bell,Ruth; Ithindi,Taathi; Low,Anne
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2002 Português
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This paper draws lessons from a review of primary health care services in Windhoek, the capital of Namibia, undertaken by a regional health management team. The review was carried out because of perceived increases in workload and inadequate staffing levels, arising from the rapid expansion of the city associated with inward migration. A survey of the utilization of government clinics was used to develop a more equitable allocation of primary health care services between localities. The survey revealed disparities between patterns of utilization of the services and the allocation of staff: the poorer localities were relatively underprovided. Decisions made centrally on resource allocation had reinforced the inequities. On the basis of the results of the review, the regional health management team redistributed nursing and medical staff and argued for a shift in the allocation of capital expenditure towards the poorer communities. The review demonstrates the potential for regional and provincial health management teams to make effective assessments of the needs of their populations and to promote the equitable delivery of primary health care services. In order to achieve this they need not only to become effective managers, but also to develop population-based planning skills and the confidence and authority to influence the allocation of resources between and within their regions and provinces.

‣ Global governance, international health law and WHO: looking towards the future

Taylor,Allyn L.
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2002 Português
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The evolving domain of international health law encompasses increasingly diverse and complex concerns. Commentators agree that health development in the twenty-first century is likely to expand the use of conventional international law to create a framework for coordination and cooperation among states in an increasingly interdependent world. This article examines the forces and factors behind the emerging expansion of conventional international health law as an important tool for present and future multilateral cooperation. It considers challenges to effective international health cooperation posed for intergovernmental organizations and other actors involved in lawmaking. Although full consolidation of all aspects of future international health lawmaking under the auspices of a single international organization is unworkable and undesirable, the World Health Organization (WHO) should endeavour to serve as a coordinator, catalyst and, where appropriate, platform for future health law codification. Such leadership by WHO could enhance coordination, coherence and implementation of international health law policy.

‣ Benchmarks for health expenditures, services and outcomes in Africa during the 1990s

Peters,David H.; Elmendorf,A.E.; Kandola,K.; Chellaraj,G.
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2000 Português
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There is limited information on national health expenditures, services, and outcomes in African countries during the 1990s. We intend to make statistical information available for national level comparisons. National level data were collected from numerous international databases, and supplemented by national household surveys and World Bank expenditure reviews. The results were tabulated and analysed in an exploratory fashion to provide benchmarks for groupings of African countries and individual country comparison. There is wide variation in scale and outcome of health care spending between African countries, with poorer countries tending to do worse than wealthier ones. From 1990-96, the median annual per capita government expenditure on health was nearly US$ 6, but averaged US$ 3 in the lowest-income countries, compared to US$ 72 in middle-income countries. Similar trends were found for health services and outcomes. Results from individual countries (particularly Ethiopia, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire and Gabon) are used to indicate how the data can be used to identify areas of improvement in health system performance. Serious gaps in data, particularly concerning private sector delivery and financing, health service utilization, equity and efficiency measures...

‣ Paying attention to gender and poverty in health research: content and process issues

Östlin,Piroska; Sen,Gita; George,Asha
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2004 Português
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Despite the magnitude of the problem of health inequity within and between countries, little systematic research has been done on the social causes of ill-health. Health researchers have overwhelmingly focused on biomedical research at the level of individuals. Investigations into the health of groups and the determinants of health inequities that lie outside the control of the individual have received a much smaller share of research resources. Ignoring factors such as socioeconomic class, race and gender leads to biases in both the content and process of research. We use two such factors - poverty and gender - to illustrate how this occurs. There is a systematic imbalance in medical journals: research into diseases that predominate in the poorest regions of the world is less likely to be published. In addition, the slow recognition of women's health problems, misdirected and partial approaches to understanding women's and men's health, and the dearth of information on how gender interacts with other social determinants continue to limit the content of health research. In the research community these imbalances in content are linked to biases against researchers from poorer regions and women. Researchers from high-income countries benefit from better funding and infrastructure. Their publications dominate journals and citations...

