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‣ Mutações inativadoras dos genes PROK2 e PROKR2 em pacientes com hipogonadismo hipogonadotrófico isolado; PROK2 and PROKR2 inactivating mutations in patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

Silva, Ana Paula de Abreu e
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/01/2011 Português
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O sistema da procineticina desempenha um papel importante na migração dos neurônios secretores de GnRH e na neurogênese do bulbo olfatório. Camundongos com ablação dos genes que codificam a procineticina 2 (PROK2) e seu receptor (PROKR2) apresentaram fenótipos semelhantes ao da síndrome de Kallmann descrita em humanos. Mutações inativadoras nos genes PROK2 e PROKR2 foram identificadas em pacientes com hipogonadismo hipogonadotrófico isolado. Com base nestes achados, investigamos a presença de alterações estruturais nos genes PROK2 e PROKR2 em 107 pacientes brasileiros (63 com síndrome de Kallmann e 47 com hipogonadismo hipogonadotrófico isolado normósmico). Cem indivíduos brasileiros que relataram desenvolvimento puberal normal foram utilizados como grupo controle. As regiões codificadoras dos genes PROK2 e PROKR2 foram amplificadas utilizando-se oligonucleotídeos intrônicos específicos, seguida de purificação enzimática e sequenciamento automático. Duas mutações no gene PROK2 foram identificadas: a mutação p.G100fsX121 em homozigose presente em dois irmãos com síndrome de Kallmann; e a mutação p.I55fsX56 em heterozigose identiificada em um paciente com HHIn. Quatro mutações foram identificadas no gene PROKR2 (p.R80C...

‣ Identificação e análise de mutações no gene ERG11 de isolados de Candida susceptíveis e resistentes ao fluconazol; Identification and analyses of ERG11 gene mutations from fluconazole-susceptible and fluconazole-resistant Candida isolates

Carvalho, Vagner Oliveira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/05/2011 Português
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Por muitos anos o fluconazol tem sido uma opção usual para tratamento de infecções por Candida. Entretanto, o uso indiscriminado desta terapia antimicótica tem favorecido o surgimento de microrganismos resistentes. A redução da afinidade da enzima alvo dos antifúngicos, 14--demetilase (ERG11p), tem sido descrita como um importante mecanismo de resistência, caracterizado por mutações em seu gene codificante ERG11. Neste estudo, foi investigada a suscetibilidade ao fluconazol de 87 isolados de C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei e C. glabrata, com valores de MIC determinados através do método de microdiluição em caldo M27-A3 (CLSI, 2008); verificou-se que dezessete isolados apresentavam decréscimo da suscetibilidade ao fluconazol. A triagem de mutações foi realizada através da amplificação de quatro regiões do gene ERG11 com primers específicos delineados neste estudo, para cada espécie de Candida, seguida de análise pela técnica de eletroforese SSCP e seqüenciamento automatizado. Foram identificadas 217 mutações, incluindo 185 silenciosas e 32 por troca de sentido (que altera o aminoácido resultante). Estas últimas foram observadas em 19 isolados e 17 resíduos distintos, sendo 7 deles ainda não descritos anteriormente: L321F em C. albicans; K53M em C. krusei; Y221F...

‣ Novel CFTR missense mutations in Brazilian patients with congenital absence of vas deferens: counseling issues

Pieri,Patricia de Campos; Missaglia,Mariangela Tuzzollo; Roque,Juliana de Almeida; Moreira-Filho,Carlos Alberto; Hallak,Jorge
Fonte: Faculdade de Medicina / USP Publicador: Faculdade de Medicina / USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2007 Português
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PURPOSE: Screening for mutations in the entire Cystic Fibrosis gene (CFTR) of Brazilian infertile men with congenital absence of vas deferens, in order to prevent transmission of CFTR mutations to offspring with the use of assisted reproductive technologies. METHOD: Specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were designed to each of the 27 exons and splicing sites of interest followed by single strand conformational polymorphism and Heteroduplex Analysis (SSCP-HA) in precast 12.5% polyacrylamide gels at 7ºC and 20ºC. Fragments with abnormal SSCP migration pattern were sequenced. RESULTS: Two novel missense mutations (S753R and G149W) were found in three patients (two brothers) together with the IVS8-5T allele in hetrozygosis. CONCLUSION: The available screenings for CF mutations do not include the atypical mutations associated to absence of vas deferens and thus, when these tests fail to find mutations, there is still a genetic risk of affected children with the help of assisted reproduction. We recommend the screening of the whole CFTR gene for these infertile couples, as part of the work-up before assisted reproduction.

