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‣ Análise funcional de uma mutação missense no gene IDS associada a alterações de splicing

Matos, Liliana da Silva
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2009 Português
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Dissertação de mestrado em Genética Molecular; O splicing do pré-mRNA é uma etapa essencial na expressão dos genes eucarióticos. Sabe-se actualmente que entre 15% a 60% das mutações exónicas ou intrónicas envolvidas em doença provocam alterações no processo de splicing. Neste trabalho, para efectuar a análise funcional da mutação c.257C>T no processo de splicing do exão 3 do gene IDS, foi utilizada uma amostra de DNA genómico de um doente diagnosticado com Mucopolissacaridose tipo II. Uma análise prévia do cDNA deste doente permitiu observar a ocorrência de dois transcritos na presença desta mutação. Um deles apresentou-se como um produto normal, apenas com a substituição C>T e origina uma proteína com a substituição aminoacídica P86L. No segundo transcrito observou-se a deleção dos primeiros 44 nucleótidos do exão 3, dado que, em vez do 3’ss normal foi utilizado um local críptico de splicing no interior do exão 3. Este local possui um valor de score mais elevado do que o local de splicing normal, sugerindo que a utilização deste estará possivelmente dependente de elementos cis-acting e/ou factores trans-acting. De facto, as análises bioinformáticas efectuadas previram alterações em motivos de ligação para as proteínas ASF/SF2...

‣ Regulation of Gene Expression by Internal Ribosome Entry Sites or Cryptic Promoters: the eIF4G Story

Han, Baoguang; Zhang, Jian-Ting
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2002 Português
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As an alternative to the scanning mechanism of initiation, the direct-internal-initiation mechanism postulates that the translational machinery assembles at the AUG start codon without traversing the entire 5′ untranslated region (5′-UTR) of the mRNA. Although the existence of internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) in viral mRNAs is considered to be well established, the existence of IRESs in cellular mRNAs has recently been challenged, in part because when testing is carried out using a conventional dicistronic vector, Northern blot analyses might not be sensitive enough to detect low levels of monocistronic transcripts derived via a cryptic promoter or splice site. To address this concern, we created a new promoterless dicistronic vector to test the putative IRES derived from the 5′-UTR of an mRNA that encodes the translation initiation factor eIF4G. Our analysis of this 5′-UTR sequence unexpectedly revealed a strong promoter. The activity of the internal promoter relies on the integrity of a polypyrimidine tract (PPT) sequence that had been identified as an essential component of the IRES. The PPT sequence overlaps with a binding site for transcription factor C/EBPβ. Two other transcription factors, Sp1 and Ets, were also found to bind to and mediate expression from the promoter in the 5′-UTR of eIF4G mRNA. The biological significance of the internal promoter in the eIF4G mRNA might lie in the production of an N-terminally truncated form of the protein. Consistent with the idea that the cryptic promoter we identified underlies the previously reported IRES activity...

‣ Mutations in the reduced-folate carrier affect protein localization and stability.

Sadlish, H; Murray, R C; Williams, F M; Flintoff, W F
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/03/2000 Português
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The reduced-folate-carrier (rfc) gene has been shown to be functionally important for reduced-folate transport in mammalian cells. In the present paper we describe the identification of alterations in both alleles of the rfc gene in a mutant Chinese-hamster ovary cell line deficient in methotrexate transport. One allele of the rfc gene contains a point mutation resulting in a Gly(345)-->Arg substitution in the predicted amino acid sequence. In this case, a protein of similar size to the wild-type protein is produced, although it remains as an immature, core-glycosylated, form. The second allele contains a point mutation in the last base of intron 5 that results in the utilization of a cryptic splice site leading to a seven-base deletion in the mRNA. The use of an alternate splice site changes the reading frame to yield a truncated protein with 68 different C-terminal amino acids as compared with the wild-type. Both of these altered gene products were monitored by fusion with green fluorescent protein and found to be non-functional with an increased rate of turnover. The protein with the point mutation is trapped in the endoplasmic reticulum with subsequent degradation, whereas the product of the splice mutation is not membrane-associated and is partially degraded. Thus mutations in both alleles of the rfc gene in this resistant cell line account for the loss of reduced-folate transport. The observations made regarding the degradation of these mutant gene products also provide support for putative checkpoints in the endoplasmic reticulum.

