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‣ Estudos estruturais da proteína PelD de Pseudomonas aeruginosa: um receptor de c-di-GMP responsável pela produção de exopolissacarídeos e formação de biofilmes; Structural studies of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PelD protein: a receptor c-di-GMP responsible for the production of exopolysaccharides and biofilm formation

Silva, Sumária Sousa e
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/02/2013 Português
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Os microrganismos podem apresentar-se tanto em forma de vida livre como aderidos a uma superfície ou interface ar-líquido, formando comunidades complexas e dinâmicas conhecidas como biofilmes. Nos últimos anos, com o avanço das pesquisas em nível molecular, foi identificado que a maioria das bactérias utilizam guanosina monofosfato (3´-5´)-cíclica dimérica (c-di-GMP) como um segundo mensageiro. De forma geral, essa molécula controla a sinalização celular, virulência, comunicação entre células e a expressão de proteínas relacionadas com o fenótipo de biofilmes, em resposta à sua concentração intracelular. Sua síntese e degradação são controladas respectivamente por diguanilto ciclases (DGCs) contendo domínio GGDEF e fosfodiesterases (PDEs) que possuem os domínios EAL ou HD-GYP. Em Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA14) foi identificada uma nova classe de receptor específico para c-di-GMP, a proteína transmembranar PelD, cuja porção citoplasmática contém os domínios GAF e GGDEF degenerado. Sua modulação através desse dinucleotídeo controla a produção de exopolissacarídeos pelos componentes do conservado operon pel e influencia diretamente na capacidade de formação de biofilmes. Devido à escassez de dados a respeito dos eventos moleculares do mecanismo de sinalização mediado por c-di-GMP...

‣ Estudo da sinalização celular envolvendo a via do quorum-sensing e os segundos mensageiros c-diGMP e (p)ppGpp no fitopatógeno Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri; Study of cell signaling pathways involving quorum-sensing and the second messengers c-diGMP and (p)ppGpp in the phytopathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri

Andrade, Maxuel de Oliveira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/08/2011 Português
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O fitopatógeno Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri (XAC) é o agente causal do cancro em citros. O desenvolvimento da infecção depende do sucesso de XAC na colonização do hospedeiro. Para isso, além do sistema de secreção tipo III, que injeta efetores de virulência dentro da célula do hospedeiro, Xanthomonas também conta com o processo de quorum-sensing. O aumento da densidade celular em XCC (Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris) promove o acúmulo da molécula sinalizadora difusível (DSF) produzida por RpfF, que ativa o sistema de dois componentes formado pelas proteínas RpfC e RpfG, as quais transduzem o sinal de ativação para o fator de transcrição Clp (CAP Like Protein - homóloga da proteína CAP de E. coli). A proteína RpfG contém um domínio de fosfodiesterase conservado (HD-GYP) que regula a concentração de diGMP cíclico (c-diGMP), um segundo mensageiro bacteriano. Dessa forma o domínio HD-GYP atua contrapondo-se à atividade dos domínios diguanilato ciclases (GGDEF). No caso de XCC, foi demonstrado que a ativação do domínio HD-GYP de RpfG reduz a concentração de c-diGMP na célula e promove a ligação e ação positiva de Clp no promotor do gene de engXCA. Com intuito de estudar a via Rpf em XAC, produzimos mutantes não-polares de rpfF...

‣ Genetic organization of the cellulose synthase operon in Acetobacter xylinum.

Wong, H C; Fear, A L; Calhoon, R D; Eichinger, G H; Mayer, R; Amikam, D; Benziman, M; Gelfand, D H; Meade, J H; Emerick, A W
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1990 Português
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An operon encoding four proteins required for bacterial cellulose biosynthesis (bcs) in Acetobacter xylinum was isolated via genetic complementation with strains lacking cellulose synthase activity. Nucleotide sequence analysis indicated that the cellulose synthase operon is 9217 base pairs long and consists of four genes. The four genes--bcsA, bcsB, bcsC, and bcsD--appear to be translationally coupled and transcribed as a polycistronic mRNA with an initiation site 97 bases upstream of the coding region of the first gene (bcsA) in the operon. Results from genetic complementation tests and gene disruption analyses demonstrate that all four genes in the operon are required for maximal bacterial cellulose synthesis in A. xylinum. The calculated molecular masses of the proteins encoded by bcsA, bcsB, bcsC, and bcsD are 84.4, 85.3, 141.0, and 17.3 kDa, respectively. The second gene in the operon (bcsB) encodes the catalytic subunit of cellulose synthase. The functions of the bcsA, bcsC, and bcsD gene products are unknown. Bacterial strains mutated in the bcsA locus were found to be deficient in cellulose synthesis due to the lack of cellulose synthase and diguanylate cyclase activities. Mutants in the bcsC and bcsD genes were impaired in cellulose production in vivo...

