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‣ Impactos dos tributos sobre a renda na geração de valor das empresas: um estudo comparativo internaciona; The impact of income taxation on value added by firms: an international comparative study

Caldeira, Luciano Marques
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/04/2006 Português
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A discussão acerca do impacto dos tributos sobre a renda na geração de valor ainda é pouco explorada na teoria de finanças. No entanto, a necessidade de investigação do tema é crescente, já que se trata de importante variável na composição do valor das empresas. O problema de estudo investiga se a estrutura dos tributos sobre a renda, determinada pela legislação específica de um país, pode ser responsável por um ganho de valor das empresas desse país se comparado a outro país com diferente legislação. O objetivo deste trabalho é determinar o impacto dos tributos sobre a renda no valor das empresas em diferentes países. Em um primeiro momento é analisada, por meio da técnica bibliográfica e documental, a legislação dos tributos sobre a renda das empresas dos países selecionados (Brasil, EUA, Espanha e Japão), a fim de demonstrar e comparar as formas de apuração desses tributos. Após essa evidenciação, são realizadas análises estatísticas, por meio de testes de diferença entre médias das alíquotas efetivas e das bases de tributos sobre a renda nas empresas de capital aberto dos países analisados, buscando comparar os resultados obtidos com as formas de tributação sobre a renda apresentadas. Para comprovação e análise final do trabalho foi elaborada uma simulação hipotética visando demonstrar os efeitos dos tributos sobre a renda na geração de valor das empresas. Os resultados apurados revelam diferenças significativas entre a alíquota efetiva dos países e a alíquota marginal definida pela legislação...

‣ Lealdade às marcas de produtos e às marcas de lojas de varejo: um estudo comparativo entre consumidores de baixa e alta renda; Loyalty to product brands and retail store brands: a comparative study among low income and high income consumers

Santos, Sergio Antonio dos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/11/2009 Português
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O interesse em entender o comportamento do consumidor de Baixa Renda vem ganhando importância nos últimos anos. Este interesse crescente baseia-se no entendimento de que o crescimento futuro das economias e organizações empresariais dependem, cada vez mais, da inserção desses consumidores no processo de consumo. Esta dissertação teve como objetivo verificar se os consumidores de Baixa Renda apresentam diferenças no que se relaciona ao comportamento de lealdade à marca de produto em comparação à marca de varejo. Adicionalmente buscou comparar o comportamento de lealdade à marca de produto e marca de varejo entre os indivíduos de baixa renda e alta renda, e identificar as causas possíveis das diferenças encontradas. Para tanto foi realizada uma pesquisa tipo survey com consumidores de Baixa Renda e Alta Renda através de dois questionários estruturados, um para marcas de produtos (televisores) e outro para marcas de varejo. O processo de análise envolveu testes de proporção de diferenças, de médias e associação e de análise de variância múltipla.Os resultados indicaram que a posição na classe de renda não influenciou, de maneira estatisticamente significativa, o comportamento de lealdade, seja em relação às marcas de produto...

‣ Transferências interna e externa de renda do agronegócio brasileiro; Internal and external transfers of income from brazilian agribusiness

Silva, Adriana Ferreira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/04/2010 Português
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A partir de 1995, as melhorias advindas da estabilização monetária e a expansão de programas de transferência de renda, em adição ao crescente padrão de comércio internacional, refletiram em redução da concentração de renda e da pobreza no Brasil. Acredita-se que o agronegócio, ao assumir posição estratégica para o controle da inflação e geração de divisas no comércio exterior, possa ter tido participação relevante nesta trajetória. Perante tal cenário, procura-se neste trabalho contribuir para a compreensão do papel do agronegócio no processo de distribuição de renda, particularmente em relação às transferências de renda para os demais setores da economia doméstica e também para o mercado externo. Transferência é aqui entendida como a perda ou ganho de renda em decorrência de mudança nos preços relativos. Buscou-se, assim, averiguar as relações existentes entre a renda gerada pelo agronegócio e a renda efetivamente apropriada pelo setor, devido às variações de preço reais ocorridas no período de 1995 a 2008. Os resultados indicaram que a evolução do produto foi sempre superior à do Produto Interno Bruto - PIB a preços reais correntes e, portanto, que o produto cresceu com preços reais decrescentes. A queda de preços somada ao aumento da produção representou uma perda de renda potencial do agronegócio...

