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‣ Commercialization of nanotechnologies

Oriakhi, Christopher O., 1960-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 201 leaves; 9715209 bytes; 9739592 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Nanotechnology, which involves creating and manipulating organic and inorganic matter from the molecular to the nanoscale level, is an emerging, enabling technology that is receiving enormous amounts of attention in industrial and scientific communities. It is an umbrella term for a wide range of science and technologies. Significant and rapid advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology have been made in the past two decades. Numerous potential applications have been identified, with a promise to transform virtually every industry. These industries include aerospace, agriculture, biotechnology, electronics, energy and environment, information technology and telecommunication, materials science and manufacturing, and medicine. Governments from developed nations around the globe and private investors, including venture capitalists, are investing heavily in nanotechnology. Established companies and entrepreneurial startup firms are now exploring options for commercializing nanotechnology innovations. This thesis was initiated to investigate the current state of nanotechnology commercialization with respect to identifying the differences in commercialization strategies between startup firms and large corporations; the managerial and technical challenges facing nanotechnology based companies; the critical success factors in commercializing nanotechnologies; and the factors limiting the adoption and diffusion of nanotechnologies. The results and analysis of the interviews demonstrate that commercialization strategies for large corporations differ from those for start-up companies...

‣ Critical dimensions of strategy : industry scope shift and reserve strategy trace

Kiuchi, Yasuhiko, 1962-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 83 leaves; 4079443 bytes; 4086933 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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We would like to propose two critical dimensions for strategy: "Industry Scope Shift" and "Reverse Strategy Trace." Recent changes in the progress of information technology and economic globalization raised the importance of these dimensions. Rapid progress in information technology requires firms to respond to the changes of scope including market and product. The execution speed is increasingly becoming critical to keep uniqueness of product and service offerings. Industry Scope Shift helps the capturing of these changes into strategy. Economic globalization demands the organizational challenge to manage conflicts between local market responsiveness and global operation efficiency. Reverse Strategy Trace gives a clear perspective to analyze emergent strategy to accumulate organizational learning from business operations. We will examine the importance of these two dimensions and provides answers when and why these are critical in the strategy planning process.; by Yasuhiko Kiuchi.; Thesis (S.M.M.O.T.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Sloan School of Management, Management of Technology Program, 2004.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 80-83).

‣ Solid state lighting : strategies for a brighter future

Kelly, Timothy L. (Timothy Lee), 1967-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 102 p.; 5250403 bytes; 5258413 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Combining an understanding of the technical progress and potential of semiconductor light emitting materials with an analysis of market adoption reveals useful insights into challenges and opportunities in the growing field of solid state lighting. The integration of discrete LEDs into solid state lighting systems is identified as a critical area of both technical and business development and the key to creating useful products and expanding new markets. Analysis of conventional and emerging optosemiconductor lighting industries highlights important differences of influence within the value chain. For solid state lighting, the significance of system integration shifts control away from large LED manufacturers and closer to the end user. Special focus on companies pursuing the system integrator role compares strategies for technology based niche players with strategies for joint venture companies formed by alliances of large lighting and semiconductor companies. Based on technology capability, industry conditions, and historical analogy, solid state lighting is projected to achieve wider adoption primarily through the growth of new applications and markets, not through the substitution of existing lighting business.; by Timothy L. Kelly.; Thesis (S.M.M.O.T.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

‣ The economics of HIV testing in Africa; Economics of human immunodeficiency virus testing in Africa

Bertozzi, Stefano Michele
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 173 p.; 16370812 bytes; 16370569 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This thesis examines the problem of resource allocation in Africa to combat the HIV/AIDS epidemic. It focuses on the use of one specific technology, the anti-HIV antibody test. After describing the characteristics of the epidemic, the special problems that accompany the allocation of health resources in Africa are explored. A short description of the biological and technical aspects of HIV testing is followed by three case studies which examine different uses of the technology. (1) A model of the use of HIV testing to screen blood donors is demonstrated in several hypothetical situations to evaluate under which circumstances HIV screening is cost-effective and which is the most cost-effective of a number of testing systems. (2) Use of the HIV test is considered from a cost-effectiveness perspective for the purpose of helping to confirm the diagnosis of HIV-related disease. Possible benefits of testing (including more rapid initiation of appropriate treatment, avoidance of the cost and iatrogenic complications of inappropriate treatment, and more efficient rationing of health care resources) are compared to possible costs (including monetary costs, emotional costs, and costs associated with false test results). A detailed protocol is presented of a prospective study to evaluate the appropriate use of the HIV test in the inpatient hospital setting. (3) Serologic surveys...

