Página 6 dos resultados de 1719 itens digitais encontrados em 0.046 segundos

‣ Social, governance, and economic impact assessment of information and communication technology interventions in rural India

Kumar, Rajendra, 1967-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 107 leaves; 5384232 bytes; 5403250 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Among the many initiatives in using information and communication technologies (ICTs) for development, telecenters or kiosks occupy a prominent place. These centers provide public access to these technologies and related services through computers and internet. The last decade has seen many such initiatives being launched to bring the benefits of ICTs to the rural population in many countries. As most of these initiatives are relatively recent, there have been few evaluations of their social and economic impacts in their communities. There is also lack of a good understanding about a sound conceptual and theoretical framework for planning and design of such centers. This study seeks to fill a portion of this information gap by focusing on assessing the social, governance, and economic impacts of one such relatively large project in rural India and examining its implications and sustainability within the framework of the theory of diffusion of innovations. The project under study is the widely acclaimed Sustainable Access in Rural India (SARI) project, which has established computer and internet kiosks in over 40 rural communities in Tamil Nadu state in India. The kiosks provide basic computer education, e-mail, web browsing, e-government...

‣ State growth management : prospects for consensus-oriented land use planning and conflict resolution

Perry, Charles J
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2 v. (639 leaves); 45627339 bytes; 45627096 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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by Charles J. Perry.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 1982.; MICROFICHE COPY AVAILABLE IN ARCHIVES AND ROTCH; Bibliography: leaves 629-639.

‣ Locally grown : statewide land use planning in northern New England; Statewide land use planning in northern New England

Schonberger, Benjamin (Benjamin Paul), 1970-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 121 p.; 11074783 bytes; 11074536 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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by Benjamin Schonberger.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2000.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 116-120).

‣ Information and communication technologies in downtown revitalization : an international survey; ICTs in downtown revitalization : an international survey

McCabe, Kathleen (Kathleen Ann)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2 v. (224 leaves); 12236308 bytes; 12250501 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The Technology & Downtown Revitalization International Study surveyed downtown management organizations in Canada, Europe, Japan, New Zealand, South Africa, and the United States regarding attitudes, challenges and utilization of information and communication technologies (ICTs). Downtown management organizations (DMOs) believe downtown remains important despite the changing channels of commerce and modes of interaction using ICTs. DMOs overwhelming contend that ICTs are necessary for effective management of downtowns, and are positive about the use of ICTs in downtown. Although they view ICTs as necessary, few DMOs have integrated ICTs into downtown revitalization strategies. A differential exists from perceptions of the value of ICTs and the actual utilization of ICTs in the downtown. Adoption of ICTs with low acquisition costs and low-barriers to operation is more likely. DMOs are more apt to use ICTs related to core organizational activities. Where ICTs are being utilized in downtowns, DMOs often some play a lead role in the introduction and adoption of ICTs. Counter to prevailing perceptions, the indifference of business about the role of technology was identified as a leading challenge to greater use of ICTs downtown. Greater use...

‣ Redeveloping greyfields : definitions, opportunities and barriers

Merritt, Amy W
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 62 leaves
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The study of greyfields for this thesis was motivated by the increasing problems of traffic and air pollution associated with sprawling development patterns. Typically located in inner ring suburban areas, greyfields, or failed retail malls, represent sites that can be redeveloped profitably into mixed-use, walkable neighborhoods. Yet, few successful examples of greyfield redevelopment exist, especially when compared to the relative proliferation of brownfield redevelopment. Brownfields, or contaminated urban sites, are very costly to remediate and it is surprising that this type of redevelopment outpaces greyfield redevelopment on such a significant scale. This thesis addresses the disparity between the two redevelopment types and describes differences between brownfields and greyfields through application of an economic model for redevelopment. The variables of the model are then applied to each redevelopment type and considered in the context of several greyfield case studies located on the east coast.; (cont.) Where the economic model is incomplete in fully explaining the disparity between the redevelopment types, factors outside of the model have been considered, including the existence of externalities and public subsidies at federal...