‣ Quality of care for under-fives in first-level health facilities in one district of Bangladesh

Arifeen,S.E.; Bryce,J.; Gouws,E.; Baqui,A.H.; Black,R.E.; Hoque,D.M.E.; Chowdhury,E.K.; Yunus,M.; Begum,N.; Akter,T.; Siddique,A.
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2005 Português
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OBJECTIVE: The multi-country evaluation of Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) effectiveness, cost and impact (MCE) is a global evaluation to determine the impact of IMCI on health outcomes and its cost-effectiveness. MCE studies are under way in Bangladesh, Brazil, Peru, Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania. The objective of this analysis from the Bangladesh MCE study was to describe the quality of care delivered to sick children under 5 years old in first-level government health facilities, to inform government planning of child health programmes. METHODS: Generic MCE Health Facility Survey tools were adapted, translated and pre-tested. Medical doctors trained in IMCI and these tools conducted the survey in all 19 health facilities in the study areas. The data were collected using observations, exit interviews, inventories and interviews with facility providers. FINDINGS: Few of the sick children seeking care at these facilities were fully assessed or correctly treated, and almost none of their caregivers were advised on how to continue the care of the child at home. Over one-third of the sick children whose care was observed were managed by lower-level workers who were significantly more likely than higher-level workers to classify the sick child correctly and to provide correct information on home care to the caregiver. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate an urgent need for interventions to improve the quality of care provided for sick children in first-level facilities in Bangladesh...

‣ Private sector, human resources and health franchising in Africa

Prata,Ndola; Montagu,Dominic; Jefferys,Emma
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2005 Português
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In much of the developing world, private health care providers and pharmacies are the most important sources of medicine and medical care and yet these providers are frequently not considered in planning for public health. This paper presents the available evidence, by socioeconomic status, on which strata of society benefit from publicly provided care and which strata use private health care. Using data from The World Bank's Health Nutrition and Population Poverty Thematic Reports on 22 countries in Africa, an assessment was made of the use of public and private health services, by asset quintile groups, for treatment of diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections, proxies for publicly subsidized services. The evidence and theory on using franchise networks to supplement government programmes in the delivery of public health services was assessed. Examples from health franchises in Africa and Asia are provided to illustrate the potential for franchise systems to leverage private providers and so increase delivery-point availability for public-benefit services. We argue that based on the established demand for private medical services in Africa, these providers should be included in future planning on human resources for public health. Having explored the range of systems that have been tested for working with private providers...

‣ Strengthening health information systems to address health equity challenges

Nolen,Lexi Bambas; Braveman,Paula; Dachs,J. Norberto W.; Delgado,Iris; Gakidou,Emmanuela; Moser,Kath; Rolfe,Liz; Vega,Jeanette; Zarowsky,Christina
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2005 Português
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Special studies and isolated initiatives over the past several decades in low-, middle- and high-income countries have consistently shown inequalities in health among socioeconomic groups and by gender, race or ethnicity, geographical area and other measures associated with social advantage. Significant health inequalities linked to social (dis)advantage rather than to inherent biological differences are generally considered unfair or inequitable. Such health inequities are the main object of health development efforts, including global targets such as the Millennium Development Goals, which require monitoring to evaluate progress. However, most national health information systems (HIS) lack key information needed to assess and address health inequities, namely, reliable, longitudinal and representative data linking measures of health with measures of social status or advantage at the individual or small-area level. Without empirical documentation and monitoring of such inequities, as well as country-level capacity to use this information for effective planning and monitoring of progress in response to interventions, movement towards equity is unlikely to occur. This paper reviews core information requirements and potential databases and proposes short-term and longer term strategies for strengthening the capabilities of HIS for the analysis of health equity and discusses HIS-related entry points for supporting a culture of equity-oriented decision-making and policy development.