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‣ Missense mutations in the lacZ gene that result in degradation of beta-galactosidase structural protein.

Zipser, D; Bhavsar, P
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1976 Português
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Thirty-two missenese mutations were found among more than 200 independently induced mutations in the lacZ gene of Escherichia coli. Twenty of these missense mutations were induced by nitrosguandine, and 12 were induced by aminopurine. The lacZ structural protein was endogenously degradable in seven of the mutant strains; the mutations in these strains were found to lie at only three sites in the lacZ gene. Five of the seven independent mutations were at a single site, and some heterogeneity in the degradation of the lacZ protein was observed within these mutant strains.

‣ Missense mutations in the VP1 gene of simian virus 40 that compensate for defects caused by deletions in the viral agnogene.

Barkan, A; Welch, R C; Mertz, J E
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1987 Português
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Simian virus 40 mutants lacking sequences in the late leader region are viable but produce smaller plaques than does wild-type virus. Within three passages at low multiplicities of infection, virus stocks of several such mutants accumulated variants that synthesized an altered form of the major virion protein, VP1, having a slightly faster mobility in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels than did the wild-type protein. Because these variants overgrew the original virus stocks, we consider them to be second-site revertants. By construction and characterization of a series of recombinants, the second-site mutations were shown to map to at least two different regions of the VP1 gene. Nucleotide sequence analysis indicated that single-amino-acid changes were responsible for the rapid mobility of VP1. When combined in cis with either a wild-type or mutant leader region, these VP1 mutations sped up by 10 to 20 h the time course of accumulation of infectious progeny but not of viral DNA or VP1. LP1, the protein encoded by the agnogene, was shown previously to be necessary for the efficient transport of the virion proteins to the nucleus or for their efficient assembly with viral minichromosomes. The VP1 missense mutations reported here compensate for the lack of LP1 by facilitating this process. On the basis of these findings and findings reported previously by us and others...

‣ Missense mutations in the insulin promoter factor-1 gene predispose to type 2 diabetes

Macfarlane, Wendy M.; Frayling, Timothy M.; Ellard, Sian; Evans, Julie C.; Allen, Lisa I.S.; Bulman, Michael P.; Ayres, Susan; Shepherd, Maggie; Clark, Penny; Millward, Ann; Demaine, Andrew; Wilkin, Terence; Docherty, Kevin; Hattersley, Andrew T.
Fonte: American Society for Clinical Investigation Publicador: American Society for Clinical Investigation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/11/1999 Português
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The transcription factor insulin promoter factor-1 (IPF-1) plays a central role in both the development of the pancreas and the regulation of insulin gene expression in the mature pancreatic β cell. A dominant-negative frameshift mutation in the IPF-l gene was identified in a single family and shown to cause pancreatic agenesis when homozygous and maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) when heterozygous. We studied the role of IPF-1 in Caucasian diabetic and nondiabetic subjects from the United Kingdom. Three novel IPF-1 missense mutations (C18R, D76N, and R197H) were identified in patients with type 2 diabetes. Functional analyses of these mutations demonstrated decreased binding activity to the human insulin gene promoter and reduced activation of the insulin gene in response to hyperglycemia in the human β-cell line Nes2y. These mutations are present in 1% of the population and predisposed the subject to type 2 diabetes with a relative risk of 3.0. They were not highly penetrant MODY mutations, as there were nondiabetic mutation carriers 25–53 years of age. We conclude that mutations in the IPF-1 gene may predispose to type 2 diabetes and are a rare cause of MODY and pancreatic agenesis, with the phenotype depending upon the severity of the mutation.

‣ Pathological missense mutations of neural cell adhesion molecule L1 affect homophilic and heterophilic binding activities.

De Angelis, E; MacFarlane, J; Du, J S; Yeo, G; Hicks, R; Rathjen, F G; Kenwrick, S; Brümmendorf, T
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/09/1999 Português
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Mutations in the gene for neural cell adhesion molecule L1 (L1CAM) result in a debilitating X-linked congenital disorder of brain development. At the neuronal cell surface L1 may interact with a variety of different molecules including itself and two other CAMs of the immunoglobulin superfamily, axonin-1 and F11. However, whether all of these interactions are relevant to normal or abnormal development has not been determined. Over one-third of patient mutations are single amino acid changes distributed across 10 extracellular L1 domains. We have studied the effects of 12 missense mutations on binding to L1, axonin-1 and F11 and shown for the first time that whereas many mutations affect all three interactions, others affect homophilic or heterophilic binding alone. Patient pathology is therefore due to different types of L1 malfunction. The nature and functional consequence of mutation is also reflected in the severity of the resultant phenotype with structural mutations likely to affect more than one binding activity and result in early mortality. Moreover, the data indicate that several extracellular domains of L1 are required for homophilic and heterophilic interactions.

