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‣ Status of Energy Efficiency in the Western Balkans : A Stocktaking Report

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
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Across the Western Balkan region, countries exhibit relatively high levels of energy intensity, a high energy savings potential among energy end-users, and heavy dependence on imported hydrocarbons. Energy markets would benefit from enhanced demand-side efforts and integrated energy efficiency measures across all sectors. Since most energy infrastructure was built during the 1960s and 1970s, inadequately maintained since the 1990s, and reaching the end of its useful lifespan, now is a crucial time to consider the way forward in the energy sector. The signing of the Energy Community Treaty in 2003 marked the beginning of systematic energy sector liberalization among Western Balkan countries, allowing them to deal with widespread energy sector problems that included, on the demand side, low energy tariffs, lack of payment discipline and, hence, little incentive for energy users to invest in energy efficiency measures. Building each component of the strong enabling environment required for increased Energy Efficiency (EE) across the Western Balkan countries will need cooperation among decision makers at multiple government levels...

‣ Toward a Sustainable Global Energy Supply Infrastructure : Net Energy Balance and Density Considerations

Kessides, Ioannis N.; Wade, David C.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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This paper complements previous work on the economics of different energy resources by examining the growth potential of alternative electricity supply infrastructures as constrained by innate physical limits. Coal-fired generation meets the criteria of longevity (abundance of energy source) and scalability (effective capability to expand to the multi-terawatt level) which are critical for a sustainable energy supply chain, but it carries a very heavy carbon footprint. Renewables and nuclear power meet both the longevity and climate friendliness criteria. However, they vary in terms of their ability to deliver net energy at a scale needed for meeting a huge global energy demand. The low density of renewable resources for electricity generation and the current intermittency of many renewables limit their ability to achieve high rates of growth. And a significant global increase in nuclear power deployment could engender serious risks related to proliferation, safety, and waste disposal. Unlike renewable sources of energy...

‣ Energy Access, Efficiency, and Poverty : How Many Households Are Energy Poor in Bangladesh?

Barnes, Douglas F.; Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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Access to energy, especially modern sources, is a key to any development initiative. Based on cross-section data from a 2004 survey of some 2,300 households in rural Bangladesh, this paper studies the welfare impacts of household energy use, including that of modern energy, and estimates the household minimum energy requirement that could be used as a basis for an energy poverty line. The paper finds that although the use of both traditional (biomass energy burned in conventional stoves) and modern (electricity and kerosene) sources improves household consumption and income, the return on modern sources is 20 to 25 times higher than that on traditional sources. In addition, after comparing alternate measures of the energy poverty line, the paper finds that some 58 percent of rural households in Bangladesh are energy poor, compared with 45 percent that are income poor. The findings suggest that growth in electrification and adoption of efficient cooking stoves for biomass use can lower energy poverty in a climate-friendly way by reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Reducing energy poverty helps reduce income poverty as well.

‣ Energy Demand Models for Policy Formulation : A Comparative Study of Energy Demand Models

Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.; Timilsina, Govinda R.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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This paper critically reviews existing energy demand forecasting methodologies highlighting the methodological diversities and developments over the past four decades in order to investigate whether the existing energy demand models are appropriate for capturing the specific features of developing countries. The study finds that two types of approaches, econometric and end-use accounting, are used in the existing energy demand models. Although energy demand models have greatly evolved since the early 1970s, key issues such as the poor-rich and urban-rural divides, traditional energy resources, and differentiation between commercial and non-commercial energy commodities are often poorly reflected in these models. While the end-use energy accounting models with detailed sector representations produce more realistic projections compared with the econometric models, they still suffer from huge data deficiencies especially in developing countries. Development and maintenance of more detailed energy databases...

‣ Mainstreaming Building Energy Efficiency Codes in Developing Countries : Global Experiences and Lessons from Early Adopters

Liu, Feng; Meyer, Anke S.; Hogan, John F.
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
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This report summarizes the findings of an extensive literature survey of the experiences of implementing BEECs in developed countries. It also includes case studies of four developing countries- China, Egypt, India, and Mexico and the state of California in the United States of America. It aims to inform both the World Bank Group and its client countries about global best practices and emerging lessons from developing countries in the design and implementation of BEECs. The report also serves as a primer on the basic features of BEECs and the commonly adopted compliance and enforcement approaches. The key challenges to improving compliance enforcement in developing countries include the level of government commitment to energy efficiency, the effectiveness of government oversight of the construction sector, the compliance capacity of domestic/local building supply chain, and the financing constraints. These challenges are surmountable in countries where economic growth is sustained and energy efficiency is pursued as a key element of national energy strategy.

