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‣ Distribuição de renda e pobreza no estado de Minas Gerais.; Income distribution and poverty in the state of Minas Gerais.

Simão, Rosycler Cristina Santos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/05/2004 Português
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Minas Gerais é um dos estados que mais se destaca pelas disparidades regionais. Coexistem no estado regiões dinâmicas e modernas em contraste com regiões atrasadas e estagnadas. Neste contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi de analisar a distribuição de renda e pobreza em Minas Gerais, destacando as desigualdades regionais do estado, considerando a divisão do estado em 12 mesorregiões. Cada mesorregião apresenta um nível de desenvolvimento medido pelo Índice de Desenvolvimento Humano Municipal (IDH-M). Para a análise foram usadas medidas de desigualdade, medidas de posição e modelos de regressão múltipla. A principal base de dados utilizada é o Censo Demográfico de 2000 do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Para o cumprimento dos objetivos, foram analisados dois tipos de distribuição: do rendimento domiciliar per capita e das pessoas ocupadas com rendimento. Verificou-se que a desigualdade da distribuição da renda domiciliar per capita tende a ser menor nas mesorregiões mais desenvolvidas do que nas mesorregiões menos desenvolvidas. O rendimento domiciliar per capita foi dividido em 7componentes: rendimento do trabalho principal; rendimento demais trabalhos; aposentadorias e pensões; aluguéis; pensão alimentícia...

‣ Influência da renda e preço dos alimentos sobre a participação de frutas, legumes e verduras no consumo alimentar das famílias do município de São Paulo; Influence of income and price on the share of fruits and vegetables (F&V) on the household food consumption in the city of São Paulo

Claro, Rafael Moreira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/09/2006 Português
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Objetivo. Analisar a influência da renda e dos preços dos alimentos sobre a participação de frutas, legumes e verduras no consumo alimentar das famílias residentes no município de São Paulo. Métodos. A Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares (POF) da Fundação Instituto de Pesquisas Econômicas (FIPE), realizada entre 1998/1999 no município de São Paulo, serviu de base para este estudo. O padrão alimentar das famílias foi descrito a partir da participação relativa de 18 grupos de alimentos no total mensal de calorias adquirido pela família para consumo no domicilio. A influência da renda familiar e do preço dos alimentos sobre a participação de frutas, legumes e verduras (FLV) no padrão alimentar foi estudada empregando-se técnicas de análise de regressão múltipla (modelo log-log) para estimação de coeficientes de elasticidade-preço e elasticidade-renda. Resultados. Identificou-se efeito estatísticamente significante da renda familiar (efeito positivo), do preço das próprias frutas, legumes e verduras (efeito negativo) e do preço do conjunto dos demais alimentos (efeito positivo). A comparação da magnitude desses efeitos, feita pela comparação dos coeficientes de elasticidade, indica maior efeito do preço das frutas...

‣ Transferência de renda, estrutura produtiva e desigualdade: uma análise inter-regional para o Brasil; Transfer of income, production structure and inequality: an analysis inter-regional for Brazil

Zylberberg, Raphael Simas
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/12/2008 Português
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Nos últimos anos, especialmente após 2002, a utilização de programas de transferência de renda como forma de combate à pobreza se intensificou no Brasil, o que pode ser percebido pela implementação de diversos Programas de Transferência Condicionada de Renda, com grande destaque para o programa o Bolsa Família, criado em 2004. Este movimento foi acompanhado por uma forte queda na desigualdade de renda no Brasil, de tal forma que o índice de Gini medido pelo Ipea tenha atingido o seu menor patamar histórico. Neste contexto, é importante que se analise a capacidade de políticas de transferências compensatórias de renda afetarem a estrutura distributiva da economia brasileira. Ou seja, se programas nos moldes do Bolsa Família, os quais não alteram a estrutura econômica, afetam a distribuição da renda. Para cumprir este objetivo, foi utilizado um modelo baseado em uma Matriz de Contabilidade Social inter-regional construída neste trabalho, de forma a considerar as relações inter-setoriais, inter-regionais e entre os setores institucionais, combinando informações de uma matriz insumo-produto inter-regional com informações das Contas Econômicas Integradas e de pesquisas domiciliares POF e PNAD do IBGE. Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho mostram que transferências de renda...