‣ Six Novel Missense Mutations in the LDL Receptor-Related Protein 5 (LRP5) Gene in Different Conditions with an Increased Bone Density

Van Wesenbeeck, Liesbeth; Cleiren, Erna; Gram, Jeppe; Beals, Rodney K.; Bénichou, Olivier; Scopelliti, Domenico; Key, Lyndon; Renton, Tara; Bartels, Cindy; Gong, Yaoqin; Warman, Matthew L.; de Vernejoul, Marie-Christine; Bollerslev, Jens; Van Hul, Wim
Fonte: The American Society of Human Genetics Publicador: The American Society of Human Genetics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Bone is a dynamic tissue that is subject to the balanced processes of bone formation and bone resorption. Imbalance can give rise to skeletal pathologies with increased bone density. In recent years, several genes underlying such sclerosing bone disorders have been identified. The LDL receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) gene has been shown to be involved in both osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome and the high–bone-mass phenotype and turned out to be an important regulator of peak bone mass in vertebrates. We performed mutation analysis of the LRP5 gene in 10 families or isolated patients with different conditions with an increased bone density, including endosteal hyperostosis, Van Buchem disease, autosomal dominant osteosclerosis, and osteopetrosis type I. Direct sequencing of the LRP5 gene revealed 19 sequence variants. Thirteen of these were confirmed as polymorphisms, but six novel missense mutations (D111Y, G171R, A214T, A214V, A242T, and T253I) are most likely disease causing. Like the previously reported mutation (G171V) that causes the high–bone-mass phenotype, all mutations are located in the aminoterminal part of the gene, before the first epidermal growth factor–like domain. These results indicate that, despite the different diagnoses that can be made...

‣ Kinetic properties of missense mutations in patients with glutathione synthetase deficiency.

Njålsson, R; Carlsson, K; Olin, B; Carlsson, B; Whitbread, L; Polekhina, G; Parker, M W; Norgren, S; Mannervik, B; Board, P G; Larsson, A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/07/2000 Português
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Patients with hereditary glutathione synthetase (GS) (EC 6.3.2.3) deficiency present with variable clinical pictures, presumably related to the nature of the mutations involved. In order to elucidate the relationship between genotype, enzyme function and clinical phenotype, we have characterized enzyme kinetic parameters of missense mutations R125C, R267W, R330C and G464V from patients with GS deficiency. One of the mutations predominantly affected the K(m) value, with decreased affinity for glycine, two mutations influenced both K(m) and V(max) values, and one mutation reduced the stability of the enzyme. This characterization agrees well with predictions based on the recently reported crystal structure of human GS. Thus our data indicate that different mutations can affect the catalytic capacity of GS by decreasing substrate affinity, maximal velocity or enzyme stability.

‣ Type IV Procollagen Missense Mutations Associated With Defects of the Eye, Vascular Stability, the Brain, Kidney Function and Embryonic or Postnatal Viability in the Mouse, Mus musculus: An Extension of the Col4a1 Allelic Series and the Identification of the First Two Col4a2 Mutant Alleles