‣ Financing Energy Efficiency : Lessons from Brazil, China, India, and Beyond

Taylor, Robert P.; Govindarajalu, Chandrasekar; Levin, Jeremy; Meyer, Anke S.; Ward, William A.
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Português
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Energy for heating, cooling, lighting, mechanical power, and various chemical processes is a fundamental requirement for both daily life and economic development. The negative impact on the environment of current energy systems is increasingly alarming, especially the global warming consequences of burning fossil fuels. The future requires change through the development and adoption of new supply technologies, through a successful search for new, less resource-intensive paths of economic development, and through adoption of energy. Greater energy efficiency is key for shifting country development paths toward lower-carbon economic growth. Especially in developing countries and transition economies, vast potential for energy savings opportunities remain unrealized even though current financial returns are strong. Activities included specialized technical assistance, training, and applied research covering the four primary areas of country interest: (a) development of commercial banking windows for energy efficiency; (b) support for developing energy service companies (ESCOs); (c) guarantee funds for energy efficiency investment financing; and (d) equity funding for ESCOs or energy efficiency projects. One clear message from the experience of the three country Energy Efficiency Project is the importance of establishing and maintaining practical...

‣ Public Procurement of Energy Efficiency Services : Lessons from International Experience

Singh, Jas; Limaye, Dilip R.; Henderson, Brian; Shi, Xiaoyu
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
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This book explores energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs) as a means of overcoming some of the more difficult hurdles in promoting energy efficiency in public facilities. ESPCs represent a very attractive solution to many of the problems that are unique to public agencies, since they involve outsourcing a full project cycle to a service provider. From the detailed audit through implementation and savings verification, ESPCs can relieve public agencies of bureaucratic hassles, while service providers can secure the off-budget project financing and be paid from the actual energy savings, thus internalizing project performance risks. ESPC bidding also allows public agencies to select from a range of technical solutions, maximizing the benefit to the agency. Global experience suggests that ESPCs have been more effective at realizing efficiency gains than many other policy measures and programs, since the service providers have a vested interest in ensuring that a project is actually implemented. Many of the country governments interviewed for the study also saw enormous potential in bundling, financing, and implementing energy efficiency projects on a larger scale in the public sector, a method that increases the rate of efficiency gains and creates further benefits through economies of scale.

‣ Bolivia Final Report on Operational Activities : Rural Energy and Energy Efficiency

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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When energy sector reforms were essentially completed in Bolivia in 1966, technical assistance initiatives in rural energy and energy efficiency picked up steam. Assistance was provided to the government to develop a sustainable market for rural energy. This development was guided by the following principles: the government role was that of regulator and facilitator; priority demand should be met at a municipal level and consumers decide whether a given rural energy project should be implemented; and the private sector should be encouraged to diversify energy supply in rural areas and to adopt the most sustainable and least costly combination of technologies. Halfway into the implementation of the rural energy component, it was realized that the use of biomass in rural areas needed special attention. An action plan was devised to provide a guide for the sustainable use of biomass energy services in rural areas and mitigate the impact of supplying and consuming biomass as an energy source. The National Biomass Program sets out energy policy options for creating regulatory and incentive mechanisms to promote the sustainable management of biomass. This approach will allow the biomass energy market to be integrated into the national energy market...

‣ Egypt : Improve Energy Efficiency

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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Egypt has an overall low efficiency in using energy resources to create economic wealth. Egypt is among the most energy intensive economies in the Middle East North Africa region as well as in the world. The Egyptian energy intensity is almost twice as high as in some neighboring countries like Morocco and Tunisia and four times as high as industrialized countries like Japan and Germany. On the sector level, most industrial processes, equipment and consumer appliances in Egypt have 20 percent or higher energy consumption than the best international practices. Therefore, Egypt has a great opportunity to improve the efficiency of its energy resource utilization across all segments of economic activities. The objective of this report is to take stock of the past/ongoing energy efficiency initiatives and activities and to recommend a set of the principal strategic actions which could be undertaken by the Government of Egypt to promote and sustain energy efficiency improvements. The first part of the report presents the following topics: a brief general overview of energy use in Egypt; an analysis of the current institutional framework for energy efficiency; a review of the past...