‣ Transfer pricing e income shifting: evidências de empresas abertas brasileiras; Transfer pricing e income shifting: evidences from Brazilian listed companies

Rathke, Alex Augusto Timm
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/12/2014 Português
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O presente estudo buscou identificar indícios da prática de income shifting por meio da manipulação dos preços de transferência por empresas abertas brasileiras, antes e após as alterações nas normas fiscais instituídas pela Lei nº 12.715/12 e pela IN RFB nº 1.312/12. A teoria econômica infere que as firmas multinacionais possuem incentivos a manipular os preços nas transações com suas partes relacionadas, de modo a transferir resultados a localidades com menores cargas fiscais, com o objetivo final de reduzir a carga tributária sobre o lucro total do grupo econômico. Com base na análise de dados em painel de 52 empresas abertas brasileiras que realizaram transações internacionais com partes relacionadas no período de 2010 a 2013, os resultados revelam que as empresas analisadas cujas controladas têm maior volume de transações com partes relacionadas internacionais apresentam menor tributação no grupo consolidado, e que firmas com maiores incentivos ao income shifting possuem maiores indicativos de transferência de resultados entre a controladora e o grupo total. Os resultados indicam que tais relações não sofreram modificações no período de vigência das novas normas tributárias no Brasil. As constatações levantadas representam robustos indícios de que as empresas brasileiras utilizam os preços de transferência para o alcance do income shifting...

‣ Mid-point for open-ended income category and the effect of equivalence scales on the income-health relationship

Celeste,Roger Keller; Bastos,Joao Luiz
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2013 Português
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To estimate the mid-point of an open-ended income category and to assess the impact of two equivalence scales on income-health associations. Data were obtained from the 2010 Brazilian Oral Health Survey ( Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde Bucal – SBBrasil 2010). Income was converted from categorical to two continuous variables ( per capita and equivalized) for each mid-point. The median mid-point was R$ 14,523.50 and the mean, R$ 24,507.10. When per capita income was applied, 53% of the population were below the poverty line, compared with 15% with equivalized income. The magnitude of income-health associations was similar for continuous income, but categorized equivalized income tended to decrease the strength of association.

‣ Leading Dragons Phenomenon : New Opportunities for Catch-Up in Low-Income Countries

Chandra, Vandana; Lin, Justin Yifu; Wang, Yan
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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Modern economic development is accompanied by the structural transformation from an agrarian to an industrial economy and occurs through a process of continuous industrial and technological upgrading. Since the 18th century, all countries that industrialized successfully in Europe, North America and East Asia followed their comparative advantage and leveraged the late-comer advantage to emulate the leader-follower flying geese pattern of industrial upgrading. The large dynamic emerging market countries such as China, India and Brazil are also engaged in industrial upgrading but with a critical difference. In particular, because of its sheer size, China has absorbed nearly all labor-intensive jobs and become the world s largest exporter of labor-intensive products. The current view is that China s dominance hinders poor countries from developing similar industries. The authors argue that industrial upgrading has increased wages and is causing China to graduate from labor-intensive to more capital- and technology-intensive industries. These industries will shed labor and create a huge opportunity for lower wage countries to start a phase of labor-intensive industrialization. This process...

‣ The Impact of the Financial Crisis on Poverty and Income Distribution : Insights from Simulations in Selected Countries

Habib, Bilal; Narayan, Ambar; Olivieri, Sergio; Sanchez, Carolina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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As the financial crisis has spread through the world, the lack of real-time data has made it difficult to track its impact in developing countries. The authors use a micro-simulation approach to assess the poverty and distributional effects of the crisis. In Bangladesh, Mexico, and the Philippines, the authors find increases in both the level and the depth of aggregate poverty. Income shocks are relatively large in the middle (and, in Mexico, the bottom) parts of the income distribution. The authors also find that characteristics of people who become poor because of the crisis are different from those of both chronically poor people and the general population. Findings will be useful for policy makers wishing to identify leading monitoring indicators to track the impact of macroeconomic shocks and to design policies that protect vulnerable groups.