Favor, Jack; Gloeckner, Christian Johannes; Janik, Dirk; Klempt, Martina; Neuhäuser-Klaus, Angelika; Pretsch, Walter; Schmahl, Wolfgang; Quintanilla-Fend, Leticia
Fonte: Copyright © 2007 by the Genetics Society of America Publicador: Copyright © 2007 by the Genetics Society of America
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2007 Português
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The basement membrane is important for proper tissue development, stability, and physiology. Major components of the basement membrane include laminins and type IV collagens. The type IV procollagens Col4a1 and Col4a2 form the heterotrimer [α1(IV)]2[α2(IV)], which is ubiquitously expressed in basement membranes during early developmental stages. We present the genetic, molecular, and phenotypic characterization of nine Col4a1 and three Col4a2 missense mutations recovered in random mutagenesis experiments in the mouse. Heterozygous carriers express defects in the eye, the brain, kidney function, vascular stability, and viability. Homozygotes do not survive beyond the second trimester. Ten mutations result in amino acid substitutions at nine conserved Gly sites within the collagenous domain, one mutation is in the carboxy-terminal noncollagenous domain, and one mutation is in the signal peptide sequence and is predicted to disrupt the signal peptide cleavage site. Patients with COL4A2 mutations have still not been identified. We suggest that the spontaneous intraorbital hemorrhages observed in the mouse are a clinically relevant phenotype with a relatively high predictive value to identify carriers of COL4A1 or COL4A2 mutations.

‣ Functional studies of rare missense mutations in CFTR facilitate interpretation of genotype-phenotype relationships

Krasnov, Kristina V.; Tzetis, Maria; Cheng, Jie; Guggino, William B.; Cutting, Garry R.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2008 Português
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We have been investigating the functional consequences of rare disease-associated amino acid substitutions in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR). Mutations of the arginine residue at codon 1070 have been associated with different disease consequences R1070P and R1070Q have “severe” pancreatic insufficient cystic fibrosis (CF) and R1070W have “mild” pancreatic sufficient CF or congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens. Intriguingly, CFTR bearing each of these mutations is functional when expressed in non-polarized cells. To determine whether R1070 mutations cause disease by affecting CFTR localization, we created polarized MDCK cell lines that express either wild-type or mutant CFTR from the same genomic integration site. Confocal microscopy and biotinylation studies revealed that R1070P was not inserted into the apical membrane, R1070W was inserted at levels reduced from wild-type while R1070Q was present in the apical membrane at levels comparable to wild-type. The abnormal localization of CFTR bearing R1070P and R1070W was consistent with deleterious consequences in patients however the profile of CFTR R1070Q was inconsistent with a “severe” phenotype. Re-analysis of 16 patients with the R1070Q mutation revealed that 11 carried an in cis nonsense mutation...

‣ Isolated NIBPL missense mutations that cause Cornelia de Lange syndrome alter MAU2 interaction

Braunholz, Diana; Hullings, Melanie; Gil-Rodríguez, María Concepcion; Fincher, Christopher T; Mallozzi, Mark B; Loy, Elizabeth; Albrecht, Melanie; Kaur, Maninder; Limon, Janusz; Rampuria, Abhinav; Clark, Dinah; Kline, Antonie; Dalski, Andreas; Eckhold,
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS; or Brachmann-de Lange syndrome) is a dominantly inherited congenital malformation disorder with features that include characteristic facies, cognitive delays, growth retardation and limb anomalies. Mutations in nearly 60% of CdLS patients have been identified in NIPBL, which encodes a regulator of the sister chromatid cohesion complex. NIPBL, also known as delangin, is a homolog of yeast and amphibian Scc2 and C. elegans PQN-85. Although the exact mechanism of NIPBL function in sister chromatid cohesion is unclear, in vivo yeast and C. elegans experiments and in vitro vertebrate cell experiments have demonstrated that NIPBL/Scc2 functionally interacts with the MAU2/Scc4 protein to initiate loading of cohesin onto chromatin. To test the significance of this model in the clinical setting of CdLS, we fine-mapped the NIBPL–MAU2 interaction domain and tested the functional significance of missense mutations and variants in NIPBL and MAU2 identified in these minimal domains in a cohort of patients with CdLS. We demonstrate that specific novel mutations at the N-terminus of the MAU2-interacting domain of NIBPL result in markedly reduced MAU2 binding, although we appreciate no consistent clinical difference in the small group of patients with these mutations. These data suggest that factors in addition to MAU2 are essential in determining the clinical features and severity of CdLS.

