Página 6 dos resultados de 125734 itens digitais encontrados em 0.074 segundos

‣ Nonproliferation issues in the nuclear energy future

Jones, Christopher Michael, 1976-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 123 leaves; 3546856 bytes; 3546517 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The continuing increases in annual greenhouse gas emissions, in the absence of stringent mitigation measures, will produce a doubling of pre-industrial atmospheric concentrations in the second half of this century and a concomitant risk of serious disruption of the climate system, unless less carbon-intensive energy technologies are introduced. The nuclear power option is being discussed much more actively as part of this greenhouse gas challenge. Deployment on the necessary scale must entail establishment of nuclear power and a supporting infrastructure and workforce in many regions of the world, including developing nations. We shall be concerned here with the nonproliferation issues raised by such a nuclear power global growth scenario. In revisiting the issue of nonproliferation and the nuclear fuel cycle, we address two central questions: 1. If a robust nuclear growth scenario is realized, what might it look like, both geographically and technologically? 2. What are the relevant proliferation pathways in the context of this growth scenario, and what actions and studies might be taken to reduce the risk? Our analysis has three components: development of a mid-century demand scenario; discussion of proliferation technology pathways; recommendations that derive from these results. Some of the key recommendations entail: 1. Strengthening of the international safeguards regime...

‣ On-orbit servicing for satellite upgrades

Joppin, Carole, 1979-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 240 p.; 13410765 bytes; 13442287 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Except for manned servicing operations using the Shuttle, there is no maintenance infrastructure for space systems. The traditional approach is to build in reliability and to replace the system in case of obsolescence or failure. Space systems therefore offer a limited degree of flexibility to adapt to evolving conditions during their long design lifetimes. On-orbit servicing could change this paradigm by providing a physical access to the satellite after it has been deployed. Satellite upgrade appears as a very promising application. On-orbit servicing could offer a broader range of upgrades than current improvements through communication uploads and would be a cheaper alternative to satellite replacement. The attractiveness of on-orbit servicing for satellite upgrade is investigated from a customer point of view. A dynamic framework, based on Real Options and Decision Tree Analysis, is used to account for the value of the flexibility offered by on-orbit servicing. Two case studies are developed: a power upgrade on-board a commercial geosynchronous communication satellite facing an uncertain demand and technology upgrades on a scientific observatory. The power upgrade of a geosynchronous communication satellite is assumed to restore beginning of life power. The model shows that modifying the initial design of the satellite to compensate for power degradation is often preferred to on-orbit servicing because it offers a cheaper and less risky alternative. On-orbit servicing does not appear attractive in this case because the upgrade has a limited effect on satellite capacity and power degradation is a predictable phenomenon that can be partly overcome by design modifications.; (cont.) Using the unique example of the Hubble Space Telescope servicing missions...

‣ The translation of media technology skills to community mobilization in youth programs

Kim, Linda A. (Linda Anne), 1981-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 101 p.; 4724928 bytes; 4724737 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Media is an important part of the political process, and alternative media is especially valuable for community organizing. Youth media programs can play a great role in the development of media technology as a community-building tool. This study proposes that a key way to bring youth into community mobilization efforts is through their interest in media and their deftness in learning how to use media tools. The combination of youth and media is powerful for communities and warrants discussion and development. This study begins the discussion first with an examination of media forms as a tool for grassroots movements. The potential of digital media is particularly emphasized. Secondly, a survey of youth media programs in the United States identifies ways that youth are already being served and provides the background for understanding how youth media programs equip young social activists in their local communities. Finally, case studies of two youth media programs investigate how, or if, the development of technical and creative skills around media translates to social and political mobilization, especially among youth. The use of media to bring youth into community mobilizing and to strengthen their efforts is promoted. The role of youth media programs in making this possible is put forth. This discussion of translating media technology skills to community action is significant...

‣ A system analysis of the spam problem

Weinberg, Gabriel R. (Gabriel Reiter)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 94 leaves; 7444107 bytes; 7448976 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This thesis considers the problem of the large amount of unwanted email that is being sent and received, which lowers the aggregate value of email as a communication medium from what it would otherwise be. This problem is commonly known as the "spam problem." Solutions to the spam problem involve curbing the adverse affects of existing technology as well as steering technology development in a socially beneficial direction. Unlike some other technology and policy problems, the reasons for the existence of this problem are well known and the desired effects of ideal solutions can be readily articulated. However, attempted solutions to date have not made much progress at solving the problem. I posit that this failure stems from the fact the spam problem is really a complex system, and that solutions to date have not been designed to interact with this system in a useful manner. I show that the spam problem is a complex system, and should be dealt with by developing strategies to holistically interact with it. Such strategies must embrace both technical and legal realities simultaneously in order to be successful. They must also avoid causing negative side effects that negate their purpose. First, I build a model of the system surrounding the spam problem in the form of a Causal Loop Diagram. This diagram shows the causal interactions between the various technical...