‣ Lucros contábil e fiscal: efeitos do regime tributário de transição - RTT; Accounting income and taxable income: effects of Transition Tax Regime (RTT)

Mello, Helio Rieger de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/10/2011 Português
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A Lei nº 11.638/07 iniciou a convergência da contabilidade brasileira para as normas internacionais do IASB. A MP 449/08, a Lei nº 11.941/09 e os órgãos de regulação contábil continuaram essa adequação, promovendo, entre outras, duas relevantes modificações: i) a definitiva separação entre a contabilidade societária e a tributária; e ii) a implementação da ampla hegemonia da essência sobre a forma - dito de outro modo, a prevalência da visão econômica na contabilidade financeira -, enquanto se manteve na contabilidade fiscal, majoritariamente, a predominância da perspectiva civil, que de forma inversa, privilegia a forma. Como é sabido, apesar de a contabilidade tributária partir da societária, as regras da primeira se assentam na legislação que normatiza sua matéria, enquanto a contabilidade societária segue o Pronunciamento Conceitual Básico da Contabilidade. E o lucro, uma das mais importantes concepções formuladas pela contabilidade, é adotado pelo Fisco Federal como base de cálculo do IRPJ e da CSLL. Como os efeitos das novas regras contábeis causariam impacto positivo, nulo ou negativo no lucro tributário, a partir de 2008, foi instituído o Regime Tributário de Transição-RTT, com o objetivo de neutralizar-se todos os novos critérios de reconhecimento de receitas...

‣ Mudanças na composição das familias e impactos na distribuição de rendimentos : um comparativo entre áreas rurais e urbanas no Brasil; Changing in family composition and impacts on income distribution : a comparison between rural and urban areas in Brazil

Camila Strobl Sakamoto
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/02/2014 Português
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Estudos têm destacado as mudanças demográficas, principalmente a queda da fecundidade e envelhecimento populacional, e seus efeitos sobre a condição de vida das pessoas em diferentes países. Para compreender e analisar essas recentes mudanças demográficas é essencial considerar a família como objeto de estudo. No Brasil, embora estudos destaquem o crescimento da renda e melhorias nos indicadores socioeconômicos das famílias (principalmente nas áreas rurais que apresentaram queda elevada da pobreza), são poucos aqueles que analisam a contribuição das mudanças demográficas para essa dinâmica. Neste contexto, este trabalho analisa os impactos das mudanças recentes observadas na estrutura das famílias brasileiras sobre a distribuição da renda familiar per capita. Especificamente, verifica-se de que maneira a mudança na composição dos tipos familiares contribuiu para o crescimento da renda e redução das diferenças entre os grupos familiares mais pobres e mais ricos. O trabalho apresenta ainda um comparativo entre as áreas urbanas e rurais, para avaliar os efeitos dessa dinâmica demográfica nas áreas mais desenvolvidas (urbanas) e menos desenvolvidas (rurais) do território. A partir dos dados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD) de 1981 a 2011...

‣ The effects of non-agricultural activities on income distribution in rural Brazil

Neder,Henrique D.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Economia e Sociologia Rural Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Economia e Sociologia Rural
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2003 Português
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The growth of non-agricultural activity since the 1980s has reconfigured the economic and social dynamic in Brazil’s rural areas. Our paper intends to describe the impact of this growth on income distribution in rural Brazil. We made use of a method of decomposition of two indicators of income distribution applied to1992 and 1999 Brazilian National Household Sample Survey (PNAD) data: the variation coefficient and the Gini index. It was observed that non-agricultural activities have increased the concentration of rural income and that this phenomenon is more prominent in Region I (states of Brazil’s Northeast and the state of Tocantins) and Region IV (states of São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul and the Distrito Federal). It was found that the income concentrating effect of each non-agricultural activity branch (commerce, transformation industry, administration, service) differed by region. In Region I, income from the "Social/Public Administration and Other Activities branch " (a PNAD designation) presents a coefficient of relative concentration greater than a unit, which indicates that income from this activities branch acts to increase the concentration of non-agricultural income in this region. In Region IV, income from industrial activities and from Social/ Public Administration and Other Activities both present coefficients of relative concentration greater than a unit; therefore...

‣ The stability of income inequality in Brazil, 2006-2012: an estimate using income tax data and household surveys

Medeiros,Marcelo; Souza,Pedro Herculano Guimarães Ferreira de; Castro,Fábio Ávila de
Fonte: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva Publicador: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2015 Português
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Object: the level and evolution of income inequality among adults in Brazil between 2006 and 2012. Objectives: to calculate the level of inequality, its trend over the years and the share of income growth appropriated by different social groups. Methodology: We combined tax data from the Annual Personal Income Tax Returns (Declaração Anual de Ajuste do Imposto de Renda da Pessoa Física - DIRPF) and the Brazilian National Household Survey (Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios - PNAD) to construct a complete distribution of total income among adults in Brazil. We applied Pareto interpolations to income tax tabulations to arrive at the distribution within income groups. We tested the results, comparing the PNAD to the Brazilian Consumption and Expenditure Survey (Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares - POF) and to data from the Census Subsample Survey (Census. Results: We found evidence that income inequality in Brazil is higher than previously thought and that it remained stable between 2006 and 2012; in making these findings, we thus diverged from most studies on the dynamics of inequality in Brazil.. There was income growth, but the top incomes have appropriated most of this growth.