‣ B-cell and plasma-cell splicing differences: A potential role in regulated immunoglobulin RNA processing

BRUCE, SHIRLEY R.; DINGLE, R.W. CAMERON; PETERSON, MARTHA L.
Fonte: Copyright 2003 by RNA Society Publicador: Copyright 2003 by RNA Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2003 Português
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The immunoglobulin μ pre-mRNA is alternatively processed at its 3′ end by competing splice and cleavage-polyadenylation reactions to generate mRNAs encoding the membrane-associated or secreted forms of the IgM protein, respectively. The relative use of the competing processing pathways varies during B-lymphocyte development, and it has been established previously that cleavage-polyadenylation activity is higher in plasma cells, which secrete IgM, than in B cells, which produce membrane-associated IgM. To determine whether RNA-splicing activity varies during B-lymphocyte development to contribute to μ RNA-processing regulation, we first demonstrate that μ pre-mRNA processing is sensitive to artificial changes in the splice environment by coexpressing SR proteins with the μ gene. To explore differences between the splice environments of B cells and plasma cells, we analyzed the splicing patterns from two different chimeric non-Ig genes that can be alternatively spliced but have no competing cleavage-polyadenylation reaction. The ratio of intact exon splicing to cryptic splice site use from one chimeric gene differs between several B-cell and several plasma-cell lines. Also, the amount of spliced RNA is higher in B-cell than plasma-cell lines from a set of genes whose splicing is dependent on a functional exonic splice enhancer. Thus...

‣ Lamin A-Dependent Nuclear Defects in Human Aging

Scaffidi, Paola; Misteli, Tom
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Mutations in the nuclear structural protein lamin A cause the premature aging syndrome Hutchinson-Gilford progeria (HGPS). Whether lamin A plays any role in normal aging is unknown. We show that the same molecular mechanism responsible for HGPS is active in healthy cells. Cell nuclei from old individuals acquire defects similar to those of HGPS patient cells, including changes in histone modifications and increased DNA damage. Agerelated nuclear defects are caused by sporadic use, in healthy individuals, of the same cryptic splice site in lamin A whose constitutive activation causes HGPS. Inhibition of this splice site reverses the nuclear defects associated with aging. These observations implicate lamin A in physiological aging.

‣ Heritability of alternative splicing in the human genome

Kwan, Tony; Benovoy, David; Dias, Christel; Gurd, Scott; Serre, David; Zuzan, Harry; Clark, Tyson A.; Schweitzer, Anthony; Staples, Michelle K.; Wang, Hui; Blume, John E.; Hudson, Thomas J.; Sladek, Rob; Majewski, Jacek
Fonte: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press Publicador: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2007 Português
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Alternative pre-mRNA splicing increases proteomic diversity and provides a potential mechanism underlying both phenotypic diversity and susceptibility to genetic disorders in human populations. To investigate the variation in splicing among humans on a genome-wide scale, we use a comprehensive exon-targeted microarray to examine alternative splicing in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) derived from the CEPH HapMap population. We show the identification of transcripts containing sequence verified exon skipping, intron retention, and cryptic splice site usage that are specific between individuals. A number of novel alternative splicing events with no previous annotations in either the RefSeq and EST databases were identified, indicating that we are able to discover de novo splicing events. Using family-based linkage analysis, we demonstrate Mendelian inheritance and segregation of specific splice isoforms with regulatory haplotypes for three genes: OAS1, CAST, and CRTAP. Allelic association was further used to identify individual SNPs or regulatory haplotype blocks linked to the alternative splicing event, taking advantage of the high-resolution genotype information from the CEPH HapMap population. In one candidate, we identified a regulatory polymorphism that disrupts a 5′ splice site of an exon in the CAST gene...

