Major modifications of immune system have been observed in African trypanosomiasis. These immune reactions do not lead to protection and are also involved in immunopathology disorders. The major surface component (variable surface glycoprotein,VSG) is associated with escape to immune reactions, cytokine network dysfunctions and autoantibody production. Most of our knowledge result from experimental trypanosomiasis. Innate resistance elements have been characterised. In infected mice, VSG preferentially stimulates a Th 1-cell subset. A response of gd and CD8 T cells to trypanosome antigens was observed in trypanotolerant cattle. An increase in CD5 B cells, responsible for most serum IgM and production of autoantibodies has been noted in infected cattle. Macrophages play important roles in trypanosomiasis, in synergy with antibodies (phagocytosis) and by secreting various molecules (radicals, cytokines, prostaglandins,...). Trypanosomes are highly sensitive to TNF-alpha, reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates. TNF-alpha is also involved in cachexia. IFN-gamma acts as a parasite growth factor. These various elements contribute to immunosuppression. Trypanosomes have learnt to use immune mechanisms to its own profit. Recent data show the importance of alternative macrophage activation...
The mucosa associated lymphoid tissue regulates and coordinates immune responses against mucosal pathogens. Mucosal tissues are the major targets exposed to HIV during transmission. In this paper we describe in vitro models of HIV mucosal infection using human explants to investigate target cells within this tissue.
The opportunities and challenges for the study and control of parasitic diseases in the 21st century are both exciting and daunting. Based on the contributions from this field over the last part of the 20th century, we should expect new biologic concepts will continue to come from this discipline to enrich the general area of biomedical research. The general nature of such a broad category of infections is difficult to distill, but they often depend on well-orchestrated, complex life cycles and they often involve chronic, relatively well-balanced host/parasite relationships. Such characteristics force biological systems to their limits, and this may be why studies of these diseases have made fundamental contributions to molecular biology, cell biology and immunology. However, if these findings are to continue apace, parasitologists must capitalize on the new findings being generated though genomics, bioinformatics, proteomics, and genetic manipulations of both host and parasite. Furthermore, they must do so based on sound biological insights and the use of hypothesis-driven studies of these complex systems. A major challenge over the next century will be to capitalize on these new findings and translate them into successful, sustainable strategies for control...
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses before 20 weeks and is associated with several etiological factors related to genetics, anatomy, hormones, infections and immunology, for example. Many cases of RSA remain unclear. New factors or their associations may influence gestational results. The aim was to identify possible single or associated causes of RSA that could predict gestational prognosis for women undergoing investigation and treatment. DESIGN AND SETTING: Case-control study, at the Recurrent Abortion Outpatient Clinic, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology School of Medicine, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp). METHODS: Two hundred and forty-six medical records of women with RSA seen at the Recurrent Abortion Outpatient Clinic, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology School of Medicine, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp), between 1994 and 2003, were evaluated. Data on age, obstetric history, possible etiological factors, treatment and pregnancy outcomes were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using odds ratios (OR), logistic regression analysis and decision trees. RESULTS: Two hundred and twenty-nine women were included in the study. The most frequently found etiological factors were immunological...
Echinococcosis is a cosmopolitan zoonosis caused by adult or larval stages of cestodes belonging to the genus Echinococcus (family Taeniidae). The two major species of medical and public health importance are Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis, which cause cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE), respectively. Both CE and AE are both serious diseases, the latter especially so, with a high fatality rate and poor prognosis if managed inappropriately. This review discusses new concepts and approaches in the immunology and diagnosis of CE, but comparative reference has also been made to AE infection and to earlier pivotal studies of both diseases. The review considers immunity to infection in the intermediate and definitive hosts, innate resistance, evasion of the immune system, and vaccination of intermediate and definitive hosts, and it particularly emphasizes procedures for diagnosis of CE and AE, including the value of immunodiagnostic approaches. There is also discussion of the new advances in recombinant and related DNA technologies, especially application of PCR, that are providing powerful tools in the fields of vaccinology and molecular diagnosis of echinococcosis.