‣ Nodes without roads : pockets of success, networks of failure in Chinese industrial technology development

Gilboy, George
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2 v. (502 leaves); 41320091 bytes; 41319844 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This thesis examines technological innovation capabilities in the Chinese machine tool, automobile, telecommunications equipment, and information technology sectors in the era of reform ( 1979-2002). Contrary to other studies, the thesis reveals that the foundations for Chinese industrial learning and innovation are weak. I evaluate several models for explaining why this is true, including market-, developmental state-, and regional-based explanations. Finding these unsatisfactory, I propose an alternative model: particularist political structure and industrial strategic culture undermine the ability of Chinese firms to associate, learn, and innovate. Particularism and strategic culture interact to undermine reciprocity and trust, weakening the ability of Chinese industrial firms to form effective horizontal association. As observed in economies from the developed (e.g. United States) to the developing (e.g. Taiwan), horizontal association between manufacturers as well as customers, suppliers, financers, research institutes, and universities is critical to industrial learning and technology development. The weakness of associational means for reducing risk and promoting information and resource flows inhibits the ability of Chinese firms to effectively indigenize...

‣ Organizational design : the integration of pharmaceutical discovery and development

Smith, Peter J. A. (Peter John Anthony), 1959-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 69 leaves; 2976003 bytes; 2982790 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The decline in Pharmaceutical R&D productivity has been attributed to high clinical failure rates suggesting that targets, leads and clinical candidates may be of lower quality in recent years. Senior R&D management generally believes that a greater integration of drug discovery and development will improve the selection and optimization of clinical candidates. I demonstrate the different nature of discovery and development with discovery tasks seen as more uncertain, having more reciprocal work flows and more under the control of management than development tasks. Discovery and development personnel have different characteristics and motivations, with discovery staff having greater creative skills and development staff greater planning skill. Following a congruence approach to organization design these differences imply that a complete merging of discovery and development functions would lead to poor fit between organizational design elements. This leaves an ongoing requirement for integrative systems which can preserve the important characteristic of discovery and development functions yet provide knowledge integration at key decision points to improve the quality of clinical candidates. A wide range of integrating mechanisms was found to be in use with an emphasis on cross functional teams. Information Technology was viewed as necessary infrastructure but not an important component of knowledge integration. No strong links were found between pipeline maturity and the integrative mechanism deployed. I speculate that company R&D performance could be better matched to internal and external circumstances by a more active approach to managing integrative systems. I propose a conceptual model of integrative systems to guide a more dynamic management approach; (cont.) to organizational design of R&D and suggest further work to formalize the model through an agent based simulation.; by Peter J.A. Smith.; Thesis (S.M.)--Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology; and...

‣ The drug development process : evaluation of PDUFA I/II and investigation into reducing drug development times; Evaluation of PDUFA I/II and investigation into reducing drug development times

Strobeck, Matthew W. (Matthew William), 1972-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 73 p.; 3602700 bytes; 3610089 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Published findings report that it takes approximately eight years to bring a novel drug to market at an average cost of $800 million. Over the last ten years, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has helped to reduce the time from filing a new drug application (NDA) to granting marketing approval (i.e. the approval phase). However, there has been no alteration in the time required to progress from an investigational new drug application (IND) to an NDA filing (i.e. the clinical phase) over this same period. Since approval times began to decrease upon the initiation of the Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA), in this thesis I analyze the impact of PDUFA and calculate its benefits to companies. Due to the importance of getting new drugs to the market faster, I also investigate why there has been no significant change in the time required to test a drug clinically, and attempt to identify steps that could be taken to improve the clinical trial process. To investigate this, I evaluated ways in which the FDA and industry can work together to reduce clinical development times, without compromising safety. The results from this study show that PDUFA has had a significant impact on reducing approval times. More importantly, I determined that the direct costs of PDUFA are small in irmlparison to its benefits. In addition...