‣ Correction for Kulesekara et al., Analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa diguanylate cyclases and phosphodiesterases reveals a role for bis-(3′-5′)-cyclic-GMP in virulence

Kulasakara, Hemantha; Lee, Vincent; Brencic, Anja; Liberati, Nicole; Urbach, Jonathan; Miyata, Sachiko; Lee, Daniel G.; Neely, Alice N.; Hyodo, Mamoru; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Ausubel, Frederick M.; Lory, Stephen
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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‣ Regulation of Vibrio Polysaccharide Synthesis and Virulence Factor Production by CdgC, a GGDEF-EAL Domain Protein, in Vibrio cholerae▿ †

Lim, Bentley; Beyhan, Sinem; Yildiz, Fitnat H.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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In Vibrio cholerae, the second messenger 3′,5′-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) regulates several cellular processes, such as formation of corrugated colony morphology, biofilm formation, motility, and virulence factor production. Both synthesis and degradation of c-di-GMP in the cell are modulated by proteins containing GGDEF and/or EAL domains, which function as a diguanylate cyclase and a phosphodiesterase, respectively. The expression of two genes, cdgC and mbaA, which encode proteins harboring both GGDEF and EAL domains is higher in the rugose phase variant of V. cholerae than in the smooth variant. In this study, we carried out gene expression analysis to determine the genes regulated by CdgC in the rugose and smooth phase variants of V. cholerae. We determined that CdgC regulates expression of genes required for V. cholerae polysaccharide synthesis and of the transcriptional regulator genes vpsR, vpsT, and hapR. CdgC also regulates expression of genes involved in extracellular protein secretion, flagellar biosynthesis, and virulence factor production. We then compared the genes regulated by CdgC and by MbaA, during both exponential and stationary phases of growth, to elucidate processes regulated by them. Identification of the regulons of CdgC and MbaA revealed that the regulons overlap...

‣ Genetic reductionist approach for dissecting individual roles of GGDEF proteins within the c-di-GMP signaling network in Salmonella

Solano, Cristina; García, Begoña; Latasa, Cristina; Toledo-Arana, Alejandro; Zorraquino, Violeta; Valle, Jaione; Casals, Joan; Pedroso, Enrique; Lasa, Iñigo
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Bacteria have developed an exclusive signal transduction system involving multiple diguanylate cyclase and phosphodiesterase domain-containing proteins (GGDEF and EAL/HD-GYP, respectively) that modulate the levels of the same diffusible molecule, 3′-5′-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP), to transmit signals and obtain specific cellular responses. Current knowledge about c-di-GMP signaling has been inferred mainly from the analysis of recombinant bacteria that either lack or overproduce individual members of the pathway, without addressing potential compensatory effects or interferences between them. Here, we dissected c-di-GMP signaling by constructing a Salmonella strain lacking all GGDEF-domain proteins and then producing derivatives, each restoring 1 protein. Our analysis showed that most GGDEF proteins are constitutively expressed and that their expression levels are not interdependent. Complete deletion of genes encoding GGDEF-domain proteins abrogated virulence, motility, long-term survival, and cellulose and fimbriae synthesis. Separate restoration revealed that 4 proteins from Salmonella and 1 from Yersinia pestis exclusively restored cellulose synthesis in a c-di-GMP–dependent manner, indicating that c-di-GMP produced by different GGDEF proteins can activate the same target. However...