‣ The application of emerging technologies to sports technology : wired skin

Raghunathan, Smitha
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 35 leaves; 2132879 bytes; 2132085 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Technology is continuously being developed, processed and created into products for the consumer market; however, in the steps of this process, there is often one goal in mind, and using the technology is rare used for different and novel areas. The goal of this paper is to show how three emerging technologies can be used creatively beyond their original purposes by the sports industry. The technologies addressed in the paper are The Microsoft Full Body Network, ShapeTape and the FluidFocus Lens. These technologies address the issues of wireless data and power transmission, data acquisition, and the creation of a lens with variable focus with no mechanical or moving parts, respectively. Research was done to understand the current state of the technology or product, and what obstacles remain in the path to the creation of an actual working prototype. A merging of these three technologies resulted in a proposed product for the sports industry. The name, Wired Skin, was given to this envisioned product, and was tailored in response to a survey conducted with a pool of 200 individuals. The issues of the price range customers were willing to spend on various products, the importance of various improvements to existing technology and general questions to specify the demographic questioned were addressed fully. This paper creates a melding of the three technologies into a product that addresses the major barriers to the entrance of emerging technology to the area of athletics.; by Smitha Raghunathan.; Thesis (S.B.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

‣ Decloaking disability : images of disability and technology in science fiction media

Verlager, Alicia
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 124 p.
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This work examines how images of disability are used to frame cultural narratives regarding technology. As advances in biotechnology ensure that more people will be living with technological prosthetics against and beneath their skin, there is an increasing importance in examining how such bodies challenge traditional cultural attitudes regarding identity and non-normative bodies. This work uses a cultural studies approach to explore the intersections between disability and technology. Additionally, memoir is often included to illustrate some of the complexities regarding how experiences with disability and technological prosthetics can influence aspects of identity. Like disability, technology is often framed in gothic terms of lack or excess, and thus a discussion of the "techno-gothic" also features in this work. Furthermore, such a discussion is also relevant to seemingly unrelated modes of characterizing the other, such as the archetype of the cyborg, the queer body, or the formation of non-traditional social groups, even to images of the city as urban ruin.; (cont.) This work demonstrates that, while images of disability rarely inform us about the everyday experience of disability, they can inform us about how technology frames non-normative bodies as either "less than" or "more than" human...

‣ Functional compression : theory and application

Doshi, Vishal D. (Vishal Devendra)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 77 p.
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We consider the problem of functional compression. The objective is to separately compress possibly correlated discrete sources such that an arbitrary deterministic function of those sources can be computed given the compressed data from each source. This is motivated by problems in sensor networks and database privacy. Our architecture gives a quantitative definition of privacy for database statistics. Further, we show that it can provide significant coding gains in sensor networks. We consider both the lossless and lossy computation of a function. Specifically, we present results of the rate regions for three instances of the problem where there are two sources: 1) lossless computation where one source is available at the decoder, 2) under a special condition, lossless computation where both sources are separately encoded, and 3) lossy computation where one source is available at the decoder. Wyner and Ziv (1976) considered the third problem for the special case f(X, Y) = X and derived a rate distortion function. Yamamoto (1982) extended this result to a general function. Both of these results are in terms of an auxiliary random variable. Orlitsky and Roche (2001), for the zero distortion case, gave this variable a precise interpretation in terms of the properties of the characteristic graph; this led to a particular coding scheme. We extend that result by providing an achievability scheme that is based on the coloring of the characteristic graph. This suggests a layered architecture where the functional layer controls the coloring scheme...

‣ A comparison of cost-containment instruments for US carbon reduction policies

Jakobovits, Lisa M. (Lisa Michelle)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 126 p.
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A cap-and-trade program, as is used in the European Trading Scheme, is currently the most widely discussed method in the US for reducing greenhouse gases. A basic cap-and-trade program operates by mandating a fixed level of emissions for a given period, issuing permits, and then allowing a market for those permits to develop. The resulting market price for emissions permits, and hence the economic impacts of the chosen policy, can only be estimated in advance with a high degree of uncertainty. Many of the current US cap-and-trade proposals contain provisions for cost-containment instruments which reduce the possible range of emissions prices. This paper analyzes the relative effectiveness of three such cost-containment instruments, including a safety valve, an intensity target, and banking and borrowing. The results presented rely on two computable general equilibrium models developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and show the predicted performance of these instruments under a simulated range of economic outcomes.; by Lisa M. Jakobovits.; Thesis (S.M. in Technology and Policy)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Engineering Systems Division, Technology and Policy Program, 2008.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 124-126).