‣ Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α protein expression is controlled by oxygen-regulated ubiquitination that is disrupted by deletions and missense mutations

Sutter, Carrie Hayes; Laughner, Erik; Semenza, Gregg L.
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that mediates cellular and systemic homeostatic responses to reduced O2 availability in mammals, including angiogenesis, erythropoiesis, and glycolysis. HIF-1 activity is controlled by the O2-regulated expression of the HIF-1α subunit. Under nonhypoxic conditions, HIF-1α protein is subject to ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Here we report that missense mutations and/or deletions involving several different regions of HIF-1α result in constitutive expression and transcriptional activity in nonhypoxic cells. We demonstrate that hypoxia results in decreased ubiquitination of HIF-1α and that missense mutations increase HIF-1α expression under nonhypoxic conditions by blocking ubiquitination.

‣ Different missense mutations at the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase gene locus in autosomal recessively inherited forms of mild and severe hypophosphatasia.

Henthorn, P S; Raducha, M; Fedde, K N; Lafferty, M A; Whyte, M P
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/10/1992 Português
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Hypophosphatasia is a heritable form of rickets/osteomalacia with extremely variable clinical expression. Severe forms are inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion; the mode of transmission of mild forms is uncertain. The biochemical hallmark of hypophosphatasia is deficient activity of the tissue-nonspecific isozyme of alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP). Previously, we demonstrated in one inbred infant that an identical missense mutation in both alleles of the gene encoding TNSALP caused lethal disease. We have now examined TNSALP cDNAs from four unrelated patients with the severe perinatal or infantile forms of hypophosphatasia. Each of the eight TNSALP alleles from these four individuals contains a different point mutation that causes an amino acid substitution. These base changes were not detected in at least 63 normal individuals and, thus, appear to be causes of hypophosphatasia in the four patients. (Two additional base substitutions, found in one allele from each of the four patients, are linked polymorphisms.) Twenty-three unrelated patients (of 50 screened), who reflect the entire clinical spectrum of hypophosphatasia, possess one of our of the above eight mutations. In two of these additional patients, mild forms of the disease are also inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion. Our findings indicate that hypophosphatasia can be caused by a number of different missense mutations and that the specific interactions of different TNSALP mutant alleles are probably important for determining clinical expression. Severe forms...

‣ General method for fine mapping of the Escherichia coli K-12 lamB gene: localization of missense mutations affecting bacteriophage lambda adsorption.

Hofnung, M; Lepouce, E; Braun-Breton, C
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1981 Português
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lamB is the structural gene for the bacteriophage lambda receptor, a multifunctional protein located in the outer membrane of Escherichia coli K-12. We present a method for deletion mapping of any lamB mutations with a recognizable pheno-type. This method involves a transducing phage constructed by in vitro recombination which can also be used for complementation, deoxyribonucleic acid sequence, and in vitro protein synthesis studies with the mutated lamB gene. Using this method, we mapped 18 lamB missense mutations which confer resistance to phage lambda h+ (wild-type host range). The main results were the following. (i) None of the 18 mutations was located in the first 4 deletion intervals out of the 11 of the genetic map. (ii) These mutations were clustered according to their phenotype as follows. (a) Class I mutations, which allow growth of lambda h and lambda hh* (one-step and two-step host range mutants of lambda, respectively), were located in three regions--three in interval V, four in interval VIII-IX, and three in interval X-XI. Only the last three mutations still allowed growth of phage K10 which also uses the lambda receptor, and two of them still allowed reversible binding of lambda h+. (b) All seven class II mutations allowed only growth of lambda hh* and mapped in interval V. These results are discussed in the frame of a genetic approach to the functional topology of the lambda receptor.