‣ Design principles for the development of space technology maturation laboratories aboard the International Space Station

Saenz Otero, Alvar, 1975-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2 v. (600 p.); 35362714 bytes; 35407585 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This thesis formulates seven design principles for the development of laboratories which utilize the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate the maturation of space technologies. The principles are derived from the lessons learned from more than two decades of space technology research at the MIT Space Systems Laboratory and the existence of unique resources aboard the ISS. The thesis provides scientists with a design framework for new laboratories and an evaluation framework to responds to a call by the National Research Council to institutionalize science activities aboard the ISS. Experience from previous missions and research on the resources available at the ISS led to the development of the SPHERES Laboratory for Distributed Satellite Systems (DSS), which constitutes the experimental part of the thesis. SPHERES allows tests in a representative, risk-tolerant environment aboard the ISS to demonstrate metrology, control, and autonomy algorithms for DSS. The implementation of ground-based and ISS-based facilities permits incremental technology maturation by enabling iterative research; algorithms can mature through multiple research cycles with increasing complexity. The SPHERES Guest Scientist Program supports research by multiple scientists: since the Spring of 2000 SPHERES has enabled research on formation flight...

‣ Personalized medicine, population genetics and privacy : an empirical study of international gene banks

Holland, Chad D. (Chad Darrel)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 103 p.; 7472164 bytes; 7477842 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The promise of personalized medicine lies in its potential to fundamentally change healthcare. In the past, pharmaceuticals were prescribed on a "one size fits all" basis-patients with certain disease phenotypes were given what were thought to be appropriate drugs. There is growing evidence however that the effectiveness of these drugs may differ by individual and by sub-group; presumably due to fundamental genetic differences in disease and metabolic pathways. Drugs like Herceptin, Gleevec and Iressa are part of an emerging trend in the biopharmaceutical arena of drugs that are accompanied by genetic diagnostic tests and prescribed only for patients with genotypes in which the agents are most effective.; by Chad D. Holland.; Thesis (S.M.)--Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology; and, (S.M.M.O.T.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Sloan School of Management, Management of Technology Program, 2005.; Includes bibliographical references.

‣ An evaluation of cytokine-capture nanoparticle technology : stepping from bench-space into potential markets

Hong, Julee Y. (Julee Yang-A.), 1980-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 66 leaves; 6528721 bytes; 6618022 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The feasibility of bringing a nascent technology for detection and quantification of local cytokine concentrations on cell surfaces to market is presented in this paper. Quantum dots or fluorochrome-loaded nanoparticles are conjugated with antibodies for target analytes and with proteins that allow nanoparticle attachment to the surface of T cells. A second labeled monoclonal antibody is introduced to detect the presence of any captured-cytokines using 3D fluorescent microscopy or flow cytometry. Microscopy of DO.ll cells labeled with cytokine-capture particles have shown successful detection of exogenous IL2. A comparison of existing patents with cytokine-capture technology revealed that although each aspect of the device is covered by prior IP, the capabilities of the technology exceed the claimed uses of the individual components. A preliminary market research for cytokine-capture technology applications resulted in dismissing the immunoassay industry as a target market. However, T cell monitoring was identified as a far more lucrative industry.; by Julee Y. Hong.; Thesis (M. Eng.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, 2004.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 65-66).

‣ Capture-ready power plants : options, technologies and economics

Bohm, Mark (Mark C.)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 99 p.; 4371818 bytes; 4375914 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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A plant can be considered to be capture-ready if, at some point in the future it can be retrofitted for carbon capture and sequestration and still be economical to operate. The concept of capture-ready is not a specific plant design; rather it is a spectrum of investments and design decisions that a plant owner might undertake during the design and construction of a plant. Power plant owners and policymakers are interested in capture-ready plants because they may offer relatively low cost opportunities to bridge the gap between current coal-fired generation technologies without CO2 capture to future plants that may be built from the start to capture CO2, and reduce the risks of possible future regulations of CO2 emissions. This thesis explores the design options, technologies and costs of capture-ready coal-fired power plants. The first part of the thesis outlines the two major designs that are being considered for construction in the near-term - pulverized coal (PC) and integrated gasification/combined cycle (IGCC). It details the steps that are necessary to retrofit each of these plants for CO2 capture and sequestration. Finally, for each technology, it provides a qualitative assessment of the steps that can be taken to reduce the costs and output de-rating of the plant after a retrofit.; (cont.) The second part of the thesis evaluates the lifetime (40 year) net present value (NPV) costs of plants with differing levels of pre-investment for CO2 capture. Three scenarios are evaluated - a baseline supercritical PC plant...

‣ Intellectual property strategy : analysis of the flash memory industry

Ogura, Tomoko H
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 150 p.
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This thesis studies the intellectual property strategy of companies in the flash memory industry, with special emphasis on technology and the development of nitride-based flash, a new and emerging type of memory technology. First, general perspectives and frameworks for licensing of patents and know-how are explored. Then, the participants in the flash memory industry are mapped to a product value chain, which is in turn mapped to an intellectual property value chain. We use a patent database analysis software IPVision in order to examine the patent portfolios of some of the memory chip companies. Analysis of the patent positions allows us to draw conclusions about the direction of technology development.; by Tomoko H. Ogura.; Thesis (S.M.M.O.T.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Sloan School of Management, Management of Technology Program, 2006.; Page 150 blank.; Includes bibliographical references (o, 120-121).