‣ Argentina : Income Support Policies toward the Bicentennial

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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Argentina approaches its bicentennial as an independent republic; it has a window of opportunity in social protection policy. Following the most serious economic crisis in its history during 2001-02, the country mobilized an unprecedented effort to provide income support to the population in need. Now, as growth has returned and social indicators have recovered to pre-crisis levels, there is an opening to move from emergency income support programs to a more comprehensive, long-term, and sustainable strategy for social protection. The emergency response was effective, as it helped the country to overcome the worst of the crisis. The centerpiece of the strategy, plan Jefes y Jefas, provided benefits to nearly two million households during a period when poverty affected more than half the population and unemployment reached record levels. The number of beneficiaries slowly declined beginning in 2003, and was at nearly one-third of its maximum value by early 2008. This reduction was achieved by the reentry of beneficiaries into the formal labor market, the loss of eligibility, and the shift of beneficiaries to familias and seguro de capacitacion y empleo (Seguro), the successor programs to Jefes. Now that the crisis has passed, the policy debate has shifted toward the future of social protection over the longer term. The improvement in overall economic conditions since 2003 has resulted in a decline in unemployment...

‣ Economic Growth, Income Distribution, and Poverty in Poland During Transition

Paci, Pierella; Sasin, Martin J.; Verbeek, Jos
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Português
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The authors attempt to analyze the linkages between macroeconomic policies and economic growth variables, their movement over time, and their impact on poverty in the case of Poland. Poland, a middle-income country, is of particular interest because its data sources allow for a relatively detailed analysis of such developments, and the macroeconomic environment and the economic growth variables show a relatively sizable degree of variance. In addition, Poland has struggled in the past few years to reduce poverty while still experiencing positive economic growth. The authors show that in Poland, poverty-reducing growth depends heavily on the ability of the economy to generate jobs. During the early years of transition, net job growth was positive, while after the Russian crisis of 1998, productivity gains were accomplished mostly through labor shedding, henceforth, increasing poverty in Poland. In addition, the authors identify how fiscal and social protection policies affect income distribution and poverty in Poland.

‣ Reducing Child Malnutrition : How Far Does Income Growth Take Us?

Haddad, Lawrence; Alderman, Harold; Appleton, Simon; Song, Lina; Yohannes, Yisehac
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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How rapidly will child malnutrition respond to income growth? This article explores that question using household survey data from 12 countries as well as data on malnutrition rates in a cross-section of countries since the 1970s. Both forms of analysis yield similar results. Increases in income at the household and national levels imply similar rates of reduction in malnutrition. Using these estimates and better than historical income growth rates, the article finds that the millennium development goal of halving the prevalence of underweight children by 2015 is unlikely to be met through income growth alone. What is needed to accelerate reductions in malnutrition is a balanced strategy of income growth and investment in more direct interventions.

‣ Choosing a System of Unemployment Income Support : Guidelines for Developing and Transition Countries

Vodopivec, Milan
Fonte: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Mounting evidence suggests that excessive job protection reduces employment and labor market flows, hinders technological innovations, pushes workers into the informal sector, and hurts vulnerable groups by depriving them of job opportunities. Flexible labor markets stimulate job creation, investment, and growth, but they create job insecurity and displace some workers. How can the costs of such insecurity and displacements be minimized while ensuring that the labor market remains flexible? Each of the main unemployment income support systems (unemployment insurance, unemployment assistance, unemployment insurance savings accounts, severance pay, and public works) has strengths and weaknesses. Country-specific conditions, chief among them labor market and other institutions, the capacity to administer each type of system, and the size of the informal sector, determine which system is best suited to developing and transition countries.

‣ Fiscal Adjustment and Income Inequality : Sub-national Evidence from Brazil

Azevedo, Joao Pedro; David, Antonio C.; Rodrigues Bastos, Fabiano; Pineda, Emilio
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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The paper combines state-level fiscal data with household survey data to assess the links between sub-national fiscal policy and income inequality in Brazil over the period 1995-2011. The results indicate that a tighter fiscal stance at the sub-national level is not associated with a deterioration in inequality measures. This finding contrasts with the conclusions of several papers in the burgeoning literature on the effects of fiscal consolidation on inequality using national data for OECD economies. In addition, the authors find that a tighter stance is typically positively associated with a measure of "shared prosperity". Hence, the results caution against extrapolating policy implications of the literature focusing on advanced economies to other settings.