‣ The U11-48K Protein Contacts the 5′ Splice Site of U12-Type Introns and the U11-59K Protein▿ †

Turunen, Janne J.; Will, Cindy L.; Grote, Michael; Lührmann, Reinhard; Frilander, Mikko J.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Little is currently known about proteins that make contact with the pre-mRNA in the U12-dependent spliceosome and thereby contribute to intron recognition. Using site-specific cross-linking, we detected an interaction between the U11-48K protein and U12-type 5′ splice sites (5′ss). This interaction did not require branch point recognition and was sensitive to 5′ss mutations, suggesting that 48K interacts with the 5′ss during the first steps of prespliceosome assembly in a sequence-dependent manner. RNA interference-induced knockdown of 48K in HeLa cells led to reduced cell growth and the inhibition of U12-type splicing, as well as the activation of cryptic, U2-type splice sites, suggesting that 48K plays a critical role in U12-type intron recognition. 48K knockdown also led to reduced levels of U11/U12 di-snRNP, indicating that 48K contributes to the stability and/or formation of this complex. In addition to making contact with the 5′ss, 48K interacts with the U11-59K protein, a protein at the interface of the U11/U12 di-snRNP. These studies provide important insights into the protein-mediated recognition of the U12-type 5′ss, as well as functionally important interactions within the U11/U12 di-snRNP.

‣ Selectivity and Efficiency of Late Transgene Expression by Transcriptionally Targeted Oncolytic Adenoviruses Are Dependent on the Transgene Insertion Strategy

Quirin, Christina; Rohmer, Stanimira; Fernández-Ulibarri, Inés; Behr, Michael; Hesse, Andrea; Engelhardt, Sarah; Erbs, Philippe; Enk, Alexander H.; Nettelbeck, Dirk M.
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Key challenges facing cancer therapy are the development of tumor-specific drugs and potent multimodal regimens. Oncolytic adenoviruses possess the potential to realize both aims by restricting virus replication to tumors and inserting therapeutic genes into the virus genome, respectively. A major effort in this regard is to express transgenes in a tumor-specific manner without affecting virus replication. Using both luciferase as a sensitive reporter and genetic prodrug activation, we show that promoter control of E1A facilitates highly selective expression of transgenes inserted into the late transcription unit. This, however, required multistep optimization of late transgene expression. Transgene insertion via internal ribosome entry site (IRES), splice acceptor (SA), or viral 2A sequences resulted in replication-dependent expression. Unexpectedly, analyses in appropriate substrates and with matching control viruses revealed that IRES and SA, but not 2A, facilitated indirect transgene targeting via tyrosinase promoter control of E1A. Transgene expression via SA was more selective (up to 1,500-fold) but less effective than via IRES. Notably, we also revealed transgene-dependent interference with splicing. Hence, the prodrug convertase FCU1 (a cytosine deaminase–uracil phosphoribosyltransferase fusion protein) was expressed only after optimizing the sequence surrounding the SA site and mutating a cryptic splice site within the transgene. The resulting tyrosinase promoter-regulated and FCU1-encoding adenovirus combined effective oncolysis with targeted prodrug activation therapy of melanoma. Thus...

‣ Alagille Syndrome in a Vietnamese Cohort: Mutation Analysis and Assessment of Facial Features