‣ System transition : dynamics of change in the US air transportation system; Dynamics of change in the US air transportation system; Dynamics of change in the US air transportation system

Mozdzanowska, Aleksandra L. (Aleksandra Ludmila), 1979-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 244 p.
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The US Air Transportation System is currently facing a number of challenges including an increasing demand for travel and growing environmental requirements. In order to successfully meet future needs, the system will need to transition from its current state using a combination of technology, infrastructure, procedure, and policy changes. However, the complexities of the air transportation system make implementing changes a challenge. In particular, the multi-stakeholder nature of the system poses a significant barrier to transition. Historically, many changes in the air transportation system were driven by safety concerns and implemented following accidents which provided the momentum to overcome transition barriers. As a result of past changes, the system has become increasingly safe resulting in the emergence of new drivers for change. Security has emerged as a driver following the terrorist attacks of 9/11/2001 in the US and a number of system changes have since been implemented. Currently, capacity is one of the largest drivers of change. Addressing capacity issues requires solutions that can be accepted by stakeholders, and pass the necessary certification and approval requirements for implementation. The contribution of aviation to global greenhouse gas emissions is also becoming a significant driver for change in the system. The goal of this work is to understand how the air transportation system changes in response to safety...

‣ New venture commercialization of clean energy technologies

Miller, David S. (David Seth)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 250 p.
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Clean energy technologies lower harmful emissions associated with the generation and use of power (e.g. CO2) and many of these technologies have been shown to be cost effective and to provide significant benefits to adopters. Examples of clean energy technologies include renewable and/or efficient distributed generation (e.g. solar, wind, geothermal, fuel cells, cogeneration); energy efficiency technologies; intelligent energy management; efficient energy storage; green building technologies; biofuels; and ancillary products and services that reduce emissions associated with power generation, transmission and distribution. This thesis examines why new ventures founded to commercialize these technologies have failed to achieve widespread adoption. Based on interviews with clean energy entrepreneurs and other stakeholders and on case studies of clean energy technology ventures, a new venture simulation model was developed that models the cash flow, labor force, market, competition, and product development for a prototypical clean energy technology venture. When the model is parameterized to correspond to a venture that starts with superior technology at an attractive price its behavior corresponds to the experience of many of the companies interviewed.; (cont.) The modeled venture takes many years to achieve profitability due to long sales cycles...

‣ Geologic Storage of carbon dioxide : risk analyses and implications for public acceptance; Geologic Storage of CO₂ : risk analyses and implications for public acceptance

Singleton, Gregory R. (Gregory Randall)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 123 p.
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Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology has the potential to enable large reductions in global greenhouse gas emissions, but one of the unanswered questions about CCS is whether it will be accepted by the public. In the past, construction of large facilities such as nuclear power plants has been prevented or delayed by public opposition, and CCS proponents would like to know whether it will provoke similar public opposition. Since the Geologic Storage (GS) component of the CCS architecture has not been widely deployed, this thesis explores the characteristics of GS and how they might affect public perception and acceptance of the larger CCS architecture. To provide insight regarding public acceptance of CCS, this thesis addresses two questions; first asking how GS is likely to be perceived by the public and what can be done to improve that perception, and second asking whether financial compensation can be used to improve public acceptance of energy facilities. To address the first question about the public perception of GS, this thesis begins with a discussion of risk concepts and how it is used differently by experts, who use a realist perspective, and the general public, who use a social constructivist perspective.; (cont.) After discussing how this difference in perspective leads to risk disputes...

‣ STS.001 Technology in American History, Spring 2003; Technology in American History

Smith, Merritt Roe, 1940-
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
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A survey of America's transition from a rural, agrarian, and artisan society to one of the world's leading industrial powers. Treats the emergence of industrial capitalism: the rise of the factory system; new forms of power, transport, and communication; the advent of the large industrial corporation; the social relations of production; and the hallmarks of science-based industry. Views technology as part of the larger culture and reveals innovation as a process consisting of a range of possibilities that are chosen or rejected according to the social criteria of the time. From the course home page: Course Description This course will consider the ways in which technology, broadly defined, has contributed to the building of American society from colonial times to the present. This course has three primary goals: to train students to ask critical questions of both technology and the broader American culture of which it is a part; to provide an historical perspective with which to frame and address such questions; and to encourage students to be neither blind critics of new technologies, nor blind advocates for technologies in general, but thoughtful and educated participants in the democratic process.