‣ Impacto del Comprehensive income frente al Net income en la estabilidad del beneficio del BSCH y BBVA según US GAAP (1998-2007); Impact of Comprehensive income against Net income on BSCH and BBVA earnings stability according to US GAAP (1998-2007)

Sousa Fernández, Francisco; Carro Arana, María Mercedes
Fonte: Universia Publicador: Universia
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; publishedVersion
Português
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RESUMEN. El resultado global –comprehensive income–, más conectado con la realidad de los mercados que el tradicional resultado neto –net income–, está irrumpiendo con fuerza como indicador del performance empresarial. Con este trabajo queremos evaluar empíricamente la volatilidad del primero frente al segundo para el BSCH y BBVA a lo largo de los años del 1998-2007, determinados según US GAAP en los 20-F de la SEC, lo que nos va a aportar evidencia sobre el impacto del comprehensive income en la estabilidad del beneficio a lo largo de los diez años considerados para las dos grandes corporaciones españolas del sector financiero.; ABSTRACT. Comprehensive income, more linked to the reality of the markets than the traditional net income, is becoming more relevant as an indicator of companies performance. The aim of this paper is to test empirically the volatility of the former as opposed to the second for BSCH and BBVA through the years of the period 1998-2007, determined according to US GAAP in the SEC 20-F Form, what contributes to evidence of the impact of comprehensive income on earnings stability through the ten years considered for the two Spanish big corporations in the financial sector.

‣ Argentina : Income Support Policies toward the Bicentennial

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Argentina approaches its bicentennial as an independent republic; it has a window of opportunity in social protection policy. Following the most serious economic crisis in its history during 2001-02, the country mobilized an unprecedented effort to provide income support to the population in need. Now, as growth has returned and social indicators have recovered to pre-crisis levels, there is an opening to move from emergency income support programs to a more comprehensive, long-term, and sustainable strategy for social protection. The emergency response was effective, as it helped the country to overcome the worst of the crisis. The centerpiece of the strategy, plan Jefes y Jefas, provided benefits to nearly two million households during a period when poverty affected more than half the population and unemployment reached record levels. The number of beneficiaries slowly declined beginning in 2003, and was at nearly one-third of its maximum value by early 2008. This reduction was achieved by the reentry of beneficiaries into the formal labor market, the loss of eligibility, and the shift of beneficiaries to familias and seguro de capacitacion y empleo (Seguro), the successor programs to Jefes. Now that the crisis has passed, the policy debate has shifted toward the future of social protection over the longer term. The improvement in overall economic conditions since 2003 has resulted in a decline in unemployment...

‣ Impact of cost of medicines for chronic conditions on low income households in Australia

Kemp, A.; Preen, D.; Glover, J.; Semmens, J.; Roughead, E.
Fonte: Royal Society of Medicine Press Ltd. Publicador: Royal Society of Medicine Press Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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OBJECTIVES: To determine the cost of medicines for selected chronic illnesses and the proportion of discretionary income this would potentially displace for households with different pharmaceutical subsidy entitlements and incomes. METHODS: We analysed household income and expenditure data for 9,774 households participating in two Australian surveys in 2009-10. The amount of 'discretionary' income available to households after basic living and health care expenditure was modelled for households with high pharmaceutical subsidies: pensioner and non-pensioner concessional (social security entitlements); and households with general pharmaceutical subsidies and low, middle or high incomes. We calculated the proportion of discretionary income that would be needed for medicines if one household member had diabetes or acute coronary syndrome, or if one member also had two co-existing illnesses (gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and depression, or asthma and osteoarthritis). RESULTS: Pensioner and low income households had little discretionary income after basic living and health care expenditure (AUD$92 and $164/week, respectively). Medicines for the specified illnesses ranged from $11-$42/month for high subsidy households and $34-$186/month for low subsidy households. Costs reduced substantially once patients reached the annual pharmaceutical cap (safety net)...