Lin, Henry C.; Le Hoang, Phuc; Hutchinson, Anne; Chao, Grace; Gerfen, Jennifer; Loomes, Kathleen M.; Krantz, Ian; Kamath, Binita M.; Spinner, Nancy B.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Alagille syndrome (ALGS, OMIM #118450) is an autosomal dominant disorder that affects multiple organ systems including the liver, heart, eyes, vertebrae, and face. ALGS is caused by mutations in one of two genes in the Notch Signaling Pathway, JAGGED1 or NOTCH2. In this study, analysis of 21 Vietnamese ALGS individuals led to the identification of 19 different mutations (18 JAGGED1 and 1 NOTCH2), 17 of which are novel, including the third reported NOTCH2 mutation in Alagille Syndrome. The spectrum of JAGGED1 mutations in the Vietnamese patients is similar to that previously reported, including nine frameshift, three missense, two splice site, one nonsense, two whole gene, and onw partial gene deletion. The missense mutations are all likely to be disease causing, as two are loss of cysteines (C22R and C78G) and the third creates a cryptic splice site in exon 9 (G386R). No correlation between genotype and phenotype was observed. Assessment of clinical phenotype revealed that skeletal manifestations occur with a higher frequency than in previously reported Alagille cohorts. Facial features were difficult to assess and a Vietnamese pediatric gastroenterologist was only able to identify the facial phenotype in 61% of the cohort. To assess the agreement among North American dysmorphologists at detecting the presence of ALGS facial features in the Vietnamese patients...

‣ The Intronic GABRG2 Mutation, IVS6+2T→G, Associated with CAE Altered Subunit mRNA Intron Splicing, Activated Nonsense-Mediated Decay and Produced a Stable Truncated γ2 Subunit

Tian, Mengnan; Macdonald, Robert L.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/04/2012 Português
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The intronic GABRG2 mutation, IVS6+2T→G, was identified in an Australian family with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) and febrile seizures (Kananura et al., 2002). The GABRG2 intron 6 splice donor site was found to be mutated from GT to GG. We generated wildtype and mutant γ2S subunit bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) driven by a CMV promoter and expressed them in HEK293T cells and expressed wildtype and mutant γ2S subunit BACs containing the endogenous hGABRG2 promoter in transgenic mice. Wildtype and mutant GABRG2 mRNA splicing patterns were determined in both BAC transfected HEK293T cells and transgenic mouse brain, and in both, the mutation abolished intron 6 splicing at the donor site, activated a cryptic splice site, generated partial intron 6 retention and produced a frame shift in exon 7 that created a premature translation-termination codon (PTC). The resultant mutant mRNA was either degraded partially by nonsense mediated mRNA decay (NMD) or translated to a stable, truncated subunit (the γ2-PTC subunit) containing the first 6 GABRG2 exons and a novel frame-shifted 29 aa C terminal tail. The γ2-PTC subunit was homologous to the mollusk acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP) but was not secreted from cells. It was retained in the ER and not expressed on the surface membrane...

‣ Mutanlallemand (mtl) and Belly Spot and Deafness (bsd) Are Two New Mutations of Lmx1a Causing Severe Cochlear and Vestibular Defects

Steffes, Georg; Lorente-Cánovas, Beatriz; Pearson, Selina; Brooker, Rachael H.; Spiden, Sarah; Kiernan, Amy E.; Guénet, Jean-Louis; Steel, Karen P.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/11/2012 Português
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Mutanlallemand (mtl) and Belly Spot and Deafness (bsd) are two new spontaneous alleles of the Lmx1a gene in mice. Homozygous mutants show head tossing and circling behaviour, indicative of vestibular defects, and they have short tails and white belly patches of variable size. The analysis of auditory brainstem responses (ABR) showed that mtl and bsd homozygotes are deaf, whereas heterozygous and wildtype littermates have normal hearing. Paint-filled inner ears at E16.5 revealed that mtl and bsd homozygotes lack endolymphatic ducts and semicircular canals and have short cochlear ducts. These new alleles show similarities with dreher (Lmx1a) mutants. Complementation tests between mtl and dreher and between mtl and bsd suggest that mtl and bsd are new mutant alleles of the Lmx1a gene. To determine the Lmx1a mutation in mtl and bsd mutant mice we performed PCR followed by sequencing of genomic DNA and cDNA. The mtl mutation is a single point mutation in the 3′ splice site of exon 4 leading to an exon extension and the activation of a cryptic splice site 44 base pairs downstream, whereas the bsd mutation is a genomic deletion that includes exon 3. Both mutations lead to a truncated LMX1A protein affecting the homeodomain (mtl) or LIM2-domain (bsd)...