‣ Re-thinking highest and best use : implementing smart development in support of smart growth : a case study in Santa Fe, NM

Balkcom, Jennifer K
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 116 leaves
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This paper answers the questions "where to develop?", "for whom to develop?", and "what to develop?" from a double bottom line perspective of profit making and social benefit, using a 3-acre property in Santa Fe, NM as an example. The first section on where to develop gives a literature review of the costs and benefits of urban growth and generates the types of questions to ask when determining appropriate development location from a smart growth, double bottom line perspective. Using this framework it is determined that four of the top priorities for development in Santa Fe are affordable/moderate income housing, water conservation, greenhouse gas reduction, and compact/infill development. Section two considers who the best target market is for development, using demographic data and GIS maps from the 2000 Census, as well as statistics from local Santa Fe government and think tank sources, and finds that housing for the population between 100-120% of area median income is a significant unmet need.; (cont.) Section three begins to determine what to develop for this population, while addressing the remaining policy priorities for the city of water conservation, compact development, and greenhouse gas reduction, and presents a preliminary cost analysis for a passive solar green built house. Preliminary results reveal that the green cost premium is an additional $6...

‣ Whose land is it anyway? : an analysis of the management and distribution of Crown Land in the Bahamas

Smith, Nakeischea Loi
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 138 p.
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Like many islands throughout the Caribbean, The Bahamas are now experiencing rapid growth and development in the form of large-scale luxury resorts and second homes. Consistent with a long history going back to the colonial era, these development trends are being driven by external factors - including the aging of the Baby Boomer generation, a scarcity of affordable waterfront land in North America, and shifting travel preferences post-9/11. But major policy decisions, now hotly debated, have also played an important role in shaping these development trends and their impacts. Through an economic development strategy known as the Anchor Projects, the Bahamian Government has tapped foreign demand for prime Bahamian land with the aim of reducing crowding on the capital island-city of Nassau, boosting the economies of the sparsely populated Family Islands, and providing residents of those islands with much-needed employment and infrastructure.; (cont.) As a key concession to spur the Anchor Projects, Government has granted large tracts of publicly owned "Crown Land" at favorable prices to developers; but in a nation where natives are tied closely to Crown Land and where there is lack of a comprehensive land use framework that includes environmental management and public participation in development...

‣ Industrial symbiosis and the successional city : adapting exchange networks to energy constraints

Terway, Timothy M. (Timothy Michael)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 142 p.
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Industrial ecology offers models for hybridizing technology and natural processes, human desires and the capacities of ecosystems in an effort to reconcile the expanding conflicts among them. Industrial symbiosis applies this thinking to the scale of the city and its supporting industrial operations. Case studies of industrial symbiosis, which is the changing of linear, open-loop production to closed-loop systems through the reuse and exchange of waste materials, energy, and knowledge, showcase advantages in waste and energy use reduction within the United States. What are the major limits holding back the widespread development of industrial symbiosis in this country and how can they be overcome? Secondly, what tools can foster its large-scale implementation once the constraints are overcome? Methodologically, the successful study of the future capacity of industrial symbiosis within the American context must address the future consequences of resources that are no longer cheap nor abundant, as well as the current state of their production, distribution, and consumption.; (cont.) The major constraints facing industrial symbiosis in America are: current extremely high subsidies in transport and resource costs, low symbiosis visibility...

‣ Strategizing for housing : an investigation of the production and regulation of low-income housing in the suburgs of Beirut

Fawaz, Mona M., 1972-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 299 p.
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The current consensus in housing policy recognizes the importance of learning from rather than about informal settlements. To serve this end, this dissertation presents a novel methodology for investigating land and housing markets. The methodology consists of investigating time-evolving relationships between attributes of the social agents who intervene on a market (e.g. social standing, religious affiliation, gender), rules-institutions systems (formal and informal institutions), and the macro political-economic context (e.g. price of land, demographic growth). The method was applied to a case study that tracked three groups of actors: developers, public agents, and homeowners, over a fifty-year period (1950-2000) in Hayy el Sellom, a neighborhood located in the southern suburbs of Beirut, Lebanon. The case study relied on in-depth interviews of developers, public agents, and residents, a structured survey of homeowners, research of public archives (e.g. construction and urban regulations, building permits, lot subdivisions), and time series analysis of aerial photographs. The case study demonstrated that the proposed method can unpack the category of the "informal market" by revealing a web of co-existing formal (market and public institutions) and informal (e.g. social...