‣ A Role for the EAL-Like Protein STM1344 in Regulation of CsgD Expression and Motility in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium▿

Simm, Roger; Remminghorst, Uwe; Ahmad, Irfan; Zakikhany, Katherina; Römling, Ute
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The bacterial second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) regulates the transition between sessility and motility. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, the expression of CsgD, the regulator of multicellular rdar morphotype behavior, is a major target of c-di-GMP signaling. CsgD expression is positively regulated by at least two diguanylate cyclases, GGDEF domain proteins, and negatively regulated by at least four phosphodiesterases, EAL domain proteins. Here, we show that in contrast to EAL domain proteins acting as phosphodiesterases, the EAL-like protein STM1344 regulated CsgD expression positively and motility negatively. STM1344, however, did not have a role in c-di-GMP turnover and also did not bind the nucleotide. STM1344 acted upstream of the phosphodiesterases STM1703 and STM3611, previously identified to participate in CsgD downregulation, where it repressed their expression. Consequently, although STM1344 has not retained a direct role in c-di-GMP metabolism, it still participates in the regulation of c-di-GMP turnover and has a role in the transition between sessility and motility.

‣ Structural analysis of the GGDEF-EAL domain-containing c-di-GMP receptor FimX

Navarro, Marcos V.A.S.; De, Nabanita; Bae, Narae; Wang, Qi; Sondermann, Holger
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/08/2009 Português
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Bacterial pathogenesis involves social behavior including biofilm formation and swarming, processes that are regulated by the bacterially unique second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP). Diguanylate cyclases containing GGDEF and phosphodiesterases containing EAL domains have been identified as the enzymes controlling cellular c-di-GMP levels, yet less is known regarding signal transmission and the targets of c-di-GMP. FimX, a protein from Pseudomonas aeruginosa that governs twitching motility, belongs to a large subfamily containing both GGDEF and EAL domains. Biochemical and structural analyses reveals its function as a high-affinity receptor for c-di-GMP. A model for full-length FimX was generated combining solution scattering data and crystal structures of the degenerate GGDEF and EAL domains. While FimX forms a dimer in solution via the N-terminal domains, a crystallographic EAL domain dimer suggests modes for the regulation of FimX by c-di-GMP binding. The results provide the structural basis for c-di-GMP sensing via degenerate phosphodiesterases.

‣ Truncated form of the title: Mechanism of c-di-GMP signaling

Sondermann, Holger; Shikuma, Nicholas J.; Yildiz, Fitnat H.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a common, bacterial second messenger that regulates diverse cellular processes in bacteria. Opposing activities of diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) and phosphodiesterases (PDEs) control c-di-GMP homeostasis in the cell. Many microbes have a large number of genes encoding DGCs and PDEs that are predicted to be part of c-di-GMP signaling networks. Other building blocks of these networks are c-di-GMP receptors which sense the cellular levels of the dinucleotide. C-di-GMP receptors form a more diverse family, including various transcription factors, PilZ domains, degenerate DGCs or PDEs, and riboswitches. Recent studies revealing the molecular basis of c-di-GMP signaling mechanisms enhanced our understanding of how this molecule controls downstream biological processes and how c-di-GMP signaling specificity is achieved.

‣ The Phosphodiesterase DipA (PA5017) Is Essential for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Dispersion

Roy, Ankita Basu; Petrova, Olga E.; Sauer, Karin
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2012 Português
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Although little is known regarding the mechanism of biofilm dispersion, it is becoming clear that this process coincides with alteration of cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) levels. Here, we demonstrate that dispersion by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in response to sudden changes in nutrient concentrations resulted in increased phosphodiesterase activity and reduction of c-di-GMP levels compared to biofilm and planktonic cells. By screening mutants inactivated in genes encoding EAL domains for nutrient-induced dispersion, we identified in addition to the previously reported ΔrbdA mutant a second mutant, the ΔdipA strain (PA5017 [dispersion-induced phosphodiesterase A]), to be dispersion deficient in response to glutamate, nitric oxide, ammonium chloride, and mercury chloride. Using biochemical and in vivo studies, we show that DipA associates with the membrane and exhibits phosphodiesterase activity but no detectable diguanylate cyclase activity. Consistent with these data, a ΔdipA mutant exhibited reduced swarming motility, increased initial attachment, and polysaccharide production but only somewhat increased biofilm formation and c-di-GMP levels. DipA harbors an N-terminal GAF (cGMP-specific phosphodiesterases, adenylyl cyclases, and FhlA) domain and two EAL motifs within or near the C-terminal EAL domain. Mutational analyses of the two EAL motifs of DipA suggest that both are important for the observed phosphodiesterase activity and dispersion...