‣ Missense Mutations in the N-Terminal Domain of Human Phenylalanine Hydroxylase Interfere with Binding of Regulatory Phenylalanine

Gjetting, Torben; Petersen, Marie; Guldberg, Per; Güttler, Flemming
Fonte: The American Society of Human Genetics Publicador: The American Society of Human Genetics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Hyperphenylalaninemia due to a deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by >400 mutations in the PAH gene. Recent work has suggested that the majority of PAH missense mutations impair enzyme activity by causing increased protein instability and aggregation. In this study, we describe an alternative mechanism by which some PAH mutations may render PAH defective. Database searches were used to identify regions in the N-terminal domain of PAH with homology to the regulatory domain of prephenate dehydratase (PDH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the bacterial phenylalanine biosynthesis pathway. Naturally occurring N-terminal PAH mutations are distributed in a nonrandom pattern and cluster within residues 46–48 (GAL) and 65–69 (IESRP), two motifs highly conserved in PDH. To examine whether N-terminal PAH mutations affect the ability of PAH to bind phenylalanine at the regulatory domain, wild-type and five mutant (G46S, A47V, T63P/H64N, I65T, and R68S) forms of the N-terminal domain (residues 2–120) of human PAH were expressed as fusion proteins in Escherichia coli. Binding studies showed that the wild-type form of this domain specifically binds phenylalanine, whereas all mutations abolished or significantly reduced this phenylalanine-binding capacity. Our data suggest that impairment of phenylalanine-mediated activation of PAH may be an important disease-causing mechanism of some N-terminal PAH mutations...

‣ Distinct Missense Mutations of the FGFR3 Lys650 Codon Modulate Receptor Kinase Activation and the Severity of the Skeletal Dysplasia Phenotype

Bellus, Gary A.; Spector, Elaine B.; Speiser, Phyllis W.; Weaver, Christine A.; Garber, Anthony T.; Bryke, Christine R.; Israel, Jamie; Rosengren, Sally S.; Webster, Melanie K.; Donoghue, Daniel J.; Francomano, Clair A.
Fonte: The American Society of Human Genetics Publicador: The American Society of Human Genetics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The fibroblast growth factor–receptor 3 (FGFR3) Lys650 codon is located within a critical region of the tyrosine kinase–domain activation loop. Two missense mutations in this codon are known to result in strong constitutive activation of the FGFR3 tyrosine kinase and cause three different skeletal dysplasia syndromes—thanatophoric dysplasia type II (TD2) (A1948G [Lys650Glu]) and SADDAN (severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans) syndrome and thanatophoric dysplasia type I (TD1) (both due to A1949T [Lys650Met]). Other mutations within the FGFR3 tyrosine kinase domain (e.g., C1620A or C1620G [both resulting in Asn540Lys]) are known to cause hypochondroplasia, a relatively common but milder skeletal dysplasia. In 90 individuals with suspected clinical diagnoses of hypochondroplasia who do not have Asn540Lys mutations, we screened for mutations, in FGFR3 exon 15, that would disrupt a unique BbsI restriction site that includes the Lys650 codon. We report here the discovery of three novel mutations (G1950T and G1950C [both resulting in Lys650Asn] and A1948C [Lys650Gln]) occurring in six individuals from five families. Several physical and radiological features of these individuals were significantly milder than those in individuals with the Asn540Lys mutations. The Lys650Asn/Gln mutations result in constitutive activation of the FGFR3 tyrosine kinase but to a lesser degree than that observed with the Lys540Glu and Lys650Met mutations. These results demonstrate that different amino acid substitutions at the FGFR3 Lys650 codon can result in several different skeletal dysplasia phenotypes.

‣ Non-Syndromic Tooth Agenesis in Two Chinese Families Associated with Novel Missense Mutations in the TNF Domain of EDA (Ectodysplasin A)