‣ Imaging and re-imaging public housing : from modernism to new urbanism

Shumaker, Jeffrey C. (Jeffrey Craig), 1971-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 171, [12] leaves; 18069435 bytes; 18069192 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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When public housing was first introduced as a program on the heels of the Great Depression, its image was a largely positive one, resulting as it did from the confluence of modernism, marketing, and media representation. This led to the eventual acceptance of an otherwise radical, and what some considered deeply un-American, program. Public housing design, therefore, not only marked a transformation in neighborhood form from "slum" to streetless superblock; it also entailed a shift in symbolic and metaphorical associations. Quite precipitously, initial support for public housing eroded, owing to the social, political and economic vagaries of each time period since its inception. Specifically, as the beneficiaries changed from working whites to poor blacks and other minorities, the relevant policymakers' overarching social and political agenda changed as well - and with it, their vision of how the design of public housing could help achieve these objectives. From the building of high-rise "projects" out of the "slums" - and in turn, low-rise HOPE VI neighborhoods out of the "projects" - what has resulted has been one draconian experiment in design after the other, often leaving in its wake the rubble of prior oversights. In this scenario...

‣ Meeting the mandate for clean water : an evaluation of privately managed U.S. water and wastewater systems

Freund, Evan Benjamin
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 133 p.; 8265900 bytes; 8271636 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Reliable provision of clean and safe drinking water is critical for public health, economic stability and growth in the United States. Due to a combination of financial, regulatory and operational challenges, however, it is becoming increasingly difficult for publicly owned and operated water utilities to provide affordable and safe water along with efficient service delivery. Since the 1980's, new actors have entered the U.S. water utility scene in the form of large international firms that specialize in water utility management, offering the opportunity to increase efficiency, expedite long-delayed maintenance, minimize rate increases and provide needed capital for system expansion. Private management of water and wastewater systems, however, can have unintended and negative consequences on localities, including: * The loss of employment and pensions for the municipal utility work force; * Higher water rates because private firms charge full cost, must pay taxes and earn a profit; * Surrender of local control over ratemaking and other financial issues to state public utility commissions; * Loss of municipal control of daily operations and the setting of service standards, as well as loss of control over planning for long-term growth and economic development.; (cont.) The intent of this thesis is to evaluate the effects of adopting long-term operations and management contracts for water and wastewater services in three U.S. cities. The central assertion of this thesis is that such contracts between municipal governments and private water and wastewater providers are financially risky endeavors that invite labor disputes...

‣ Realities and perceptions : HOPE VI poverty deconcentration and implications for broader neighborhood revitalization; HOPE VI poverty deconcentration and implications for broader neighborhood revitalization

Vanderford, Carrie Ann
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 140 p.
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HOPE VI was developed in 1992 as program to demolish and revitalize the nation's most severely distressed public housing. One element of the HOPE VI program is to move low-income households out of an environment of concentrated poverty and replace distressed public housing with a development that includes a variety of incomes, where the number and density of households in poverty is decreased. This policy of "poverty deconcentration" is now accepted and practiced by housing authorities as part of a greater prescription for neighborhood revitalization. However, there is little evidence to prove the merits of HOPE VI poverty deconcentration as a catalyst in neighborhood revitalization. The focus of this thesis is to further define the link between policies of poverty deconcentration and neighborhood revitalization while offering insight about the expected long-term benefit of this policy for future HOPE VI planning. The two housing authorities responsible for developing Mandela Gateway in Oakland, California and Posadas Sentinel in Tucson, Arizona aimed to achieve the HOPE VI mandate of poverty deconcentration through two strategies. For this thesis, these strategies are categorized as development-based poverty dilution and neighborhood-based poverty dispersal...