‣ Energy Efficiency : Lessons Learned from Success Stories

Stuggins, Gary; Sharabaroff, Alexander; Semikolenova, Yadviga
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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This study is designed to analyze the energy efficiency policies in seven countries that were successful in achieving low energy intensities or in reducing their energy intensity considerably. The study analyzes the evolution of the energy intensity of these countries from 1990 to 2007, identifying points of inflection in the progress towards improvements. Changes to the policy agenda immediately upstream are explored in an effort to identify cause and affect relationships in energy efficiency improvements. Although direct relationships are difficult to isolate, cross country analyses that point to similar successes among a variety of countries give some confidence that these policies have contributed to reducing energy needs. The energy efficiency of new buildings is relatively easily and in expensively addressed by setting standards: making a new building energy efficient typically adds only 5 percent to the total cost. The purpose of this study is to determine what policy changes make a difference in countries' energy in tensity. The starting point for the analysis was the evolution of countries' energy intensity over time to identify inflection points when notable changes took place. Given that the inflection point could have been caused by external price shocks or structural changes...

‣ Winds of Change : East Asia's Sustainable Energy Future

Wang, Xiaodong; Berrah, Noureddine; Mathur, Subodh; Vinuya, Ferdinand
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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This report demonstrates that a "climate-smart" energy strategy is possible for countries in the East Asia region, with support from the international community. In the past three decades, the East Asia region has experienced the fastest economic growth in the world, accompanied by rapid urbanization. As a consequence, energy consumption has more than tripled and is expected to further double over the next two decades. This remarkable growth and rapid urbanization have led to twin energy challenges in the region: improving environmental sustainability and enhancing energy security. The region has many of the world's most polluted cities, resulting from fossil fuel combustion. The region also contains some of the largest greenhouse gas emitters in the world, although their per capita and historical emissions are much below the levels of industrialized countries. Concerns with energy security have grown because of increased risks of price volatility and possible disruptions in supplies for oil and gas. To move the region to a sustainable energy path...

‣ Implementing Energy Subsidy Reforms : Evidence from Developing Countries

Vagliasindi, Maria
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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Poorly implemented energy subsidies are economically costly to taxpayers and damage the environment through increased emissions of greenhouse gases and other air pollutants. Energy subsidies also create distortive price signals and result in higher energy consumption or production as well as barriers to entry for cleaner energy services. Subsidies to consumption, by lowering end-use prices, can encourage increased energy use and reduce incentives to conserve energy efficiently. Universal energy-price subsidies tend to be regressive because benefits are conditional upon the purchase of subsidized goods and increase with expenditure. This report selected a representative sample of case studies in 20 developing countries, based on a number of criteria, including the countries' level of development (and consumption) and energy dependency (distinguishing between net energy exporters and importers). The case studies have been selected on the hypothesis that energy dependence and per capita income appear to be the key drivers of subsidy reforms in developing countries. Of the two criteria...

‣ Restoring Balance : Bangladesh's Rural Energy Realities

Asaduzzaman, Mohammad; Barnes, Douglas F.; Khandker, Shahidur R.
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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Bangladesh is one of the world's poorest countries. Nearly 80 percent of the nation's 140 million people reside in rural areas; of these, 20 percent live in extreme poverty. Geographically, many low-lying areas are vulnerable to severe flooding, while other regions are prone to drought, erosion, and soil salinity. Such an unfavorable agricultural landscape, combined with mismanagement of natural resources and increasing population pressure, is pushing many of the rural poor to the brink. Because Bangladesh is such a poor country, it also is one of the world's lowest energy producers. Total annual energy supply is only about 150 liters of oil equivalent per capita (International Energy Agency, or IEA 2003); in rural areas, conditions are even worse. Compared to other developing countries, Bangladesh uses little modern energy. Despite its successful rural electrification program, close to two-thirds of households remain without electricity and, with the exception of kerosene, commercial fuels are beyond reach for many. Moreover...

‣ Tapping a Hidden Resource : Energy Efficiency in the Middle East and North Africa

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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Energy efficiency can improve fiscal balances, stimulate growth and competitiveness, strengthen energy security, and reduce the energy burden of the poor. It also can enhance the quality of life by improving energy products and services, reducing pollution, and reallocating savings from energy to social services and other welfare enhancements. From a long-term perspective, energy efficiency preserves energy resources for future generations and mitigates climate change. Most governments in the region consider energy efficiency as a priority issue, although for different reasons. The key issue for many is the weight of energy subsidies in fiscal balances; for others, it is the vulnerability of the economy to swings in hydrocarbon prices and the risk of losing competitiveness; and for still others, it is concern about generating enough financing for energy investments and satisfying the energy demand of their fast-growing economies. These factors have prompted governments to renew their efforts to improve energy efficiency. This report explores opportunities to boost energy efficiency in the Middle East and North Africa and secure a sustainable energy future for the region. It explores governments' growing concern about the burden of energy subsidies and identifies opportunities to improve efficiency...