‣ PROKR2 missense mutations associated with Kallmann syndrome impair receptor signalling activity

Monnier, Carine; Dodé, Catherine; Fabre, Ludovic; Teixeira, Luis; Labesse, Gilles; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Hardelin, Jean-Pierre; Rondard, Philippe
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Kallmann syndrome (KS) combines hypogonadism due to gonadotropin-releasing hormone deficiency, and anosmia or hyposmia, related to defective olfactory bulb morphogenesis. In a large series of KS patients, ten different missense mutations (p.R85C, p.R85H, p.R164Q, p.L173R, p.W178S, p.Q210R, p.R268C, p.P290S, p.M323I, p.V331M) have been identified in the gene encoding the G protein-coupled receptor prokineticin receptor-2 (PROKR2), most often in the heterozygous state. Many of these mutations were, however, also found in clinically unaffected individuals, thus raising the question of their actual implication in the KS phenotype. We reproduced each of the ten mutations in a recombinant murine Prokr2, and tested their effects on the signalling activity in transfected HEK-293 cells, by measuring intracellular calcium release upon ligand-activation of the receptor. We found that all mutated receptors except one (M323I) had decreased signalling activities. These could be explained by different defective mechanisms. Three mutations (L173R, W178S, P290S) impaired cell surface-targeting of the receptor. One mutation (Q210R) abolished ligand-binding. Finally, five mutations (R85C, R85H, R164Q, R268C, V331M) presumably impaired G protein-coupling of the receptor. In addition...

‣ Compared effects of missense mutations in Very-Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase deficiency: combined analysis by structural, functional and pharmacological approaches

Gobin-Limballe, Stéphanie; McAndrew, Ryan P.; Djouadi, Fatima; Kim, Jung-Ja; Bastin, Jean
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Very-Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD) is an autosomal recessive disorder considered as one of the more common β-oxidation defects, possibly associated with neonatal cardiomyopathy, infantile hepatic coma, or adult-onset myopathy. Numerous gene missense mutations have been described in these VLCADD phenotypes, but only few of them have been structurally and functionally analyzed, and the molecular basis of disease variability is still poorly understood. To address this question, we first analyzed fourteen disease-causing amino acid changes using the recently described crystal structure of VLCAD. The predicted effects varied from the replacement of amino acid residues lining the substrate binding cavity, involved in holoenzyme-FAD interactions or in enzyme dimerisation, predicted to have severe functional consequences, up to amino acid substitutions outside key enzyme domains or lying on near enzyme surface, with predicted milder consequences. These data were combined with functional analysis of residual fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and VLCAD protein levels in patient cells harboring these mutations, before and after pharmacological stimulation by bezafibrate. Mutations identified as detrimental to the protein structure in the 3-D model were generally associated to profound FAO and VLCAD protein deficiencies in the patient cells...

‣ Novel missense mutations in the glycine receptor β subunit gene (GLRB) in startle disease

James, Victoria M.; Bode, Anna; Chung, Seo-Kyung; Gill, Jennifer L.; Nielsen, Maartje; Cowan, Frances M.; Vujic, Mihailo; Thomas, Rhys H.; Rees, Mark I.; Harvey, Kirsten; Keramidas, Angelo; Topf, Maya; Ginjaar, Ieke; Lynch, Joseph W.; Harvey, Robert J.
Fonte: Academic Press Publicador: Academic Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2013 Português
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Startle disease is a rare, potentially fatal neuromotor disorder characterized by exaggerated startle reflexes and hypertonia in response to sudden unexpected auditory, visual or tactile stimuli. Mutations in the GlyR α1 subunit gene (GLRA1) are the major cause of this disorder, since remarkably few individuals with mutations in the GlyR β subunit gene (GLRB) have been found to date. Systematic DNA sequencing of GLRB in individuals with hyperekplexia revealed new missense mutations in GLRB, resulting in M177R, L285R and W310C substitutions. The recessive mutation M177R results in the insertion of a positively-charged residue into a hydrophobic pocket in the extracellular domain, resulting in an increased EC50 and decreased maximal responses of α1β GlyRs. The de novo mutation L285R results in the insertion of a positively-charged side chain into the pore-lining 9′ position. Mutations at this site are known to destabilize the channel closed state and produce spontaneously active channels. Consistent with this, we identified a leak conductance associated with spontaneous GlyR activity in cells expressing α1βL285R GlyRs. Peak currents were also reduced for α1βL285R GlyRs although glycine sensitivity was normal. W310C was predicted to interfere with hydrophobic side-chain stacking between M1...