Data from about 1,000 laboratories participating in the Diagnostic Immunology portion of the 1978 Center for Disease Control Proficiency Testing Program provided information dealing with laboratory performance and trends in testing protocols. Ninety specimens were distributed in scheduled quarterly and semiannual shipments, and five additional specimens were provided in a special survey. The specimens offered both qualitative and quantitative challenges for a wide variety of analytes which included syphilis serology, rheumatoid factor, bacterial agglutinins, hepatitis B surface antigen, immunoglobulins and other serum proteins, infectious mononucleosis, rubella, toxoplasma, antinuclear antibodies, and streptococcal exoenzymes. This paper summarizes the results of the 1978 program.
The data accumulated from 1969 to 1979 in the Diagnostic Immunology portion of the Center for Disease Control Proficiency Testing Program were evaluated for evidence of change in performance among the participating laboratories. Evidence of improved performance was found for the rubella, rheumatoid factor, tularemia, quantitative immunoglobulin (immunoglobulin G, A, and M), and hepatitis B tests. No evidence of change was detected for the streptococcal enzyme, C-reactive protein, infectious mononucleosis, antinuclear antibodies, Salmonella and Brucella agglutinins, and syphilis tests. Data obtained from other tests were inadequate to determine trends. In most tests, deficiencies were identified which could be corrected and thereby could improve performance. It is pointed out that proficiency testing not only improves laboratory performance, but also can be used to evaluate performance levels, identify method, standard, or performance deficiencies, educate, estimate impact of possible changes, serve as external quality control, and document changes.
Rogers, Thomas E. (Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge), Richard J. Hidalgo, and George T. Dimopoullos. Immunology and serology of Anaplasma marginale. I. Fractionation of the complement-fixing antigen. J. Bacteriol. 88:81–86. 1964.—Studies were conducted to fractionate and purify the complement-fixation (CF) antigen of Anaplasma marginale in infected erythrocytes of cattle. Initial attempts were made to resolve the antigen from crude stromatal preparations by various chemical and physical methods. Fractionation procedures involving partial and total lipid extraction suggested that the CF antigen was lipoprotein in nature. Fluorocarbon deproteinization of stromatal antigens was also attempted. A method was developed for the preparation of a desirable Anaplasma CF antigen which involved disintegration of infected erythrocytes by sonic vibration and separation of the antigen by differential centrifugation. Antigens prepared by this method were highly specific, colorless, did not exhibit anticomplementary activity, and possessed higher titers than standard Anaplasma antigens. When density-gradient sedimentation was applied to sonic extracts of infected cells, it was demonstrated that the CF antigen could also be fractionated by this method.
Brookbank, John W. (University of Florida, Gainesville) and Mary R. Heisler. Immunology of the yeast Hansenula wingei. J. Bacteriol. 85:509–515. 1963.—Antisera produced in three groups of rabbits (18 animals in all) against mating types of Hansenula wingei, using three different modes of injection, failed to show specificity for mating type. However, the antisera were reactive with material obtained from the cells (presumably from the cell wall) by extraction at 100 C. A constituent of this fraction of boiled cells is in some way involved in the auto-agglutination of unboiled cells upon the disruption of these cells in a Mickle disintegrator. The antisera are of broad specificity regarding their ability to agglutinate cells of other species of Hansenula, and have been shown to react with a minimum of one antigen found in supernatants of both H. anomala and H. saturnus boiled cells in double agar diffusion tests. H. wingei supernatants (boiled cells), in reaction with homologous antisera, show additional components not shown by H. anomala or H. saturnus.
The problems associated with the ageing immune system coupled with possible solutions were discussed recently at the British Society for Immunology Annual Congress in Harrogate in December 2004. The session "Ageing and the Immune System in vivo" dealt in details with the immune risk phenotype and the potential methods of reversing the problems of an ageing immune system. This is a commentary on that session.