Li, Shufeng; Li, Jiahuang; Cheng, Jian; Zhou, Bingrong; Tong, Xin; Dong, Xiangbai; Wang, Zixing; Hu, Qingang; Chen, Meng; Hua, Zi-Chun
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/06/2008 Português
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Here we report two unrelated Chinese families with congenital missing teeth inherited in an X-linked manner. We mapped the affected locus to chromosome Xp11-Xq21 in one family. In the defined region, both families were found to have novel missense mutations in the ectodysplasin-A (EDA) gene. The mutation of c.947A>G caused the D316G substitution of the EDA protein. The mutation of c.1013C>T found in the other family resulted in the Thr to Met mutation at position 338 of EDA. The EDA gene has been reported responsible for X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED) in humans characterized by impaired development of hair, eccrine sweat glands, and teeth. In contrast, all the affected individuals in the two families that we studied here had normal hair and skin. Structural analysis suggests that these two novel mutants may account for the milder phenotype by affecting the stability of EDA trimers. Our results indicate that these novel missense mutations in EDA are associated with the isolated tooth agenesis and provide preliminary explanation for the abnormal clinical phenotype at a molecular structural level.

‣ Association of Missense Mutations in Epoxyalkane Coenzyme M Transferase with Adaptation of Mycobacterium sp. Strain JS623 to Growth on Vinyl Chloride▿ †

Jin, Yang Oh; Cheung, Samantha; Coleman, Nicholas V.; Mattes, Timothy E.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Vinyl chloride (VC) is a toxic groundwater pollutant associated with plastic manufacture and chlorinated solvent use. Aerobic bacteria that grow on VC as a carbon and energy source can evolve in the laboratory from bacteria that grow on ethene, but the genetic changes involved are unknown. We investigated VC adaptation in two variants (JS623-E and JS623-T) of the ethene-oxidizing Mycobacterium strain JS623. Missense mutations in the EtnE gene developed at two positions (W243 and R257) in cultures exposed to VC but not in cultures maintained on ethene. Epoxyalkane-coenzyme M transferase (EaCoMT) activities in cell extracts of JS623-E and JS623-T (150 and 645 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively) were higher than that of wild-type JS623 (74 nmol/min/mg protein), and in both variant cultures epoxyethane no longer accumulated during growth on ethene. The heterologous expression of two variant etnE alleles (W243G [etnE1] and R257L [etnE2]) from strain JS623 in Mycobacterium smegmatis showed that they had 42 to 59% higher activities than the wild type. Recombinant JS623 cultures containing mutant EtnE genes cloned in the vector pMV261 adapted to growth on VC more rapidly than the wild-type JS623 strain, with incubation times of 60 days (wild type)...

‣ Missense mutations in the NF2 gene result in the quantitative loss of merlin protein and minimally affect protein intrinsic function

Yang, Chunzhang; Asthagiri, Ashok R.; Iyer, Rajiv R.; Lu, Jie; Xu, David S.; Ksendzovsky, Alexander; Brady, Roscoe O.; Zhuang, Zhengping; Lonser, Russell R.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is a multiple neoplasia syndrome and is caused by a mutation of the NF2 tumor suppressor gene that encodes for the tumor suppressor protein merlin. Biallelic NF2 gene inactivation results in the development of central nervous system tumors, including schwannomas, meningiomas, ependymomas, and astrocytomas. Although a wide variety of missense germline mutations in the coding sequences of the NF2 gene can cause loss of merlin function, the mechanism of this functional loss is unknown. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying loss of merlin function in NF2, we investigated mutated merlin homeostasis and function in NF2-associated tumors and cell lines. Quantitative protein and RT-PCR analysis revealed that whereas merlin protein expression was significantly reduced in NF2-associated tumors, mRNA expression levels were unchanged. Transfection of genetic constructs of common NF2 missense mutations into NF2 gene-deficient meningioma cell lines revealed that merlin loss of function is due to a reduction in mutant protein half-life and increased protein degradation. Transfection analysis also demonstrated that recovery of tumor suppressor protein function is possible, indicating that these mutants maintain intrinsic functional capacity. Further...