‣ A Fair Go: Evaluating Australian student income support policies in the context of recent reforms

Mokosch, Gunnar
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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The Australian higher education sector will play an increasingly important role in the future development of the country. For the economy to remain competitive internationally and to maintain and enhance living standards, a larger share of Australians with tertiary qualifications will be required. At the same time, people from low socioeconomic as well as those from rural and regional backgrounds are largely underrepresented in the student body. Student income support is crucial in achieving the goals of equity in tertiary education and of increased general participation levels in Australia. Following a comprehensive review of the Australian higher education sector in 2008, the Federal Government made significant changes to its student income support policies in 2009, parts of which were amended a year later. More students whose parents cannot support them financially now receive income support. What is more, these students from low socioeconomic backgrounds concurrently receive newly introduced scholarships that help deal with the relocation and the start-up costs of studying. In addition to many other changes, the criteria for receiving income support as independent from one's parents were tightened for urban and some regional students...

‣ Pensions Panorama : Retirement-Income Systems in 53 Countries; Panorama de las pensiones : sistemas de ingreso al retiro en 53 paises

Whitehouse, Edward
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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Pensions panorama provides a compendium of facts and analysis that should inform policy making and public debate about retirement-income systems around the world. The section following the introduction sets out a typology: a way of defining and classifying different kinds of pension schemes. It shows which countries have which types of pension schemes, covering all elements of the retirement-income system, including resource-tested benefits and basic pensions as well as public, earnings-related, and compulsory private pension plans. Next, the study sets out the institutional detail: the parameters and rules of different parts of the retirement-income system. The next section presents the core, empirical results: future pension entitlements of today's workers with different levels of earnings from all sources. This section includes the familiar replacement rate indicator: individual pension entitlements as a proportion of individual earnings when working. The following section explores the important role that personal income taxes and social security contributions play in determining the relative incomes of older people. In particular...

‣ Brazil - Progressive Low-Income Housing : Alternatives for the Poor

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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This report aims to analyze key aspects of the low-income housing sector in Brazil, and to provide an analytical framework for reviewing alternatives to addressing the lack of adequate formal housing and urban services for the poor. It addresses four fundamental questions for policymakers in the housing sector in Brazil: First, should the government be involved in policy interventions in the low-income segment of the housing market? Second, if policy action is appropriate, what roles should policymakers at the federal, state, and municipal levels play? Third, should the government's key interventions in the market be focused on the supply, or demand side of the market? Finally, how can the government structure a comprehensive policy to deal with the failure of the housing market to provide adequate shelter for the poor? The report begins with a brief outline of the nature, and extent of the low-income housing problem, describes the policies in place to address the lack of housing, suggests a methodological framework for assessing the paucity of low-income housing in light of international experiences...

‣ Relationships between income inequality and health: an ecological Canadian study.

Vafaei, Afshin
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 1734456 bytes; application/pdf
Português
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Abstract Background: Many studies have demonstrated that health is a function of relative and not absolute income within populations. Canadian studies are not conclusive. There is a need for further investigation of the ‘relative income’ hypothesis in the Canadian population. Objectives: The primary objective of this research was to test the “relative income” hypothesis across Canadian health regions. The second objective was to extend the first hypothesis to consider rural versus urban populations in Canada. Methods: This research involved ecological analyses. The source of the data was the Canadian Community Health Survey, CCHS 2005 cycle 3.1. The units of analysis were health regions of Canada. Health of a region was estimated as the percentage of people who rated their health as good or excellent. The primary exposure variable was the ratio of people whose personal income was less than $15,000 relative to those reporting more than $80,000. Correlation analyses and multiple linear regressions were performed to ascertain the relationship between income inequality and health status in populations, adjusting for important covariates. Results: The measure of relative income inequality alone appeared to explain 18 per cent of the variability in the measure of health status in populations. However...

‣ Energy demand projections and relevance of income dynamics in Gauteng's residential sector

Senatla,Mamahloko
Fonte: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa Publicador: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 Português
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Energy modelling serves as a crucial tool for informing both energy policy and strategy development. But the modelling process is faced with both sectoral energy data and structural challenges. Among all the sectors, the residential sector usually presents a huge challenge to the modelling profession due to the dynamic nature of the sector. The challenge is brought by the fact that each an every household in a region may have different energy consumption characteristics and the computing power of the available models cannot incorporate all the details of individual household characteristics. Even if there was enough computing power within the models, energy consumption is collected through surveys and as a result only a sample of a region is captured. These challenges have forced energy modellers to categorise households that have similar characteristics. Different researchers choose different methods for categorising the households. Some researchers choose to categorise households by location and climate, others choose housing types while others choose quintiles. Currently, there is no consensus on which categorisation method takes precedence over others. In these myriad ways of categorising households, the determining factor employed in each method is what is assumed to be the driver of energy demand in that particular area of study. Many researchers acknowledge that households' income...