The clinical and laboratory details of 10 patients with predominantly immunological problems were circulated to selected physicians in different forms of hospital practice. In general, these physicians would prefer to select their own immunological tasks and could get these performed in their clinical pathology laboratories or regional immunology centres. Immunologists are seen predominantly as laboratory-based advisers rather than clinicians responsible for the care of such patients.
Twenty-four female lambs were intoxicated with a diet contaminated with 2 ppm aflatoxin for a period of 37 d. Twelve lambs were maintained as the control group. After this period, the lambs were left for 35 d without aflatoxin in their feed. Performance, hematology and clinical immunology were examined in the intoxicated lambs. A non-significant decrease in body weight was observed in the intoxicated lambs during the intoxication period, whereas a significant decrease (P<0.001) in average daily gain was noted on the last day of intoxication and during the clearance period. No significant differences were observed in erythrocyte count, white blood cell count or differential leukocyte count between the groups. Bacteriostatic activity of the serum was lower in the intoxicated lambs, however, there was no effect on serum opsonic activity. Phagocytosis by the neutrophils was higher during the intoxication period and the levels of IgG were elevated in the intoxicated lambs. In vivo cellular immunity was assessed by intradermal injection of phytohemagglutinin; the response was lower during intoxication period. These results indicate that a lowering in the average daily gain was the most sensitive indicator of aflatoxicosis in lambs, and that the immune response was altered...
Hospital clinics for patients with chronic unexplained fatigue are held in
departments of various disciplines. This causes difficulties for referrers in
choosing the appropriate clinic and for researchers in generalizing findings
from one type of clinic to others. We randomly selected 37 outpatients
attending an immunology fatigue clinic and 36 outpatients attending a
psychiatry fatigue clinic, all of whom had chronic fatigue syndrome. We
compared demographic factors, symptoms, disability, quality of life,
psychological distress and illness attributions.
AntiJen is a database system focused on the integration of kinetic, thermodynamic, functional, and cellular data within the context of immunology and vaccinology. Compared to its progenitor JenPep, the interface has been completely rewritten and redesigned and now offers a wider variety of search methods, including a nucleotide and a peptide BLAST search. In terms of data archived, AntiJen has a richer and more complete breadth, depth, and scope, and this has seen the database increase to over 31,000 entries. AntiJen provides the most complete and up-to-date dataset of its kind. While AntiJen v2.0 retains a focus on both T cell and B cell epitopes, its greatest novelty is the archiving of continuous quantitative data on a variety of immunological molecular interactions. This includes thermodynamic and kinetic measures of peptide binding to TAP and the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC), peptide-MHC complexes binding to T cell receptors, antibodies binding to protein antigens and general immunological protein-protein interactions. The database also contains quantitative specificity data from position-specific peptide libraries and biophysical data, in the form of diffusion co-efficients and cell surface copy numbers, on MHCs and other immunological molecules. The uses of AntiJen include the design of vaccines and diagnostics...
This review set out to answer several questions related to tumour immunology and the gut. It is evident that in patients with gastrointestinal cancer there is a general depression of the immune response and this seems to be correlated with the stage of the disease. Paradoxically a specific immune response against definable tumour antigens can be demonstrated, both cellular and humoral mechanisms being involved although the complexities of this paradox require further analysis. Immunotherapy has been employed in gastrointestinal tumours in a sporadic way. The results suggest that gastrointestinal neoplasms may respond at least as well as other tumours. A firm conclusion awaits the results of controlled trials in which the bulk of the tumour has been effectively dealt with by other means or where combined immunochemotherapy is being used.
In this review, we shall highlight some recent advances in mucosal immunology and also those concepts which seem to us to merit more attention than they normally receive. Since we cannot hope to be all inclusive, we recommend the following articles and books to the reader (Tomasi & Bienenstock, 1968; Tomasi & Grey, 1972; Bienenstock, 1974; Heremans, 1974; Mestecky & Lawton, 1974; Lamm, 1976; Tomasi, 1976; Waksman & Ozer, 1976; Porter & Knight, 1977; McGhee, Mestecky & Babb, 1978; Ogra & Dayton, 1979; Befus & Bienenstock, 1980).