‣ 21A.340J / STS.075J Technology and Culture, Fall 2003; Technology and Culture

Helmreich, Stefan, 1966-
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
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This course examines relationships among technology, culture, and politics in a variety of social and historical settings ranging from 19th century factories to 21st century techno dance floors, from colonial Melanesia to capitalist Massachusetts. We organize our discussions around three broad questions, corresponding to three syllabus themes: What cultural effects and risks follow from treating biology as technology? How have computers and information technologies changed the ways we think about ourselves? How are politics built into the infrastructures within which we live? We will be interested in how technologies have been used both to facilitate and undermine relations of inequality, and in whether technology has produced a better world, and for whom.

‣ An analysis of the Supramolecular NanoStamping technology for its market potential based upon a review of DNA microarray intellectual property

Li, Kathy H. (Kathy Hsinjung)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 38 leaves
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Supramolecular NanoStamping is a novel printing method for exploiting the supramolecular interactions between organic and biological molecules. This technology is advantageous because of the ability to transfer a massive amount of chemical and spatial information, its high resolution, the growth of masters used multiple times and the versatility of initial master fabrication. The technology may be used to make DNA microarrays which are an essential tool to genomic research assisting in gene expression and genotyping. This paper explores the potential of bring Supramolecular NanoStamping technology to the microarray market. An in depth analysis of the current patent landscape of DNA microarrays is conducted to recognize the various competitors and the coverage of their patents. In addition, a better understanding of the landscape was achieved by assessing the major litigation that has occurred in the field. By engaging in a thorough intellectual property analysis, the commercialization potential of Supramolecular NanoStamping technology was realized through a licensing model.; by Kathy H. Li.; Thesis (M. Eng.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, 2006.; Includes bibliographical references (leaf 38).

‣ Changes in the characteristics of new drug applications for the treatment and prevention of diabetes mellitus

Lin, Hsiao-Lan Sharon
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 183 p.
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Efforts in managing diabetes, including the medical advances in novel therapies and public health policies of disease control and prevention, have not reduced the disease prevalence since 1990s. I analyze this phenomenon from the technology and policy viewpoints underlying diabetes treatment and prevention, in order to control and manage the disease in a cost-benefit balanced manner. The innovative performance of the antidiabetic drug therapy is investigated by analyzing the fifteen New Drug Applications (NDAs) of the antidiabetics approved by the US Food and Drug Administration since the early 1990s. I examine the characteristics of the clinical trials supporting NDAs and observe how the complexity of clinical trials has changed over time. Nine out of the twenty-five selected indicators are found to exhibit an increasing trend of complexity. The trend is more pronounced in the oral antiglycemics group (seven indicators) than the subcutaneous group (two indicators). Interestingly, this trend in increasing complexity in clinical trials is generally consistent with that of the increasing R&D costs in the pharmaceutical industry, possibly account for the declining innovative performance of the industry over the time period under investigation. A system dynamics approach is applied to assess current public health policies in diabetes control and prevention.; (cont.) The benefit of system thinking is to avoid potential policy resistance by identifying the problematic characteristics of the system...

‣ Towards and industrial ecosystem for power MEMS

Havel, Timothy Franklin
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 138 p.
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This thesis is concerned with the commercial applications of MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) manufacturing processes to advanced energy technologies. This field of engineering has come to be known as Power MEMS. Four such technologies are singled-out for detailed consideration, based on the efforts that have gone into demonstrating the benefits which MEMS has to offer them. The first are micro engines or turbines which generate of order 10-100 Watts of power by driving an electric generator, as exemplified by the famous MIT microturbine. The second are micro fuel cells, electrochemical devices which air oxidize chemical fuels, particularly the direct methanol fuel cell which operates at modest temperatures and hence is suitable for use in portable electronics. The third are solid-state devices which convert heat into electricity via either the Seeback (thermocouple) or photovoltaic effects, or else via thermionic emission. Finally, we consider devices which scavenge vibrational or electromagnetic energy from their environment, and are an attractive means of powering remote autonomous sensors or medical implants such as pacemakers.; (cont.) Following a survey of recent commercial activity in these technologies, we consider the markets they may serve...