‣ Effect of PKD1 gene missense mutations on polycystin-1 membrane topogenesis†

Nims, Nancy M.; Vassmer, Dianne; Maser, Robin L.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Polycystin-1 (PC1), the product of the Polycystic Kidney Disease-1 (PKD1) gene, has a number of reported missense mutations whose pathogenicity is indeterminate. Previously, we utilized N-linked glycosylation reporter tags along with membrane insertion and topology assays to define the eleven membrane-spanning domains (I-XI) of PC1. In this report, we utilize glycosylation assays to determine whether two reported human polymorphisms/missense mutations within transmembrane (TM) domains VI and X affect the membrane topology of PC1. M3677T within TM VI had no effect on the topology of this TM domain as shown by the ability of two native N-linked glycosylation sites within the extracellular loop following TM VI to be glycosylated. In contrast, G4031D, within TM X, decreased the glycosylation of TM X reporter constructs demonstrating that the substitution affected the C-terminal translocating activity of TM X. Furthermore, G4031D reduced the membrane association of TM X and XI together. These results suggest that G4031D affects the membrane insertion and topology of the C-terminal portion of polycystin-1 and represents a bona fide pathogenic mutation.

‣ Assessing the pathogenic potential of human Nephronophthisis disease-associated NPHP-4 missense mutations in C. elegans

Masyukova, Svetlana V.; Winkelbauer, Marlene E.; Williams, Corey L.; Pieczynski, Jay N.; Yoder, Bradley K.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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A spectrum of complex oligogenic disorders called the ciliopathies have been connected to dysfunction of cilia. Among the ciliopathies are Nephronophthisis (NPHP), characterized by cystic kidney disease and retinal degeneration, and Meckel–Gruber syndrome (MKS), a gestational lethal condition with skeletal abnormalities, cystic kidneys and CNS malformation. Mutations in multiple genes have been identified in NPHP and MKS patients, and an unexpected finding has been that mutations within the same gene can cause either disorder. Further, there is minimal genotype–phenotype correlation and despite recessive inheritance, numerous patients were identified as having a single heterozygous mutation. This has made it difficult to determine the significance of these mutations on disease pathogenesis and led to the hypothesis that clinical presentation in an individual will be determined by genetic interactions between mutations in multiple cilia-related genes. Here we utilize Caenorhabditis elegans and cilia-associated behavioral and morphologic assays to evaluate the pathogenic potential of eight previously reported human NPHP4 missense mutations. We assess the impact of these mutations on C. elegans NPHP-4 function, localization and evaluate potential interactions with mutations in MKS complex genes...

‣ Bioinformatic Analysis of Pathogenic Missense Mutations of Activin Receptor Like Kinase 1 Ectodomain

Scotti, Claudia; Olivieri, Carla; Boeri, Laura; Canzonieri, Cecilia; Ornati, Federica; Buscarini, Elisabetta; Pagella, Fabio; Danesino, Cesare
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/10/2011 Português
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Activin A receptor, type II-like kinase 1 (also called ALK1), is a serine-threonine kinase predominantly expressed on endothelial cells surface. Mutations in its ACVRL1 encoding gene (12q11-14) cause type 2 Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT2), an autosomal dominant multisystem vascular dysplasia. The study of the structural effects of mutations is crucial to understand their pathogenic mechanism. However, while an X-ray structure of ALK1 intracellular domain has recently become available (PDB ID: 3MY0), structure determination of ALK1 ectodomain (ALK1EC) has been elusive so far. We here describe the building of a homology model for ALK1EC, followed by an extensive bioinformatic analysis, based on a set of 38 methods, of the effect of missense mutations at the sequence and structural level. ALK1EC potential interaction mode with its ligand BMP9 was then predicted combining modelling and docking data. The calculated model of the ALK1EC allowed mapping and a preliminary characterization of HHT2 associated mutations. Major structural changes and loss of stability of the protein were predicted for several mutations, while others were found to interfere mainly with binding to BMP9 or other interactors, like Endoglin (CD105), whose encoding ENG gene (9q34) mutations are known to cause type 1 HHT. This study gives a preliminary insight into the potential structure of ALK1EC and into the structural effects of HHT2 associated mutations...