‣ Missense Mutations in SLC26A8, Encoding a Sperm-Specific Activator of CFTR, Are Associated with Human Asthenozoospermia

Dirami, Thassadite; Rode, Baptiste; Jollivet, Mathilde; Da Silva, Nathalie; Escalier, Denise; Gaitch, Natacha; Norez, Caroline; Tuffery, Pierre; Wolf, Jean-Philippe; Becq, Frédéric; Ray, Pierre F.; Dulioust, Emmanuel; Gacon, Gérard; Bienvenu, Thierry
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/05/2013 Português
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The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is present in mature sperm and is required for sperm motility and capacitation. Both these processes are controlled by ions fluxes and are essential for fertilization. We have shown that SLC26A8, a sperm-specific member of the SLC26 family of anion exchangers, associates with the CFTR channel and strongly stimulates its activity. This suggests that the two proteins cooperate to regulate the anion fluxes required for correct sperm motility and capacitation. Here, we report on three heterozygous SLC26A8 missense mutations identified in a cohort of 146 men presenting with asthenozoospermia: c.260G>A (p.Arg87Gln), c.2434G>A (p.Glu812Lys), and c.2860C>T (p.Arg954Cys). These mutations were not present in 121 controls matched for ethnicity, and statistical analysis on a control population of 8,600 individuals (from dbSNP and 1000 Genomes) showed them to be associated with asthenozoospermia with a power > 95%. By cotransfecting Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells with SLC26A8 variants and CFTR, we showed that the physical interaction between the two proteins was partly conserved but that the capacity to activate CFTR-dependent anion transport was completely abolished for all mutants. Biochemical studies revealed the presence of much smaller amounts of protein for all variants...

‣ Insights into pathological mechanisms of missense mutations in C-terminal domains of von Willebrand factor causing qualitative or quantitative von Willebrand disease

Yadegari, Hamideh; Driesen, Julia; Pavlova, Anna; Biswas, Arijit; Ivaskevicius, Vytautas; Klamroth, Robert; Oldenburg, Johannes
Fonte: Ferrata Storti Foundation Publicador: Ferrata Storti Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2013 Português
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The carboxyl-terminal domains of von Willebrand factor, D4-CK, are cysteine-rich implying that they are structurally important. In this study we characterized the impact of five cysteine missense mutations residing in D4-CK domains on the conformation and biosynthesis of von Willebrand factor. These variants were identified as heterozygous in type 1 (p.Cys2619Tyr and p.Cys2676Phe), type 2A (p.Cys2085Tyr and p.Cys2327Trp) and as compound heterozygous in type 3 (p.Cys2283Arg) von Willebrand disease. Transient expression of human cell lines with wild-type or mutant von Willebrand factor constructs was performed. The mutated and wild-type recombinant von Willebrand factors were quantitatively and qualitatively assessed and compared. Storage of von Willebrand factor in pseudo-Weibel-Palade bodies was studied with confocal microscopy. The structural impact of the mutations was analyzed by homology modeling. Homozygous expressions showed that these mutations caused defects in multimerization, elongation of pseudo-Weibel-Palade bodies and secretion of von Willebrand factor. Co-expressions of wild-type von Willebrand factor and p.Cys2085Tyr, p.Cys2327Trp and p.Cys2283Arg demonstrated defective multimer assembly, suggesting a new pathological mechanism for dominant type 2A von Willebrand disease due to mutations in D4 and B domains. Structural analysis revealed that mutations p.Cys2283Arg...

‣ Glioma Specific Extracellular Missense Mutations in the First Cysteine Rich Region of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Initiate Ligand Independent Activation

Ymer, Susie I.; Greenall, Sameer A.; Cvrljevic, Anna; Cao, Diana X.; Donoghue, Jacqui F.; Epa, V. Chandana; Scott, Andrew M.; Adams, Timothy E.; Johns, Terrance G.
Fonte: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI) Publicador: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/04/2011 Português
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The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed or mutated in glioma. Recently, a series of missense mutations in the extracellular domain (ECD) of EGFR were reported in glioma patients. Some of these mutations clustered within a cysteine-rich region of the EGFR targeted by the therapeutic antibody mAb806. This region is only exposed when EGFR activates and appears to locally misfold during activation. We expressed two of these mutations (R324L and E330K) in NR6 mouse fibroblasts, as they do not express any EGFR-related receptors. Both mutants were autophosphorylated in the absence of ligand and enhanced cell survival and anchorage-independent and xenograft growth. The ECD truncation that produces the de2-7EGFR (or EGFRvIII), the most common EGFR mutation in glioma, generates a free cysteine in this same region. Using a technique optimized for detecting disulfide-bonded dimers, we definitively demonstrated that the de2-7EGFR is robustly dimerized and that ablation of the free cysteine prevents dimerization and activation. Modeling of the R324L mutation suggests it may cause transient breaking of disulfide bonds, leading to similar disulfide-bonded dimers as seen for the de2-7EGFR. These ECD mutations confirm that the cysteine-rich region of EGFR around the mAb806 epitope has a significant role in receptor activation.