‣ Identification of the YfgF MASE1 domain as a modulator of bacterial responses to aspartate

Lacey, Melissa; Agasing, Agnieshka; Lowry, Rebecca; Green, Jeffrey
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2013 Português
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Complex 3′-5′-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) responsive regulatory networks that are modulated by the action of multiple diguanylate cyclases (DGC; GGDEF domain proteins) and phosphodiesterases (PDE; EAL domain proteins) have evolved in many bacteria. YfgF proteins possess a membrane-anchoring domain (MASE1), a catalytically inactive GGDEF domain and a catalytically active EAL domain. Here, sustained expression of the Salmonella enterica spp. Enterica ser. Enteritidis YfgF protein is shown to mediate inhibition of the formation of the aspartate chemotactic ring on motility agar under aerobic conditions. This phenomenon was c-di-GMP-independent because it occurred in a Salmonella strain that lacked the ability to synthesize c-di-GMP and also when PDE activity was abolished by site-directed mutagenesis of the EAL domain. YfgF-mediated inhibition of aspartate chemotactic ring formation was impaired in the altered redox environment generated by exogenous p-benzoquinone. This ability of YfgF to inhibit the response to aspartate required a motif, 213Lys-Lys-Glu215, in the predicted cytoplasmic loop between trans-membrane regions 5 and 6 of the MASE1 domain. Thus, for the first time the function of a MASE1 domain as a redox-responsive regulator of bacterial responses to aspartate has been shown.

‣ NO-Induced Biofilm Dispersion in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Is Mediated by an MHYT Domain-Coupled Phosphodiesterase

Li, Yi; Heine, Sabrina; Entian, Michael; Sauer, Karin; Frankenberg-Dinkel, Nicole
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2013 Português
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Dispersion is a process used by bacteria to successfully transit from a biofilm to a planktonic growth state and to spawn novel communities in new locales. Alterations in bis-(3′-5′)-cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) levels have been shown to be associated with biofilm dispersal in a number of different bacteria. The signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO) is known to induce biofilm dispersion through stimulation of c-di-GMP-degrading phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity. However, no c-di-GMP modulating enzyme directly involved in NO-induced dispersion has yet been described in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Here, we characterized MucR (PA1727) and NbdA (PA3311, NO-induced biofilm dispersion locus A), two membrane-bound proteins with identical domain organization consisting of MHYT-GGDEF-EAL, with respect to their role in NO-induced dispersion. Inactivation of mucR impaired biofilm dispersion in response to NO and glutamate, whereas inactivation of nbdA only impaired biofilm dispersion upon exposure to NO. A specific role of NbdA in NO-induced dispersion was supported by increased PDE activity, resulting in decreased c-di-GMP levels in biofilms expressing nbdA upon exposure to NO, a response that was absent in the ΔnbdA strain. Moreover...

‣ A Mechanistic Explanation Linking Adaptive Mutation, Niche Change, and Fitness Advantage for the Wrinkly Spreader

Spiers, Andrew J.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Experimental evolution studies have investigated adaptive radiation in static liquid microcosms using the environmental bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25. In evolving populations a novel adaptive mutant known as the Wrinkly Spreader arises within days having significant fitness advantage over the ancestral strain. A molecular investigation of the Wrinkly Spreader has provided a mechanistic explanation linking mutation with fitness improvement through the production of a cellulose-based biofilm at the air-liquid interface. Colonisation of this niche provides greater access to oxygen, allowing faster growth than that possible for non-biofilm—forming competitors located in the lower anoxic region of the microcosm. Cellulose is probably normally used for attachment to plant and soil aggregate surfaces and to provide protection in dehydrating conditions. However, the evolutionary innovation of the Wrinkly Spreader in static microcosms is the use of cellulose as the matrix of a robust biofilm, and is achieved through mutations that deregulate multiple diguanylate cyclases leading to the over-production of cyclic-di-GMP and the stimulation of cellulose expression. The mechanistic explanation of the Wrinkly Spreader success is an exemplar of the modern evolutionary synthesis...