‣ Restoring Balance : Bangladesh's Rural Energy Realities

Asaduzzaman, M.; Barnes, Douglas F.; Khandker, Shahidur R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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35.877231%
This study, the first to concentrate on Bangladesh's energy systems and their effects on the lives of rural people, drew on these background studies, as well as other World Bank-financed research on IAP and rural infrastructure, to present a rural energy strategy for the country. The study's broad aim was to identify ways to improve the living standard in rural Bangladesh through better and more efficient use of energy, while creating an environment conducive to growth and poverty reduction. For any developing country, the crux of a rural energy strategy is to have more and better choices for meeting rural demand for energy through market mechanisms and sound policy. This goes hand in hand with the development of competent implementing institutions, which are critical to the process. Also important are new supply- and demand side technologies that can be used to raise rural people's welfare and improve productivity to increase growth prospects. Accordingly, the rural energy strategy advocated by this study aims to satisfy the types of demand that increase household welfare and raise rural growth prospects as energy becomes a direct input into the production process.

‣ Initiating the Bank's Peri-Urban/Rural and Renewable Energy Activities in Nigeria

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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35.877231%
The workshop entitled, Initiating the Bank's Peri Urban / Rural and Renewable Energy Activities in Nigeria was divided in two parts. Part 1, Energizing rural energy transformation by : scaling up electricity access and renewable energy market development; and part 2, Creating demand and removing barriers to renewable energy market development. The workshop organizers placed great emphasis on promoting participation and dialog across Nigeria's energy sector. Delegates were major stakeholders in the rural electrification arena. This document lists the proceedings, and includes the presentations by participants of the overall workshop. The workshop concluded by identifying the following areas for action : accelerate the process of formulating Nigeria's overall vision for scaling up electricity access from renewable energy sources in underserved areas in a rapid and sustainable manner; identify key principles for framing the policy platform and institutional framework required for mounting a large-scale clean energy program; formulate a strategy for developing renewable and clean energy resources in a cost effective manner...

‣ Sustainable Energy in China : The Closing Window of Opportunity

Berrah, Noureddine; Feng, Fei; Priddle, Roland; Wang, Leiping
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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This report proposes the development of a coordinated and comprehensive national policy within the Energy Law that is presently under preparation based on four foundational themes: reducing energy growth below economic growth, making better use of national energy resources, safeguarding the environment, and making the energy system robust to withstand potential disruptions. It stresses that the policy measures and program to achieve sustainability will have to be the subject of careful consultation within government and extend to mobilizing China's civil society. The scope of and potential for fruitful international cooperation is also explored, but the detail must be worked out in a cooperative framework. The main body of the report is arranged in six chapters. The first examines what the projections say about the future of China's energy consumption and concludes that urgent action is needed to avoid locking the country into an unsustainable energy development path. Chapter two evaluates end-use efficiency and finds that a less energy-intensive path can be founded on the most advanced technologies. The third chapter examines the damaging environmental impacts of the huge prospective energy growth...

‣ The energy price shock and the 1974-75 recession

Mork, Knut Anton
Fonte: MIT Energy Laboratory Publicador: MIT Energy Laboratory
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 1540954 bytes; application/pdf
Português
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Research supported by MIT's Center for Energy Policy Research.

‣ A car air-conditioning system based on an absorption refrigeration cycle using energy from exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine

Vicatos,G; Gryzagoridis,J; Wang,S
Fonte: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa Publicador: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 Português
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Energy from the exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine is used to power an absorption refrigeration system to air-condition an ordinary passenger car. The theoretical design is verified by a unit that is tested under both laboratory and road-test conditions. For the latter, the unit is installed in a Nissan 1400 truck and the results indicate a successful prototype and encouraging prospects for future development.

‣ Household energy, indoor air pollution and child respiratory health in South Africa

Barnes,Brendon; Mathee,Angela; Thomas,Elizabeth; Bruce,Nigel
Fonte: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa Publicador: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2009 Português
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Indoor air pollution due to the indoor burning of polluting fuels has been associated with Acute Lower Respiratory Infections (ALRI) amongst children less than five years old. This paper reviews evidence of the association between household energy, indoor air pollution and child ALRI in South Africa. Studies show evidence consistent with the international literature with the likelihood of ALRI between 2 and 4 amongst children living in households using polluting fuels compared to households using electricity. Indoor air pollution is responsible for the deaths of up to 1 400 children annually. Interventions have demonstrated 46 - 97% lower pollution concentrations compared to open fires. However, the sustainability of selected interventions has been questioned in certain contexts. The paper discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the evidence and highlights opportunities for further research.