‣ Identification of Two Missense Mutations of ERCC6 in Three Chinese Sisters with Cockayne Syndrome by Whole Exome Sequencing

Yu, Shanshan; Chen, Liyuan; Ye, Lili; Fei, Lingna; Tang, Wei; Tian, Yujiao; Geng, Qian; Yi, Xin; Xie, Jiansheng
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/12/2014 Português
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Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, the primary manifestations of which are poor growth and neurologic abnormality. Mutations of the ERCC6 and ERCC8 genes are the predominant cause of Cockayne syndrome, and the ERCC6 gene mutation is present in approximately 65% of cases. The present report describes a case of Cockayne syndrome in a Chinese family, with the patients carrying two missense mutations (c.1595A>G, p.Asp532Gly and c.1607T>G, p.Leu536Trp) in the ERCC6 gene in an apparently compound heterozygote status, especially, p.Asp532Gly has never been reported. The compound heterozygote mutation was found in three patients in the family using whole exome sequencing. The patients’ father and mother carried a heterozygous allele at different locations of the ERCC6 gene, which was confirmed by Sanger DNA sequencing. The two mutations are both located in the highly conserved motif I of ATP-binding helicase and are considered “Damaging,” “Probably Damaging,” “Disease Causing,” and “Conserved”, indicating the role of DNA damage in the pathogenetic process of the disease. The results not only enrich the ERCC6 mutations database, but also indicate that whole exome sequencing will be a powerful tool for discovering the disease causing mutations in clinical diagnosis.

‣ X-linked protocadherin 19 mutations cause female-limited epilepsy and cognitive impairment

Dibbens, L.; Tarpey, P.; Hynes, K.; Bayly, M.; Scheffer, I.; Smith, R.; Bomar, J.; Sutton, E.; Vandeleur, L.; Shoubridge, C.; Edkins, S.; Turner, S.; Stevens, C.; O'Meara, S.; Tofts, C.; Barthorpe, S.; Buck, G.; Cole, J.; Halliday, K.; Jones, D.; et al.
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 Português
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Epilepsy and mental retardation limited to females (EFMR) is a disorder with an X-linked mode of inheritance and an unusual expression pattern. Disorders arising from mutations on the X chromosome are typically characterized by affected males and unaffected carrier females. In contrast, EFMR spares transmitting males and affects only carrier females. Aided by systematic resequencing of 737 X chromosome genes, we identified different protocadherin 19 (PCDH19) gene mutations in seven families with EFMR. Five mutations resulted in the introduction of a premature termination codon. Study of two of these demonstrated nonsense-mediated decay of PCDH19 mRNA. The two missense mutations were predicted to affect adhesiveness of PCDH19 through impaired calcium binding. PCDH19 is expressed in developing brains of human and mouse and is the first member of the cadherin superfamily to be directly implicated in epilepsy or mental retardation.; Leanne M Dibbens, Patrick S Tarpey, Kim Hynes, Marta A Bayly, Ingrid E Scheffer, Raffaella Smith, Jamee Bomar, Edwina Sutton, Lucianne Vandeleur, Cheryl Shoubridge, Sarah Edkins, Samantha J Turner, Claire Stevens, Sarah O'Meara, Calli Tofts, Syd Barthorpe, Gemma Buck, Jennifer Cole, Kelly Halliday, David Jones...