‣ Cultural policy, state politics, and rural economic development : lessons from Maine

Christmas, Shannon Stewart
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 73 leaves
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This thesis explores how political actors utilize studies of the arts' impact on state economies to boost -the significance of cultural policy within a given political environment. Specifically, this thesis explains how the current Governor of Maine, John Baldacci and the leaders of Maine's cultural policy bureaucracy utilized a study of creative industries' contributions to the Maine economy to lead an effort to garner public support for a statewide cultural economic development agenda. In researching this topic, I have come to learn how an economic impact study in the hands of an ambitious and enterprising coalition of arts advocates convinced political elites and voters in an overwhelmingly rural state to embrace cultural development as an economic development strategy - a decidedly urban(e) phenomenon - via Governor Baldacci's Creative Economy Initiative. Largely attributable to the state's desperation for economic development, the anomalous political success story of the Creative Economy Initiative is a revealing one, providing a look at how cultural policy can garner high priority status on state policy agendas as well as lessons on how to make cultural economic development politically palatable in rural areas.; by Shannon Stewart Christmas.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

‣ Artists on display : open studios and the search for community empowerment

Peditto, Gena M
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 95 leaves
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The much publicized and mythologized transformation of cities such as Barcelona and urban neighborhoods like SoHo in New York City, have led to broader ideas about the "Creative City," the "Creative Economy," and the "Creative Class." In an attempt to reap the promised riches of wealth, job creation, and prestige, some cities have developed strategies to promote their "livable" neighborhoods and attract "creative" workers and cultural tourism, but these ideas support a specific conception of what art and creativity is and what the role of artists should be in revitalization. The overall message that is conveyed is that consumption-oriented arts and entertainment ventures are more highly valued than noncommercial arts incubators and venues. Much like an ecological system, the success of commercial arts ventures is dependent on the success of the noncommercial arts venues. By focusing solely on commercial exchange, a city may fail to sustain all the parts necessary for a healthy arts community. Likewise, the arts community's embrace of commercial opportunities, in combination with the lack of a unified voice that calls for nurturing the arts community's unique and rich diversity, sends a signal back to the city that the disruption of their "arts ecology" is acceptable. venues...

‣ Innovating with institutions : how strategic orientations among one-stop career centers influence labor matching, adaptation, and performance

Herranz, Joaquin
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2 v. (317 leaves); 1159382 bytes; 1162579 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Set in the context of labor market restructuring, public policy reform, and blurring government/nonprofit boundaries, this study examines the functions, adaptation, and performance of Boston's three One-Stop Career Centers between 1996 and 2002-a time period encompassing distinct eras of changing policy and labor market conditions. Along with other types of labor market intermediaries (LMIs), One-Stop Career Centers have arisen as sites of organizational and institutional innovation in mediating the labor matching process. However, compared to other LMIs, much less is known about career centers' employment brokering operations. This study helps address this research gap by providing a detailed analysis of three career centers. This investigation answers three research questions related to the 1) functions; 2) adaptation; and 3) performance of career centers with differing organizational sponsorships. In doing so, the study develops a conceptual framework based on three strategic orientations-community, bureaucratic, and entrepreneurial-that helps to clarify and categorize organizational processes, change, and outcomes.; (cont.) The study finds that different strategic orientations are related to variation in organizational planning...

‣ The crisis of leftist urban theory in postmodernism : the case of the L.A. 'School'

Whittemore, Andrew H. (Andrew Howe), 1980-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 170 leaves; 9324959 bytes; 9324766 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This thesis is an exploration into the methodology of a particular group of urbanists based in Los Angeles who call themselves the 'LA School'. It understands their varied approaches as the product of an epistemological history stretching from the mid- nineteenth century through the advent of post-structuralism and postmodernism into the present. It is not an attempt to portray the whole history of social theory in this period but instead it is an investigation into the ways a particular group of leftist scholars approach a city having selected from this heritage particular methods of explanation. In particular it is focused on postmodernism as a significant disruption in Marxist theory of the city. The 'LA School' represents one response to this epistemological crisis in its adoption of particular methodological tools, namely a critical spatial materialism. This adoption speaks to the responsibility of leftist urban theorists to know the city if they are to help it. As the LA School is principally a school of theory, not practice, I understand its greatest contribution to lay in outlining contemporary leftist methods of explanation.; by Andrew H. Whittemore.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning...