‣ Associations between income inequality and mortality among US states: the importance of time period and source of income data

Lynch, J.; Harper, S.; Kaplan, G.; Davey-Smith, G.
Fonte: Amer Public Health Assoc Inc Publicador: Amer Public Health Assoc Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 Português
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Objectives. We used census data to examine associations between income inequality and mortality among US states for each decade from 1949 to 1999 and tax return income data to estimate associations for 1989. Methods. Cross-sectional correlation analyses were used to assess income inequality–mortality relationships. Results. Census income analyses revealed little association between income inequality and mortality for 1949, 1959, or 1969. An association emerged for 1979 and strengthened for 1989 but weakened for 1999. When income inequality was based on tax return data, associations were weaker for both 1989 and 1999. Conclusions. The strong association between income inequality and mortality observed among US states for 1989 was not observed for other periods from 1949 through 1999. In addition, when tax return rather than census data were used, the association was weaker for 1989 and 1999. The potential for distal social determinants of population health (e.g., income inequality) to affect mortality is contingent on how such determinants influence levels of proximal risk factors and the time lags between exposure to those risk factors and effects on specific health outcomes.; John Lynch, Sam Harper, George A. Kaplan, and George Davey Smith

‣ Econometric Analyses of Subjective Welfare and Income Inequality; Ökonometrische Analysen von subjektiver Wohlfahrt und Einkommensungleichheit

Juhász, Andos
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
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There is a manifold of possible ways to analyze the state of the economy of a country and its development over time. Microeconomic approaches based on personal level data can generally help to describe the economic state from the point of view of the country’s residents and economic agents. In a capitalist state, it is most natural to link residents and economic agents to economic mechanisms via a personal level productivity proxy, like monetary income. The overall structure of monetary income in a state can be represented by the size distribution of incomes and its analysis can reveal substantial economic mechanisms to understand the economic system in a state in general. This doctoral thesis is concerned with the analysis of the income distribution in Germany from three different perspectives. The first part of the thesis proposes to exploit data on income satisfaction to construct an evidence-based poverty line. The poverty line is identified by using its assumed unique property to explain income dissatisfaction best among all dichotomizations of income. To this end, several model settings are investigated. Applying the method to data from the SOEP yields a temporally stable poverty line similar to the common 60% definition. Using data from the ECHP...

‣ Options for Low Income Countries’ Effective and Efficient Use of Tax Incentives for Investment; Tools for the Assessment of Tax Incentives

International Monetary Fund; OECD; United Nations; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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This background paper describes five different tools that can be used for the assessment of tax incentives by governments in low income countries’ (LICs). The first tool (an application of cost-benefit analysis) provides an overarching framework for assessment. Evaluations of the various costs and benefits of tax incentives are vital for informed decision making, but are rarely undertaken, partly because it can be a difficult exercise that is demanding in terms of data needs. The next three tools (tax expenditure assessment, corporate micro simulation models, and effective tax rate models) can be used as part of a comprehensive cost-benefit analysis, to shed light on particular aspects. Effective tax rate models shed light on the implications of tax parameters - including targeted tax incentives - on investment returns and help understand the implications of reform for expected investment outcomes. The document presents two tools for assessing the transparency and governance of tax incentives in LICs. These discuss principles in transparency and governance of tax incentives...

‣ Di Bao : A Guaranteed Minimum Income in China’s Cities?

Chen, Shaohua; Ravallion, Martin; Wang, Youjuan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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Concerns about incentives and targeting naturally arise when cash transfers are used to fight poverty. The authors address these concerns in the context of China's Di Bao program, which uses means-tested transfers to try to assure that no registered urban resident has an income below a stipulated poverty line. There is little sign in the data of poverty traps due to high benefit withdrawal rates. Targeting performance is excellent by various measures. Di Bao appears to be better targeted than any other program in the developing world. However, all but one measure of targeting performance is found to be uninformative, or even deceptive, about impacts on poverty. The authors find that the majority of the poor are not receiving help, even with a generous allowance for measurement errors. While on paper, Di Bao would eliminate urban poverty, it falls well short of that ideal in practice.