‣ SMA-Causing Missense Mutations in Survival motor neuron (Smn) Display a Wide Range of Phenotypes When Modeled in Drosophila

Praveen, Kavita; Wen, Ying; Gray, Kelsey M.; Noto, John J.; Patlolla, Akash R.; Van Duyne, Gregory D.; Matera, A. Gregory
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/08/2014 Português
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Mutations in the human survival motor neuron 1 (SMN) gene are the primary cause of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a devastating neuromuscular disorder. SMN protein has a well-characterized role in the biogenesis of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), core components of the spliceosome. Additional tissue-specific and global functions have been ascribed to SMN; however, their relevance to SMA pathology is poorly understood and controversial. Using Drosophila as a model system, we created an allelic series of twelve Smn missense mutations, originally identified in human SMA patients. We show that animals expressing these SMA-causing mutations display a broad range of phenotypic severities, similar to the human disease. Furthermore, specific interactions with other proteins known to be important for SMN's role in RNP assembly are conserved. Intragenic complementation analyses revealed that the three most severe mutations, all of which map to the YG box self-oligomerization domain of SMN, display a stronger phenotype than the null allele and behave in a dominant fashion. In support of this finding, the severe YG box mutants are defective in self-interaction assays, yet maintain their ability to heterodimerize with wild-type SMN. When expressed at high levels...

‣ Severe alport phenotype in a woman with two missense mutations in the same COL4A5 gene and preponderant inactivation of the X chromosome carrying the normal allele.

Guo, C; Van Damme, B; Vanrenterghem, Y; Devriendt, K; Cassiman, J J; Marynen, P
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1995 Português
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The X-linked form of Alport disease, caused by mutations in the COL4A5 or the COL4A6 gene, usually leads to terminal renal failure in males, while affected females have a more variable and moderate phenotype. We detected in a female patient, with a severe Alport phenotype, two new missense mutations. One mutation (G289V) occurred in exon 15 and converted a glycine in a collagenous domain of COL4A5 to a valine. The second mutation, located in exon 46, substituted a cysteine proximal to the NC1 domain of COL4A5 for an arginine. In white blood cells and kidney both mutations were present on > 90% of the mRNA, while at the genomic level the patient was heterozygous for both mutations. The two mutations therefore occurred in the same COL4A5 allele. No mutation was found in the COL4A5 promoter region by sequencing nor was a major rearrangement of the normal allele detected. A skewed pattern of X inactivation was demonstrated in DNA isolated from the patient's kidney and white blood cells: > 90% of the X chromosomes with the normal COL4A5 allele was inactivated. It is suggested that this skewed inactivation pattern is responsible for the absence of detectable normal COL4A5 mRNA and hence the severe phenotype in this woman.

‣ Mutações novas no gene CFTR de pacientes brasileiros portadores de agenesia dos vasos deferentes: dificuldades no aconselhamento; Novel CFTR missense mutations in Brazilian patients with congenital absence of vas deferens: counseling issues

Pieri, Patricia de Campos; Missaglia, Mariangela Tuzzollo; Roque, Juliana de Almeida; Moreira-Filho, Carlos Alberto; Hallak, Jorge
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2007 Português
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OBJETIVO: Pesquisar mutações em toda a extensão do gene que causa a Fibrose Cística (CFTR) de homens brasileiros inférteis por agenesia congênita dos vasos deferentes, com a finalidade de prevenir a transmissão de mutações em CFTR à prole com o uso das tecnologias de reprodução assistida. MÉTODOS: Foram desenhados oligonucleotídeos específicos para realização de reação de polimerização em cadeia (PCR) para cada um dos 27 exons e sítios de processamento de interesse no gene CFTR. O PCR foi seguido pela técnica de SSCP-HA (polimorfismos de conformação no DNA de fita simples e na formação de heteroduplexes) em géis pré-fabricados de poliacrilamida a 12,5% em duas temperaturas, 7ºC e 20ºC. Os fragmentos com padrão alterado na migração do SSCP foram submetidos a seqüenciamento automatizado. RESULTADOS: Foram identificadas duas mutações novas com alteração de aminoácidos (S753R and G149W) em 3 pacientes (dois irmãos) juntamente com o alelo IVS8-5T em heterozigose. CONCLUSÕES: O rastreamento básico de mutações típicas da Fibrose Cística não inclui as mutações atípicas associadas à ausência dos deferentes. Desta forma, quando esses testes resultam normais, ainda assim existe um risco genético de crianças afetadas serem geradas com auxílio das Assisted Reproduction Technologies. Por este motivo...