‣ Osteogenesis Imperfecta Missense Mutations in Collagen: Structural consequences of a glycine to alanine replacement at a highly charged site

Xiao, Jianxi; Cheng, Haiming; Silva, Teresita; Baum, Jean; Brodsky, Barbara
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Glycine is required as every third residue in the collagen triple-helix, and a missense mutation leading to the replacement of even one Gly in the repeating (Gly-Xaa-Yaa)n sequence by a larger residue leads to a pathological condition. Gly to Ala missense mutations are highly underrepresented in osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) and other collagen diseases, suggesting that the smallest replacement residue Ala might cause the least structural perturbation and mildest clinical consequences. The relatively small number of Gly to Ala mutation sites that do lead to OI must have some unusual features, such as greater structural disruption due to local sequence environment or location at a biologically important site. Here, peptides are used to model a severe OI case where a Gly to Ala mutation is found within a highly stabilizing Lys-Gly-Asp sequence environment. NMR, CD and DSC studies indicate this Gly to Ala replacement leads to a substantial loss in triple-helix stability and non-equivalence of the Ala residues in the three chains such that only one of the three Ala residues is capable of form a good backbone hydrogen bond. Examination of reported OI Gly to Ala mutations suggests preferential location at known collagen binding sites, and we propose that structural defects due to Ala replacements may lead to pathology when interfering with interactions.

‣ Disease-associated missense mutations in the EVH1 domain disrupt intrinsic WASp function causing dysregulated actin dynamics and impaired dendritic cell migration

Worth, Austen J. J.; Metelo, Joao; Bouma, Gerben; Moulding, Dale; Fritzsche, Marco; Vernay, Bertrand; Charras, Guillaume; Cory, Giles O. C.; Thrasher, Adrian J.; Burns, Siobhan O.
Fonte: American Society of Hematology Publicador: American Society of Hematology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/01/2013 Português
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Wiskott Aldrich syndrome (WAS), an X-linked immunodeficiency, results from loss-of-function mutations in the human hematopoietic cytoskeletal regulator gene WAS. Many missense mutations in the Ena Vasp homology1 (EVH1) domain preserve low-level WAS protein (WASp) expression and confer a milder clinical phenotype. Although disrupted binding to WASp-interacting protein (WIP) leads to enhanced WASp degradation in vivo, the intrinsic function of EVH1-mutated WASp is poorly understood. In the present study, we show that, despite mediating enhanced actin polymerization compared with wild-type WASp in vitro, EVH1 missense mutated proteins did not support full biologic function in cells, even when levels were restored by forced overexpression. Podosome assembly was aberrant and associated with dysregulated lamellipodia formation and impaired persistence of migration. At sites of residual podosome-associated actin polymerization, localization of EVH1-mutated proteins was preserved even after deletion of the entire domain, implying that WIP-WASp complex formation is not absolutely required for WASp localization. However, retention of mutant proteins in podosomes was significantly impaired and associated with reduced levels of WASp tyrosine phosphorylation. Our results indicate that the EVH1 domain is important not only for WASp stability...

‣ Evolution- and Structure-Based Computational Strategy Reveals the Impact of Deleterious Missense Mutations on MODY 2 (Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young, Type 2)

George, Doss C. Priya; Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Haneef, SA Syed; NagaSundaram, Nagarajan; Chen, Luonan; Zhu, Hailong
Fonte: Ivyspring International Publisher Publicador: Ivyspring International Publisher
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/01/2014 Português
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Heterozygous mutations in the central glycolytic enzyme glucokinase (GCK) can result in an autosomal dominant inherited disease, namely maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 2 (MODY 2). MODY 2 is characterised by early onset: it usually appears before 25 years of age and presents as a mild form of hyperglycaemia. In recent years, the number of known GCK mutations has markedly increased. As a result, interpreting which mutations cause a disease or confer susceptibility to a disease and characterising these deleterious mutations can be a difficult task in large-scale analyses and may be impossible when using a structural perspective. The laborious and time-consuming nature of the experimental analysis led us to attempt to develop a cost-effective computational pipeline for diabetic research that is based on the fundamentals of protein biophysics and that facilitates our understanding of the relationship between phenotypic effects and evolutionary processes. In this study, we investigate missense mutations in the GCK gene by using a wide array of evolution- and structure-based computational methods, such as SIFT, PolyPhen2, PhD-SNP, SNAP, SNPs&GO, fathmm, and Align GVGD. Based on the computational prediction scores obtained using these methods...