‣ The LuxR-Type Regulator VpsT Negatively Controls the Transcription of rpoS, Encoding the General Stress Response Regulator, in Vibrio cholerae Biofilms

Wang, Hongxia; Ayala, Julio C.; Benitez, Jorge A.; Silva, Anisia J.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2014 Português
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Cholera is a waterborne diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae strains of serogroups O1 and O139. Expression of the general stress response regulator RpoS and formation of biofilm communities enhance the capacity of V. cholerae to persist in aquatic environments. The transition of V. cholerae between free-swimming (planktonic) and biofilm life-styles is regulated by the second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP). We previously reported that increasing the c-di-GMP pool by overexpression of a diguanylate cyclase diminished RpoS expression. Here we show that c-di-GMP repression of RpoS expression is eliminated by deletion of the genes vpsR and vpsT, encoding positive regulators of biofilm development. To determine the mechanism of this regulation, we constructed a strain expressing a vpsT-FLAG allele from native transcription and translation signals. Increasing the c-di-GMP pool induced vpsT-FLAG expression. The interaction between VpsT-FLAG and the rpoS promoter was demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Furthermore, purified VpsT interacted with the rpoS promoter in a c-di-GMP-dependent manner. Primer extension analysis identified two rpoS transcription initiation sites located 43 bp (P1) and 63 bp (P2) upstream of the rpoS start codon. DNase I footprinting showed that the VpsT binding site at the rpoS promoter overlaps the primary P1 transcriptional start site. Deletion of vpsT significantly enhanced rpoS expression in V. cholerae biofilms that do not make HapR. This result suggests that VpsT and c-di-GMP contribute to the transcriptional silencing of rpoS in biofilms prior to cells entering the quorum-sensing mode.

‣ The Vibrio cholerae diguanylate cyclase VCA0965 has an AGDEF active site and synthesizes cyclic di-GMP

Hunter, Jessica L; Severin, Geoffrey B; Koestler, Benjamin J; Waters, Christopher M
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/02/2014 Português
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‣ Mind-controlled transgene expression by a wireless-powered optogenetic designer cell implant

Folcher, Marc; Oesterle, Sabine; Zwicky, Katharina; Thekkottil, Thushara; Heymoz, Julie; Hohmann, Muriel; Christen, Matthias; Daoud El-Baba, Marie; Buchmann, Peter; Fussenegger, Martin
Fonte: Nature Pub. Group Publicador: Nature Pub. Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/11/2014 Português
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Synthetic devices for traceless remote control of gene expression may provide new treatment opportunities in future gene- and cell-based therapies. Here we report the design of a synthetic mind-controlled gene switch that enables human brain activities and mental states to wirelessly programme the transgene expression in human cells. An electroencephalography (EEG)-based brain–computer interface (BCI) processing mental state-specific brain waves programs an inductively linked wireless-powered optogenetic implant containing designer cells engineered for near-infrared (NIR) light-adjustable expression of the human glycoprotein SEAP (secreted alkaline phosphatase). The synthetic optogenetic signalling pathway interfacing the BCI with target gene expression consists of an engineered NIR light-activated bacterial diguanylate cyclase (DGCL) producing the orthogonal second messenger cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP), which triggers the stimulator of interferon genes (STING)-dependent induction of synthetic interferon-β promoters. Humans generating different mental states (biofeedback control, concentration, meditation) can differentially control SEAP production of the designer cells in culture and of subcutaneous wireless-powered optogenetic implants in mice.

‣ HmsB enhances biofilm formation in Yersinia pestis

Fang, Nan; Qu, Shi; Yang, Huiying; Fang, Haihong; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Yiquan; Wang, Li; Han, Yanping; Zhou, Dongsheng; Yang, Ruifu
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/12/2014 Português
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The hmsHFRS operon is responsible for biosynthesis and translocation of biofilm matrix exopolysaccharide. Yersinia pestis expresses the two sole diguanylate cyclases HmsT and HmsD and the sole phosphodiesterase HmsP, which are specific for biosynthesis and degradation, respectively, of 3′,5′-cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP), a second messenger promoting exopolysaccharide production. In this work, the phenotypic assays indicates that Y. pestis sRNA HmsB enhances the production of c-di-GMP, exopolysaccharide, and biofilm. Further gene regulation experiments disclose that HmsB stimulates the expression of hmsB, hmsCDE, hmsT, and hmsHFRS but represses that of hmsP. HmsB most likely acts as a major activator of biofilm formation in Y. pestis. This is the first report of regulation of Yersinia biofilm formation by a sRNA. Data presented here will promote us to gain a deeper understanding of the complex regulatory circuits controlling Yersinia biofilm formation.