‣ Managing the transition toward self-sustaining alternative fuel vehicle markets : policy analysis using a dynamic behavioral spatial model

Supple, Derek R. (Derek Richard)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 97 p.
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Designing public policy or industry strategy to bolster the transition to alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) is a formidable challenge as demonstrated by historical failed attempts. The transition to new fuels occurs within a dynamically complex system with many distributed actors, long time delays, several important feedback relationships, and multiple tipping points. A broad-boundary, behavioral, dynamic model with explicit spatial structure was previously developed to represent the most important AFV transition barriers. Using California as an illustrative testing region, the model simulates the spatial diffusion of entrant vehicle/fuel technology pairs individually or in competition with other entrants. In this work, the integrated model is carefully parameterized for various specific alternative vehicle technologies. Structural and parametric sensitivity analyses are used to build understanding of system behavior and to identify policy leverage points or the need for further model calibration.; (cont.) The qualitative impacts of policies are tested individually and then in multi-policy combinations to find synergies. Under plausible assumptions and strong policies, AFVs can achieve successful diffusion but this process requires long time periods. Findings indicate some commonly suggested policies may provide little leverage and be very costly. The analysis reveals the importance of designing policy cognizant of the system structure underlying its dynamic behavior. Several examples demonstrate how policy leverage varies with context such as key attributes of the alternative vehicle technology. Broadly...

‣ Making medical records more resilient

Rudin, Robert (Robert Samuel)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 92 p.
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Hurricane Katrina showed that the current methods for handling medical records are minimally resilient to large scale disasters. This research presents a preliminary model for measuring the resilience of medical records systems against public policy goals and uses the model to illuminate the current state of medical record resilience. From this analysis, three recommendations for how to make medical records more resilient are presented. The recommendations are: 1) Federal and state governments should use the preliminary resilience model introduced here as the basis for compliance requirements for electronic medical record technical architectures. 2) Regional Health Information Organizations (RHIOs) should consider offering services in disaster management to healthcare organizations. This will help RHIOs create sustainable business models. 3) Storage companies should consider developing distributed storage solutions based on Distributed Hash Table (DHT) technology for medical record storage. Distributed storage would alleviate public concerns over privacy with centralized storage of medical records. Empirical evidence is presented demonstrating the performance of DHT technology using a prototype medical record system.; by Robert Rudin.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

‣ Shape morphing structures via intercalation compounds

Wong, John T., M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 40 leaves
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Recent research has allowed the use of electrode-active materials as actuators by harnessing reversible volumetric change due to intercalation during charging and discharging. These actuators provide a relatively large strain, 2-3%, while requiring less than ten volts to operate with a cycle time on the order of one hundred seconds. This technology can be used in any moderate bandwidth, high-force, high-strain application, including shape-morphing helicopter blades, boat hulls, satellites, and any other structure that benefits from shape change. An analysis is performed on the state of the technology, the intellectual property held, and the potential markets that exist. A recommendation is made to pursue the technology, while cognizant of the fact that it is still in a seed stage and requires significant time and financial investment before entering production. Two business models are proposed and rough market calculations are also presented. The basis of this project is work done at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology by Professor Yet-Ming Chiang and Professor Steven Hall. Industrialists, including but not limited to, William Fallon and Dan Ursenbach of Sikorsky Aircraft in Stratford, Connecticut are also involved in the project.; by John T. Wong.; Thesis (M. Eng.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

‣ Economic impact of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme : evidence from the refining sector; Economic impact of the EU ETS : evidence from the refining sector

Lacombe, Romain H
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 182 p.
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I study the economic impact of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) on the refining industry in Europe. I contrast previous ex-ante studies with the lessons from a series of interviews I conducted with industrials, and the public data available on the first phase of the scheme, effective from January 1st, 2005 to December 31st, 2007. I conclude that because of organizational inertia, weak incentives linked to the low emission permit price that prevailed during its second part, and important industrial and regulatory constraints, the Phase I of EU ETS has had a limited economic impact on firms. However, this first trading period was instrumental in allowing the rening sector to build the capabilities needed to respond efficiently to the carbon price signal in the long run. I argue that the internal and external constraints that this first phase revealed will shape the future outcome of the scheme. Based on evidence from the rening sector under EU ETS, I take position in the current debate over policy design to suggest ways for regulators to improve the economic impact and environmental effectiveness of carbon markets.; by Romain H. Lacombe.; Thesis (S.M. in Technology and Policy)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...