‣ The racial politics of urban celebrations : a comparative study of Philadelphia's Mummers Parade and Odunde Festival

Whitlow, Annis, 1979-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 107 p.; 6689789 bytes; 6873410 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Discourses about the construction of identity, the politics of identity, and the role of design in controlling human behavior and expressing power have thus far been confined to separate realms of inquiry. This thesis will examine where these discourses intersect and how their intersection plays out in society as old conceptions of race and identity are challenged by demographic shifts and new immigrant populations. Festivals, as spatial expressions of identity that image city spaces, provide an important perspective on this topic. Philadelphia, as a former capital city that continues to struggle with race and identity in its politics, acts as a compelling backdrop for my case studies. The Mummers Parade and the Odunde Festival are two New Year's celebrations that mediate racial/political and ethnic/cultural identities for the city's white and black populations respectively. This thesis considers both festivals from their historical context and compares their current form in terms of spatial and non-spatial indicators (route, demographics, funding, and organizational structure). From this analytic framework emerges a picture of how political identities are constructed spatially, how the process of identity construction both challenges and reinforces the dominant political structure...

‣ Groundwater decline and the preservation of property in Boston

Shoham, Tamar
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 84 p.
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There is a slow-motion disaster underway below the city of Boston. The levels of groundwater have been steadily decreasing over the past eighty years and the structural integrity of the city's older buildings is in jeopardy. Buildings located on Boston's made land that were constructed prior to 1900 were supported with wood pilings. Wood pilings remain strong so long as they are submerged in groundwater. When exposed to air, the wood decays and buildings can eventually collapse. Repairing rotted wood pilings is a substantial financial burden and is currently shouldered entirely by homeowners. State and local governments ignored the city's pilings problem for decades, but in the last eighteen months the city's groundwater issues have surfaced prominently on political agendas. The city, state and community members are now working collaboratively to implement solutions that will increase the level of groundwater throughout the city, and a window of opportunity has opened in which lasting policies can be passed that protect buildings from further damage. The solutions to the city's groundwater problem are theoretically simple: more water must enter the ground and stay there, and rotted pilings must be repaired.; (cont.) However, in addressing this challenge...

‣ A spatial structuring approach to IT use and workplace change : what's space got to do with it?; Spatial structuring approach to information technology use and workplace change

Goelman, Ari
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 211 leaves
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This dissertation uses the disparate spatial practices of radiologists and outpatient physicians to frame a study of the relationship between space, information technology use and workplace change, with a particular focus on relationships of control. Drawing from diverse urban, organization and economic literatures, I propose a spatial structuring approach to examining issues of space and work practices. From this perspective, spatial practices are seen as both shaping and being shaped by information technology use. The spatial practices of outpatient physicians prior to adopting Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) shaped the implementations of the EMRs in that they led to a series of problems in coordinating outpatient work, problems that EMRs were adopted in part to solve. The EMRs, in turn, were successfully used to further extend physician work in time and space, as well as to better coordinate and control their work. For radiologists, their historic spatial practices shaped the way they used teleradiology applications to respond to a recent, and overwhelming, scarcity of radiologists. Radiologists were able to successfully exert control over the offshoring of their work, in part due to their long history of working at a distance from their patients and other physicians.; (cont.) Radiology work has been done remotely since the inception of their profession...

‣ Constructing Community : class, privatization and social life in a Boston mixed income housing development; Class, privatization and social life in a Boston mixed income housing development

Graves, Erin Michelle
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 287 p.
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Social interaction among friends and neighbors is generally considered an informal process. Consequently, we often think of the structure of personal social networks as an expression of people's individual preferences. The observed homogeneity within social networks is often treated as a near socio-biological fact: people, like "birds of a feather," flock together. This dissertation examines unexpected influences on cross-class interaction in a privatized mixed income housing development in Boston, Massachusetts. The research site Maverick Landing was constructed as an alternative to low-income public housing as part of the HOPE VI program funded by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Through research methods including fourteen months of residency and participant observation at Maverick Landing, semi-structured interviews and document analysis, this study shows how formal processes interacted with informal ones at the interpersonal level and impacted cross-class interaction. Management enforced a formal structure -- including rules and control of physical space, as well as more subtle measures such as information control and resource distribution - that substantially negatively influenced interpersonal relations. Larger structural realities too shaped the actions of the management company. Relative to their lower income neighbors...