‣ The spectrum of mutations and molecular pathogenesis of hemophilia A in 181 Portuguese patients

David, D.; Ventura, C.; Moreira, I.; Diniz, M.; Antunes, M.; Tavares, A.; Araújo, F.; Morais, S.; Campos, M.; Lavinha, J.; Kemball-Cook, G.
Fonte: Ferrata Storti Foundation Publicador: Ferrata Storti Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 Português
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Disease-causing alterations within the F8 gene were identified in 177 hemophilia A families of Portuguese origin. The spectrum of non-inversion F8 mutations in 101 families included 67 different alterations, namely: 36 missense, 8 nonsense and 4 splice site mutations, as well as 19 insertions/deletions. Thirty-four of these mutations are novel. Molecular modeling allowed prediction of the conformational changes introduced by selected amino acid substitutions and their correlation with the patients' phenotypes. The relatively frequent, population-specific, missense mutations together with de novo alterations can lead to significant differences in the spectrum of F8 mutations among different populations; This study was partially supported by Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia: research grant PBIC/C/SAU/1588/92 and Programa de Financiamento Plurianual do CIGMH

‣ Efficient Induction of Nuclear Aggresomes by Specific Single Missense Mutations in the DNA-binding Domain of a Viral AP-1 Homolog*

Park, Richard; Wang'ondu, Ruth; Heston, Lee; Shedd, Duane; Miller, George
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Nuclear aggresomes induced by proteins containing an expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) tract are pathologic hallmarks of certain neurodegenerative diseases. Some GFP fusion proteins lacking a polyQ tract may also induce nuclear aggresomes in cultured cells. Here we identify single missense mutations within the basic DNA recognition region of Bam HI Z E B virus replication activator (ZEBRA), an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded basic zipper protein without a polyQ tract, that efficiently induced the formation of nuclear aggresomes. Wild-type (WT) ZEBRA was diffusely distributed within the nucleus. Four non-DNA-binding mutants, Z(R179E), Z(R183E), Z(R190E), and Z(K178D) localized to the periphery of large intranuclear spheres, to discrete nuclear aggregates, and to the cytoplasm. Other non-DNA-binding mutants, Z(N182K), Z(N182E), and Z(S186E), did not exhibit this phenotype. The interior of the spheres contained promyelocytic leukemia and HSP70 proteins. ZEBRA mutants directly induced the nuclear aggresome pathway in cells with and without EBV. Specific cellular proteins (SC35 and HDAC6) and viral proteins (WT ZEBRA, Rta, and BMLF1) but not other cellular or viral proteins were recruited to nuclear aggresomes. Co-transfection of WT ZEBRA with aggresome-inducing mutants Z(R183E) and Z(R179E) inhibited late lytic viral protein expression and lytic viral DNA amplification. This is the first reported instance in which nuclear aggresomes are induced by single missense mutations in a viral or cellular protein. We discuss conformational changes in the mutant viral AP-1 proteins that may lead to formation of nuclear aggresomes.

‣ Parkinson-causing α-synuclein missense mutations shift native tetramers to monomers as a mechanism for disease initiation

Dettmer, Ulf; Newman, Andrew J.; Soldner, Frank; Luth, Eric S.; Kim, Nora C.; von Saucken, Victoria E.; Sanderson, John B.; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Bartels, Tim; Selkoe, Dennis
Fonte: Nature Pub. Group Publicador: Nature Pub. Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/06/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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β-Sheet-rich α-synuclein (αS) aggregates characterize Parkinson's disease (PD). αS was long believed to be a natively unfolded monomer, but recent work suggests it also occurs in α-helix-rich tetramers. Crosslinking traps principally tetrameric αS in intact normal neurons, but not after cell lysis, suggesting a dynamic equilibrium. Here we show that freshly biopsied normal human brain contains abundant αS tetramers. The PD-causing mutation A53T decreases tetramers in mouse brain. Neurons derived from an A53T patient have decreased tetramers. Neurons expressing E46K do also, and adding 1-2 E46K-like mutations into the canonical αS repeat motifs (KTKEGV) further reduces tetramers, decreases αS solubility and induces neurotoxicity and round inclusions. The other three fPD missense mutations likewise decrease tetramer:monomer ratios. The destabilization of physiological tetramers by PD-causing missense mutations and the neurotoxicity and inclusions induced by markedly decreasing tetramers suggest that decreased α-helical tetramers and increased unfolded monomers initiate pathogenesis. Tetramer-stabilizing compounds should prevent this.