‣ Reducing Child Malnutrition in Tanzania : Combined Effects of Income Growth and Program Interventions

Alderman, Harold; Hoogeveen, Hans; Rossi, Mariacristina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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Malnutrition is associated with an inadequate diet, poor health and sanitation services, and insufficient care for young children. A combination of income growth and nutrition interventions are therefore suggested to adequately tackle this issue, yet evidence to support this claim is often not available, especially for African settings. The authors evaluate the joint contribution of income growth and nutrition interventions toward the reduction of malnutrition. Using a four-round panel data set from northwestern Tanzania they estimate the determinants of a child's nutritional status, including household income and the presence of nutrition interventions in the community. The results show that better nutrition is associated with higher income, and that nutrition interventions have a substantial beneficial effect. Policy simulations make clear that if one intends to halve malnutrition rates by 2015 (the Millennium Development Goals objective), income growth will have to be complemented by large-scale program interventions.

‣ Chile's High Growth Economy : Poverty and Income Distribution, 1987-1998

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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The present study focuses on four main objectives. First, it presents an update of poverty, and income distribution measures, reported in 1997 by the Bank; second, it looks at deficiencies in social services, and how to improve social services targeted to the poor; third, it considers how trends in income distribution could be modified, if taking into account the transfer effect of social programs; and, fourth, it looks at some special issues that impact on poverty, namely unemployment, and the problems of indigenous peoples. Given the relatively high levels of unemployment, the persistence in educational deficits, and the low coverage of social programs amongst the poor, recommendations suggest, respectively, a focus on relevant, job creation aspects, in line with labor market demands, not merely responsive to the renewed economic growth, to include as well, further labor code, and unemployment insurance system reforms; efforts to consolidate, and intensify the quality, and equity in education, particularly tertiary education to advance Chile's human capital; and...

‣ Fewer Jobs or Smaller Paychecks? Labor Market Impacts of the Recent Crisis in Middle-Income Countries

Khanna, Gaurav; Newhouse, David; Paci, Pierella
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
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This note presents early evidence on the labor market impacts of the recent economic crisis in 41 middle-income countries. A broader geographic coverage is prevented by the lack of high-frequency labor market data in other middle-income countries and in the low-income countries. Whereas the economic downturn has threatened recent progress in enhancing employment opportunities, the impact has fallen disproportionately on the quality of employment rather than on the number of jobs. Slower growth in earnings accounts for nearly three quarters of the total adjustment for the average country. The bulk of the earnings adjustment was driven by a reduction in working hours, as well as a shift away from the better-paid industrial sector. Evidence of the adjustment's nature and magnitude suggests a policy package that combines: (1) income maintenance programs that is, cash transfers to low-paid poor workers; (2) interventions that facilitate flexible-hours arrangements; and (3) innovative policies that provide workers access to income maintenance mechanisms to compensate for temporary reductions in standard working hours for example...

‣ Interactions Among Donors' Aid Allocations : Evidence from an Exogenous World Bank Income Threshold

Knack, Stephen; Xu, Lixin Colin; Zou, Ben
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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This study investigates the effects of the World Bank's exogenously-determined income threshold for eligibility for concessionary International Development Association (IDA) loans on the allocations of bilateral donors. The donors might interpret the World Bank's policies and allocations across recipients as informative signals of where their own aid might be used most effectively. Alternatively, other donors might compensate for reduced IDA allocations by increasing their own aid. This paper shows that the signaling effect dominates any crowding out effects. The analysis uses panel data with country fixed effects and finds that aid from the bilateral donor countries is significantly reduced after countries cross the IDA income cutoff, controlling for other determinants of aid. Allocations by other donors are not sensitive to actual IDA disbursements, only to the IDA income threshold. Because crossing the income cutoff for eligibility significantly reduces aid levels from other donors as well as from the World Bank...

‣ Mexico - Income Generation and Social Protection for the Poor : Volume 1. Integrated Executive Summary

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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This document summarizes the findings of three reports: Urban Poverty in Mexico, Mexico: a Study of Rural Poverty, and Mexico: an Overview of Social Protection, and, focuses on 1) the generation of income opportunities for the urban and rural poor, and, 2) social protection for the poor. The main messages can be summarized as follows. The poor are a heterogeneous group; importantly, long-term income-generating opportunities and coping strategies differ significantly between urban and rural areas, among different regions, between small and larger cities, and even within neighborhoods. This translates into having urban poor limited to low-quality jobs, marked by low productivity and with limited social protection. Additionally, to continue supporting the rural poor move out of poverty, it is important to increase agricultural productivity, especially for small- and medium-sized farmers, and facilitate their diversification into rural non-farm activities (RNF) of higher agricultural value-added. The rural poor depend mainly on self-subsistence agriculture, self-employment, and non-agricultural activities, and have typically not completed primary education. Conversely, the urban poor depend on access to salaried employment, on non-agricultural activities...