‣ Next-Generation Sequencing Reveals Deep Intronic Cryptic ABCC8 and HADH Splicing Founder Mutations Causing Hyperinsulinism by Pseudoexon Activation

Flanagan, Sarah E.; Xie, Weijia; Caswell, Richard; Damhuis, Annet; Vianey-Saban, Christine; Akcay, Teoman; Darendeliler, Feyza; Bas, Firdevs; Guven, Ayla; Siklar, Zeynep; Ocal, Gonul; Berberoglu, Merih; Murphy, Nuala; O’Sullivan, Maureen; Green, Andrew
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/01/2013 Português
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Next-generation sequencing (NGS) enables analysis of the human genome on a scale previously unachievable by Sanger sequencing. Exome sequencing of the coding regions and conserved splice sites has been very successful in the identification of disease-causing mutations, and targeting of these regions has extended clinical diagnostic testing from analysis of fewer than ten genes per phenotype to more than 100. Noncoding mutations have been less extensively studied despite evidence from mRNA analysis for the existence of deep intronic mutations in >20 genes. We investigated individuals with hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia and biochemical or genetic evidence to suggest noncoding mutations by using NGS to analyze the entire genomic regions of ABCC8 (117 kb) and HADH (94 kb) from overlapping ∼10 kb PCR amplicons. Two deep intronic mutations, c.1333-1013A>G in ABCC8 and c.636+471G>T HADH, were identified. Both are predicted to create a cryptic splice donor site and an out-of-frame pseudoexon. Sequence analysis of mRNA from affected individuals’ fibroblasts or lymphoblastoid cells confirmed mutant transcripts with pseudoexon inclusion and premature termination codons. Testing of additional individuals showed that these are founder mutations in the Irish and Turkish populations...

‣ Novel Mutations in the PC Gene in Patients with Type B Pyruvate Carboxylase Deficiency

Ostergaard, Elsebet; Duno, Morten; Møller, Lisbeth Birk; Kalkanoglu-Sivri, H. Serap; Dursun, Ali; Aliefendioglu, Didem; Leth, Helle; Dahl, Marianne; Christensen, Ernst; Wibrand, Flemming
Fonte: Springer Berlin Heidelberg Publicador: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 31/08/2012 Português
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We have investigated seven patients with the type B form of pyruvate carboxylase (PC) deficiency. Mutation analysis revealed eight mutations, all novel. In a patient with exon skipping on cDNA analysis, we identified a homozygous mutation located in a potential branch point sequence, the first possible branch point mutation in PC. Two patients were homozygous for missense mutations (with normal protein amounts on western blot analysis), and two patients were homozygous for nonsense mutations. In addition, a duplication of one base pair was found in a patient who also harboured a splice site mutation. Another splice site mutation led to the activation of a cryptic splice site, shown by cDNA analysis.

‣ Synonymous mutations in RNASEH2A create cryptic splice sites impairing RNase H2 enzyme function in Aicardi-Goutières syndrome

Rice, Gillian I.; Reijns, Martin A.M.; Coffin, Stephanie R.; Forte, Gabriella M.A.; Anderson, Beverley H.; Szynkiewicz, Marcin; Gornall, Hannah; Gent, David; Leitch, Andrea; Botella, Maria P.; Fazzi, Elisa; Gener, Blanca; Lagae, Lieven; Olivieri, Ivana; O
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) is an inflammatory disorder resulting from mutations in TREX1, RNASEH2A/2B/2C, SAMHD1 or ADAR1. Here we provide molecular, biochemical and cellular evidence for the pathogenicity of two synonymous variants in RNASEH2A. Firstly, the c.69G>A (p.Val23Val) mutation causes the formation of a splice donor site within exon 1, resulting in an out of frame deletion at the end of exon 1, leading to reduced RNase H2 protein levels. The second mutation, c.75C>T (p.Arg25Arg), also introduces a splice donor site within exon 1, and the internal deletion of 18 amino acids. The truncated protein still forms a heterotrimeric RNase H2 complex, but lacks catalytic activity. However, as a likely result of leaky splicing, a small amount of full-length active protein is apparently produced in an individual homozygous for this mutation. Recognition of the disease causing status of these variants allows for diagnostic testing in relevant families.