‣ C-di-GMP regulates Pseudomonas aeruginosa stress response to tellurite during both planktonic and biofilm modes of growth

Chua, Song Lin; Sivakumar, Krishnakumar; Rybtke, Morten; Yuan, Mingjun; Andersen, Jens Bo; Nielsen, Thomas E.; Givskov, Michael; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Cao, Bin; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Yang, Liang
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/05/2015 Português
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Stress response plays an important role on microbial adaptation under hostile environmental conditions. It is generally unclear how the signaling transduction pathway mediates a stress response in planktonic and biofilm modes of microbial communities simultaneously. Here, we showed that metalloid tellurite (TeO32–) exposure induced the intracellular content of the secondary messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Two diguanylate cyclases (DGCs), SadC and SiaD, were responsible for the increased intracellular content of c-di-GMP. Enhanced c-di-GMP levels by TeO32– further increased P. aeruginosa biofilm formation and resistance to TeO32–. P. aeruginosa ΔsadCΔsiaD and PAO1/plac-yhjH mutants with low intracellular c-di-GMP content were more sensitive to TeO32– exposure and had low relative fitness compared to the wild-type PAO1 planktonic and biofilm cultures exposed to TeO32–. Our study provided evidence that c-di-GMP level can play an important role in mediating stress response in microbial communities during both planktonic and biofilm modes of growth.

‣ Dynamic complex formation between HD-GYP, GGDEF and PilZ domain proteins regulates motility in Xanthomonas campestris

Ryan, Robert P.; McCarthy, Yvonne; Kiely, Patrick A.; O'Connor, Rosemary; Farah, Chuck S.; Armitage, Judith P.; Dow, J. Maxwell
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL; HOBOKEN Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL; HOBOKEN
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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RpfG is a member of a class of wide spread bacterial two-component regulators with an HD-GYP cyclic di-GMP phosphodiesterase domain. In the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris, RpfG together with the sensor kinase RpfC regulates multiple factors as a response to the cell-to-cell Diffusible Signalling Factor (DSF). A dynamic physical interaction of RpfG with two diguanylate cyclase (GGDEF) domain proteins controls motility. Here we show that, contrary to expectation, regulation of motility by the GGDEF domain proteins does not depend upon their cyclic di-GMP synthetic activity. Furthermore we show that the complex of RpfG and GGDEF domain proteins recruits a specific PilZ domain adaptor protein, and this complex then interacts with the pilus motor proteins PilU and PiIT. The results support a model in which DSF signalling influences motility through the highly regulated dynamic interaction of proteins that affect pilus action. A specific motif that we identify to be required for HD-GYP domain interaction is conserved in a number of GGDEF domain proteins, suggesting that regulation via interdomain interactions is of broad relevance.; Science Foundation of Ireland [SFI 07/IN. 1/B955, SFI 09/SIRG/B1654]; Royal Irish Academy fellowship; Human Frontiers Science Programme; Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council

‣ Cellulose biosynthesis and function in bacteria.

Ross, P; Mayer, R; Benziman, M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1991 Português
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The current model of cellulose biogenesis in plants, as well as bacteria, holds that the membranous cellulose synthase complex polymerizes glucose moieties from UDP-Glc into beta-1,4-glucan chains which give rise to rigid crystalline fibrils upon extrusion at the outer surface of the cell. The distinct arrangement and degree of association of the polymerizing enzyme units presumably govern extracellular chain assembly in addition to the pattern and width of cellulose fibril deposition. Most evident for Acetobacter xylinum, polymerization and assembly appear to be tightly coupled. To date, only bacteria have been effectively studied at the biochemical and genetic levels. In A. xylinum, the cellulose synthase, composed of at least two structurally similar but functionally distinct subunits, is subject to a multicomponent regulatory system. Regulation is based on the novel nucleotide cyclic diguanylic acid, a positive allosteric effector, and the regulatory enzymes maintaining its intracellular turnover: diguanylate cyclase and Ca2(+)-sensitive bis-(3',5')-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) phosphodiesterase. Four genes have been isolated from A. xylinum which constitute the operon for cellulose synthesis. The second gene encodes the catalytic subunit of cellulose synthase; the functions of the other three gene products are still unknown. Exclusively an extracellular product...