‣ Creating community connections : sociocultural constructionism and an asset-based approach to community technology and community building

Pinkett, Randal D. (Randal Dike), 1971-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 329 p.; 19739796 bytes; 19784214 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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(cont.) Through this lens, I examine the early results of the project in the areas of community social capital and community cultural capital, based on quantitative and qualitative data resulting from direct observation, surveys, interviews, server logs, and case studies. These findings included expanded local ties, a heightened awareness of community resources, improved communication and information flow at the development, and a positive shift in participants' attitudes and perceptions of themselves as learners. Finally, based on these and other findings, I discuss the challenges and opportunities of a sociocultural constructionist and asset-based approach, presents lessons learned, and offers recommendations for future community technology and community building initiatives.; The intersection between community technology programs seeking to close the "digital divide," and community building efforts aimed at alleviating poverty, holds tremendous possibilities, as both domains seek to empower individuals and families, and improve their overall community. Ironically, approaches that combine these areas have received very little attention in theory and practice. As community technology and community building initiatives move toward greater synergy...

‣ Opportunities for technological and economic development policy in Brazil

Dalquist, Stephanie K. (Stephanie Kay), 1981-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 170 leaves; 8187321 bytes; 8197383 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Brazil's transformation from an agriculturally-based colonial economy to an industrial republic spans seven decades - from the 1930s to the present - with three rapid growth phases which were each followed by economic and social chaos. Three administrations of different political persuasions implemented policies that brought surges of foreign direct investment, foreign technology, and mechanization to Brazil. The nation's economy grew at an astounding rate - for several years at the highest rate in the world - but increased industrialization only increased the gap between the rich and the poor, and failed to provide the long-term employment and domestic investment required for sustainable advancement. Brazil has a stable economy again, and ready for another period of rapid growth. However, future economic growth for the long-term will be dependent on aiding sectors that have been left behind in previous decades. What is needed is a set of policies that addresses the inequality within regions, poverty in the rural and urban environment, vast income inequality, and sustainable rural development. Combined with renewed investment in domestic innovation, community-based solutions can increase the returns on national investment in development. By working with community partners in low-income areas...

‣ Techno-Territories : the spatial, technological and social reorganization of office work

Schwarz, Heinrich Joachim, 1959-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2 v. (302 leaves); 30574512 bytes; 30574269 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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In this thesis, I examine the current reorganization of office or information work in its technological, spatial, social and cultural aspects. Based on ethnographic and historical methods, I explore how information and communication technologies, and spatial designs combined with specific organizational visions shape the social organization and culture of work. Analyzing ideas as well as material configurations, design as well as use, and developments in offices as well as those beyond the office, I am particularly concerned with the new forms of life and cultural formations these developments produce. The 1990s saw a development towards more flexible, mobile and virtual ways of officing, such as non-territorial offices and remote work. Analyzing the alternative officing movement in the context of wider economic and cultural changes, I demonstrate the strategic role technology plays for the movement's vision of a less place-based definition of work. Suggesting an alternative intellectual origin for today's office concepts different from Taylorism, I opt for the concept of office landscaping, an influential German office concept developed after WW2 and inspired by cybernetics. Fieldwork in a present day innovative office design firm reveals a deep tension in its office designs between a more flexible and mobile organizational goal...

‣ What is the value of logistics for a large pharmaceutical firm?

Tiwari, Prasoon, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 69 leaves
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Understanding business needs arising out of both, external and internal environments, is an essential first step in determining the value of logistics in a large pharmaceutical firm. In this research, we have used a variety of conceptual models and frameworks to explore and understand the pharmaceutical business environment and its present & future business needs. Specifically, two questions anchored the research: What will be the impact of drug technologies on logistics activities? And, should logistics activities be outsourced? Drug technology contributes significantly to a pharmaceutical firm's revenue, but marketing also play an important role in a drug's success by influencing doctors' decisions in favor of the firm's drugs. Since it is difficult to ascertain the true value of a pharmaceutical drug, perception of service plays a critical role in conveying the positive attributes of the drugs to the potential consumers. In this context, this thesis investigates if logistics & supply chain strategy should be aligned with marketing and drug technology strategies to maximize pharmaceutical firm's competitive advantage.; (cont.) To this end, we investigated the impact of dominant drug technologies on the logistics function in the pharmaceutical industry as technology drives revenue growth in the industry. It was found that business & competitive needs lead firms to develop new drugs using different types of innovative drug technologies. Indeed...