‣ Splice-acceptor site mutation in p53 gene of hu888 zebrafish line

Piasecka, Alicja; Brzuzan, Paweł; Woźny, Maciej; Ciesielski, Sławomir; Kaczmarczyk, Dariusz
Fonte: Springer Berlin Heidelberg Publicador: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The p53 transcription factor is a key tumor suppressor and a central regulator of the stress response, which has been a subject of intense research for over 30 years. Recently, a zebrafish line which carries splice site mutation (G>T) in intron 8 of p53 gene (p53hu888), encoding the p53 paralogue, was developed (The Zebrafish Mutation Project). To uncover molecular effects of the mutation, we raised hu888 zebrafish line to adulthood and analyzed DNA, mRNA data, and protein levels of p53 to assess their potential contribution in molecular mechanisms of the mutant fish. To obtain zebrafish individuals homozygous for the point mutation, p53hu888 carriers were repeatedly incrossed but only heterozygous mutants (p53hu888/+) or p53-wild type hu888 zebrafish (p53+/+) were identified in their progeny. By evaluation of p53 expression changes in the liver of mutant and wild type hu888 zebrafish as well as of Tübingen reference strain, we demonstrated that two types of splicing occurred in each case: a classical one and the alternative splicing which involves the activation of cryptic splice-acceptor site in the exon 9 of zebrafish p53 pre-mRNA. The alternative splicing event results in a deletion 12 nucleotides in the mature mRNA, and produces a shortened variant of p53 protein. Interestingly...

‣ Regulation of a strong F9 cryptic 5′ss by intrinsic elements and by combination of tailored U1snRNAs with antisense oligonucleotides

Balestra, Dario; Barbon, Elena; Scalet, Daniela; Cavallari, Nicola; Perrone, Daniela; Zanibellato, Silvia; Bernardi, Francesco; Pinotti, Mirko
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Mutations affecting specific splicing regulatory elements offer suitable models to better understand their interplay and to devise therapeutic strategies. Here we characterize a meaningful splicing model in which numerous Hemophilia B-causing mutations, either missense or at the donor splice site (5′ss) of coagulation F9 exon 2, promote aberrant splicing by inducing the usage of a strong exonic cryptic 5′ss. Splicing assays with natural and artificial F9 variants indicated that the cryptic 5′ss is regulated, among a network of regulatory elements, by an exonic splicing silencer (ESS). This finding and the comparative analysis of the F9 sequence across species showing that the cryptic 5′ss is always paralleled by the conserved ESS support a compensatory mechanism aimed at minimizing unproductive splicing. To recover splicing we tested antisense oligoribonucleotides masking the cryptic 5′ss, which were effective on exonic changes but promoted exon 2 skipping in the presence of mutations at the authentic 5′ss. On the other hand, we observed a very poor correction effect by small nuclear RNA U1 (U1snRNA) variants with increased or perfect complementarity to the defective 5′ss, a strategy previously exploited to rescue splicing. Noticeably...

‣ Three new mutations in patients with myophosphorylase deficiency (McArdle disease).