‣ Private Infrastructure : Are the Trends in Low-income Countries Different?

Houskamp, Melissa; Tynan, Nicola
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Viewpoint; Publications & Research
Português
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This note, based on the World Bank's Private Participation in Infrastructure (PPI) project database, reviews trends in infrastructure projects with private participation in low-income countries. Four main conclusions arise. Surprisingly, the proportion of countries with at least one project - eighty one percent - is higher among low-income, than middle-income countries. As in middle-income countries, most investment has been in telecommunications, or energy projects. However, in low-income countries, well over half the projects are greenfield. And the scale of private participation in low-income countries, lags far behind that in middle-income countries.

‣ There's More to Life Than Money: Exploring the Levels/Growth Paradox in Income and Health; Journal of International Development

Kenny, Charles
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Journal Article; Journal Article
Português
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This paper discusses historical and recent cross-country evidence relating income to measures of health. After a review of the literature on income and the quality of life, the paper looks at long-term historical evidence on the link between income change and health indicators. Using data on life expectancy, infant mortality and income for a small subset of largely wealthy countries over the 1913-1999 period, the paper examines correlations between income and health at period start and end as well as using the growth of the variables. Using a larger set of data over the period 1975-2000, the paper repeats these tests, as well as looking for any evidence of a larger impact of income, when different data are used or the sample is split. Results suggest a strong cross-country link between income and health and considerable evidence of global improvements over time, but a comparatively weak relationship between improvements in income and improvements in health, even over the very long term. The paper discusses a model based on technology and institutions that might account for such results as well as some preliminary evidence in favour of such a model.

‣ The effect of social spending on income inequality: An analysis for Latin American countries.

Ospina, Monica
Fonte: Escola de Administração, Finanças e Tecnologia Publicador: Escola de Administração, Finanças e Tecnologia
Tipo: workingPaper; Documento de trabajo de investigación; draf
Português
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Using a panel dataset from 1980 to 2000 this paper analyzes the determinants of income inequality in Latin American countries with special attention paid to education, health, and social security expenditures. I build on previous research by solving for the endogeneity of the social spending variables in the income inequality equation. This study undertakes 2SLS and GMM methods in order to control for the correlation of some of the regressors with the disturbance term. While government expenditure affects inequality, an increase in inequality may be related to social, economic and political changes that can also affect government expenditures. Therefore, social spending is potentially endogenous in the inequality regression and, unless this source of endogeneity is accounted for, the estimated parameters will be not consistent. Results show that social spending variables are endogenous with income inequality index. Once endogeneity is controlled for, education and health expenditures have a negative effect on income inequality, while social security expenditures have no effect on income inequality. I also find that models that do not take into account endogeneity of social spending variables overestimate the effects of education and health spending.; Using a panel dataset from 1980 to 2000 this paper analyzes the determinants of income inequality in Latin American countries with special attention paid to education...

‣ The stability of income inequality in Brazil, 2006-2012: an estimate using income tax data and household surveys

Medeiros,Marcelo; Souza,Pedro Herculano Guimarães Ferreira de; Castro,Fábio Ávila de
Fonte: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva Publicador: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2015 Português
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Object: the level and evolution of income inequality among adults in Brazil between 2006 and 2012.Objectives: to calculate the level of inequality, its trend over the years and the share of income growth appropriated by different social groups.Methodology: We combined tax data from the Annual Personal Income Tax Returns (Declaração Anual de Ajuste do Imposto de Renda da Pessoa Física - DIRPF) and the Brazilian National Household Survey (Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios - PNAD) to construct a complete distribution of total income among adults in Brazil. We applied Pareto interpolations to income tax tabulations to arrive at the distribution within income groups. We tested the results, comparing the PNAD to the Brazilian Consumption and Expenditure Survey (Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares - POF) and to data from the Census Subsample Survey (Census.Results: We found evidence that income inequality in Brazil is higher than previously thought and that it remained stable between 2006 and 2012; in making these findings, we thus diverged from most studies on the dynamics of inequality in Brazil.. There was income growth, but the top incomes have appropriated most of this growth.