‣ Evolution of innovation : fiber optics and the communications industry

Zadeh, Rodan, 1970-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 135 leaves; 7493994 bytes; 7508548 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Innovations can be the single source of industry's growth. How innovations themselves grow or decline also has a direct affect on the health of the industry in which they play. This thesis looks at fiber optic technologies and their impact on the communications industry. The relative importance of the fiber optic technology is evidenced by its speed and effectiveness in shaping the communications infrastructure in a short period of the recent years. Advent of this relatively new technology, coupled with deregulation policies and the changes in the nature of the network traffic, has caused several disruptions to the communications value chain. Effects of these disruptions and their eventualities are the focus of this thesis. To study these effects, this thesis looks in detail at the interplay of various life cycle stages of innovations and industry. The innovation stages are classified as: Fluid, Transitional, and Specific. Each of these three stages affects the dynamics value chain of the industry in different ways. The characteristics of each stage are studied in detail. There are few innovations that can bring about an impact as extensive as the advent of fiber optics communications has. The review of the processes in the evolution of innovation from birth to potential re- birth provides great insights on the industry's life cycle. The study is based on current theories on the subject of management of technology applied to the communications sector. Most examples and data are based on the telecommunication networks in North America; the timeline of the study is the decade from mid 1990's to present. In closing various strategies in treading the evolution of innovation are described. The evolution life cycle; (cont.) model can be used in several other industries for managing innovation and technologies. Several related research topics are described...

‣ Analysis of automotive telematics industry in Japan

Shimizu, Norihito, 1971-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 66 leaves; 2895354 bytes; 2900550 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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A major element of mobile multimedia, telematics is the convergence of telecommunication and information technology which provides various services to and from the vehicle or mobile communication devices. Telematics is also a new technology which accelerates the rate of technological evolution in the automotive electronics industry. Similar to the United States and Europe, Japan is one of the nations which have advanced automotive technologies. Japanese telematics, however, doesn't have a long history. On the other hand, Japan has unique business circumstances such as highly developed mobile communication technology and contents business. The purpose of this study is to unlock the industrial structure and dynamics of the telematics industry in Japan. In addition, providing indications for building business strategies for telematics players such as automakers, auto suppliers and other industries is another objective. According to the "clockspeed" analysis, telematics clockspeed is much faster than that of automobiles. This situation creates a boundary called clockspeed collision between these two industries. Clockspeed collision will increase market pressure on automakers to provide updated electronic features and to reduce exposure of obsolescence. Clockspeed collision will also significantly affect the business strategies that each player involved in the telematics industry must consider. Value chain analysis illustrates that the telematics industry has a horizontally disintegrated structure. Also the fact that automakers have advantages in the industry is presented. In such situation...

‣ Radio Frequency Identification : regulating information privacy protection; Regulating information privacy protection

Laufer, Deanna (Deanna Raquel)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 87 p.
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As applications of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) become more profuse, the technology itself is stirring up some controversy. Due to its potential for amassing large amounts of information about both people and things, and the possibility of using the information for marketing, tracking, or even spying, numerous consumer groups are spearheading efforts to ensure that RFID does not breach their privacy rights. While there are some privacy laws regulating specific aspects of commerce, there are no laws which currently apply to the collection and use of information as it pertains to RFID. This lack of formal regulation allows companies to legally engage in practices which may encroach on consumers' privacy. However, RFID has the potential to optimize supply chain practices as well as provide other benefits to both consumers and businesses. As RFID use becomes more widespread, regulatory strategies should be considered to protect consumers' right to privacy while obtaining the benefits of using the technology. This thesis explores consumer and industry opinion of RFID through a customized survey. Results of the survey found that consumer and industry opinion are similar in many aspects, especially in the concern for protecting privacy and the desire for a regulatory mechanism to enforce those privacy rights. This thesis addresses the question of whether market-based solutions...

‣ 11.128 Information Technology and the Labor Market, Spring 2003; Information Technology and the Labor Market

Levy, Frank, 1941-
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
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In this course, we will explore how information technology is reshaping the U.S. labor market: the mix of occupations, the skills required to perform an occupation, the way work is organized, labor productivity, wage levels and wage inequality. We begin from the perspective the brain is a wonderful information-processing instrument, but in those cases where a computer and the brain can process information in roughly the same way the computer can often do it at lower cost. This fact leads to a pair of crosscutting market forces: Information technology is opening up many new opportunities through its complementarity with some human skills. In both existing and new jobs, information technology is replacing human labor in certain tasks by substituting for other human skills. We will explore the current limits on computer's ability to substitute for human skills, discuss the human skills that computers complement,and assess the net effect of these forces on the labor market.