Tsujino, S.; Shanske, S.; Nonaka, I.; Eto, Y.; Mendell, J. R.; Fenichel, G. M.; DiMauro, S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1994 Português
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We report three new mutations in patients with myophosphorylase deficiency (McArdle disease). A splice-junction mutation (G-to-A transition at the 5' end of intron 14) and a missense mutation (CTG to CCG at codon 291, changing an encoded leucine to a proline) were identified in Caucasian patients who were heterozygous for a common mutation reported elsewhere (CGA [Arg] to TGA [stop]) at codon 49. The splice-junction mutation destroyed the consensus sequence at the 5' splice site, and a cryptic splice site 67 bp upstream was recognized instead. As a result, there was a 67-bp deletion in the 3'-terminal region of exon 14 in the transcript, resulting in a frameshift with premature translation termination. A deletion of a single codon, 708/709 (TTC, specifying phenylalanine) was identified in Japanese patients. Two affected siblings were homozygotes, and their parents were heterozygotes. A third, unrelated patient was heterozygous for the same mutation, while the myophosphorylase gene on the other allele was only faintly expressed.

‣ The SR Protein SC35 Is Responsible for Aberrant Splicing of the E1α Pyruvate Dehydrogenase mRNA in a Case of Mental Retardation with Lactic Acidosis

Gabut, Mathieu; Miné, Manuèle; Marsac, Cécile; Brivet, Michèle; Tazi, Jamal; Soret, Johann
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2005 Português
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Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex deficiency is a major cause of lactic acidosis and Leigh's encephalomyelopathies in infancy and childhood, resulting in early death in the majority of patients. Most of the molecular defects have been localized in the coding regions of the E1α PDH gene. Recently, we identified a novel mutation of the E1α PDH gene in a patient with an encephalopathy and lactic acidosis. This mutation, located downstream of exon 7, activates a cryptic splice donor and leads to the retention of intronic sequences. Here, we demonstrate that the mutation results in an increased binding of the SR protein SC35. Consistently, ectopic overexpression of this splicing factor enhanced the use of the cryptic splice site, whereas small interfering RNA-mediated reduction of the SC35 protein levels in primary fibroblasts from the patient resulted in the almost complete disappearance of the aberrantly spliced E1α PDH mRNA. Our findings open the exciting prospect for a novel therapy of an inherited disease by altering the level of a specific splicing factor.

‣ Fixing human factor IX (fIX): correction of a cryptic RNA splice enables the production of biologically active fIX in the mammary gland of transgenic mice.

Yull, F; Harold, G; Wallace, R; Cowper, A; Percy, J; Cottingham, I; Clark, A J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/11/1995 Português
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Transgenic mice and sheep secrete only low levels of human factor IX in their milk because of an aberrant splicing of the transgene RNA in the mammary gland. Removal of the cryptic 3' splice site prevents this splicing and leads to the production of relatively high levels of factor IX. The purified protein is fully active showing that the mammary gland is capable of the efficient post-translational modification of this protein and that transgenic animals are a suitable means of its production.

‣ Genetic suppression of intronic +1G mutations by compensatory U1 snRNA changes in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Zahler, Alan M; Tuttle, John D; Chisholm, Andrew D
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2004 Português
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Mutations to the canonical +1G of introns, which are commonly found in many human inherited disease alleles, invariably result in aberrant splicing. Here we report genetic findings in C. elegans that aberrant splicing due to +1G mutations can be suppressed by U1 snRNA mutations. An intronic +1G-to-U mutation, e936, in the C. elegans unc-73 gene causes aberrant splicing and loss of gene function. We previously showed that mutation of the sup-39 gene promotes splicing at the mutant splice donor in e936 mutants. We demonstrate here that sup-39 is a U1 snRNA gene; suppressor mutations in sup-39 are compensatory substitutions in the 5' end, which enhance recognition of the mutant splice donor. sup-6(st19) is an allele-specific suppressor of unc-13(e309), which contains an intronic +1G-to-A transition. The e309 mutation activates a cryptic splice site, and sup-6(st19) restores splicing to the mutant splice donor. sup-6 also encodes a U1 snRNA and the mutant contains a compensatory substitution at its 5' end. This is the first demonstration that U1 snRNAs can act to suppress the effects of mutations to the invariant +1G of introns. These findings are suggestive of a potential treatment of certain alleles of inherited human genetic diseases.