Página 8 dos resultados de 15239 itens digitais encontrados em 0.006 segundos

‣ Reproductive immunology: biomarkers of compromised pregnancies.

Faulk, W P; Coulam, C B; McIntyre, J A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1987 Português
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The objective of this paper is to consider several categories of biomarkers of human pregnancy. The design of the report is to discuss useful and promising markers and techniques. Research gaps, needs, and priorities are also defined. Useful markers are mixed lymphocyte culture reactions, measures of lymphocytotoxic antibodies, histocompatibility (HLA) typing, and immunohematological evaluations. Promising markers are measures of major basic protein and early pregnancy factor, as well as determinations of trophoblast-lymphocyte cross-reactive (TLX) antigens. Promising techniques are fluorescence-activated cell-sorter analysis of maternal blood for fetal and extraembryonic tissues and immunotherapy with TLX and other antigens to prevent spontaneous abortion. It is concluded that immunology has much to offer the development of biomarkers of human pregnancy.

‣ Injection immunotherapy. British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology Working Party.

Frew, A J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/10/1993 Português
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A working party of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology has reviewed the role of specific allergen immunotherapy in the treatment of allergic disease and produced a position statement summarising the available evidence for efficacy and safety. The working party recommends specific allergen immunotherapy for treating summer hay fever uncontrolled by conventional medication and for wasp and bee venom hypersensitivity. It is not recommended for asthma or for allergic rhinitis due to other allergens. For the recommended indications the risk:benefit ratio is acceptable provided patients are carefully selected; in particular, patients with asthma should be excluded as they are especially vulnerable to adverse reactions. Injections should be given only by doctors experiences in this form of treatment in a clinic where full resuscitative facilities are immediately available. Provided patients remain symptom free a 60 minute observation period after injection is sufficient to detect all serious adverse reactions.

‣ Unnecessary repeat requesting of tests: an audit in a government hospital immunology laboratory

Kwok, J; Jones, B
Fonte: Copyright 2005 Journal of Clinical Pathology Publicador: Copyright 2005 Journal of Clinical Pathology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2005 Português
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Unnecessary repeat requesting of tests can make up a large proportion of a laboratory’s workload. This audit set out to establish the size of this problem and to identify the circumstances under which these repeat requests were made in a government tertiary hospital immunology laboratory. The numbers of tests for immunoglobulin measurement, common autoantibodies, and tumour markers that were repeated over a 12 month period were analysed by interrogating the Delphic laboratory computer system using a management information system for raw data enquiry protocol. Repeat requests within 12 weeks of a previous request made up 16.78% of the total workload. The total cost of the tests was estimated at US$ 132 151. The waste of technician time and reagents as a result of unnecessary repeat testing is excessive. Many of these tests might be eliminated with the use of interventions such as computerised reminders.

‣ Takes your breath away – the immunology of allergic alveolitis

MCSHARRY, C; ANDERSON, K; BOURKE, S J; BOYD, G
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2002 Português
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Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (synonym: hypersensitivity pneumonitis) is caused by inhaling antigenic aerosols which induce hypersensitivity responses in susceptible individuals. It is an interstitial inflammatory disease affecting the distal, gas-exchanging parts of the lung, in contrast to allergic asthma where the inflammation is more proximal, affecting the conducting airways. The aims of this review are to describe current concepts of the immunology of this model of lung inflammation, to describe some of the constitutional and environmental characteristics which affect disease susceptibility and development, and to describe topics for prospective study.

‣ Current status of immunology research in India

Surolia, Avadhesha; Dhar, Ravi
Fonte: Biomedical Informatics Publishing Group Publicador: Biomedical Informatics Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/07/2007 Português
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Rudimentary studies on aspects of biochemistry in India date back to 1927. But, in the field of Immunology, such studies were started by scholars only during early 1970s at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. Science and Technology was not an immediate priority until 1961 due to domestic and political conditions in the country. We were then 11 years old since independence and our focus was on economic and social developments. Gradually, improvements were made in the field and now we have 15 to 20 major groups (small in size) of immunologists in the country, who have made significant contribution in the field during the last 8 to 10 years. Hence, we anticipate improvements in manpower and infrastructure in the near future.

‣ Implementation of Computer Based Problem Solving Examinations for Testing Pre-Clinical Students in Immunology

Stevens, R.H.; Kwak, A.R.; McCoy, J.M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/11/1989 Português
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Our purpose was to determine the feasibility of creating and administering problem solving computer based examinations for evaluating second year medical students in immunology, and to determine how students would perform on these tests relative to their performance on concurrently administered objective and essay examinations. Our results indicate that questions of uniform difficulty can be created in a problem solving environment and that correct solution of the problem correlates with the early selection of the most relevant data. Scores on the essay and objective examinations were most highly correlated with poor correlations between the computer and objective and the computer and essay examinations. Although some students found this examination format stressful, most students felt that such problem solving formats should be used in future testing.

‣ Preparing for first-in-man studies: the challenges for translational immunology post-TGN1412

Dayan, C M; Wraith, D C
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2008 Português
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Current immunology research is generating many new approaches to immunotherapy. However, the recent disaster surrounding the testing of TGN1412, has unsettled regulators and the pharmaceutical industry regarding new immunotherapies and highlighted the complexities of conducting clinical trials with agents that target the immune system. Here we discuss the critical role for immunologists in ensuring that the development of new immunotherapies continues.

‣ Immunology of schistosomiasis*

Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1974 Português
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This Memorandum, after summarizing the life cycle of the different species of human schistosome, reviews the present knowledge of the immunology of schistosomiasis. Each stage of the parasite contains antigen that may stimulate an immune response. However, at the moment there are no accepted serological in vitro tests that correlate with protection; this develops only after the host has experienced a living infection, which suggests that the stimulation of immunity is due to some metabolic process involving the release of protective antigen. The adult worm, however, seems to be able to escape the immune mechanism of the host. Specific antigens are also released by the eggs, and the immune response against these antigens seems to cause granuloma formation around the egg itself. The granuloma is the main lesion found in schistosomiasis. Evidence for protective immunity in experimental animals and man is reviewed, together with the possible mechanism by which the adult worm escapes the immune response of the host. A review of methods used for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis and a list of recommendations for further research are also included.

‣ Alcohol and Inflammation & Immune Responses: Summary of the 2006 Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting

Waldschmidt, Thomas J.; Cook, Robert T.; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2008 Português
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The 11th annual meeting of the Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) was held at Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, Illinois on November 17, 2006. The AIRIG meeting is held annually to exchange new findings and ideas that arise from onging research examining the effects of alcohol intake on the immune system. The event consisted of five sessions, two of which featured plenary talks from invited speakers, two with oral presentations from selected abstracts, and a final poster session. Participants presented new data on a variety of topics including the effects of ethanol on key cells of the immune system (neutrophils, dendritic cells, NK cells), B cell responses, the capacity to clear infectious agents, and the barrier functions of skin, lung and intestine.

‣ The immunology of human and animal cysticercosis: a review

Flisser, A.; Pérez-Montfort, R.; Larralde, C.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1979 Português
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In this review of the literature concerning the immunology of animal and human cysticercosis, emphasis is placed on whether previous exposure to the antigen confers protection to the host. Statistical analysis of the published data indicates that immunized animals have a lower risk than non-immunized animals of contracting cysticercosis, there being large variations within and between different host—cysticercus relationships. There is no indication as to which antigen is best for immunization but, although live parasites in all stages of development, or extracts, appear to give protection, embryos, eggs, and excretions are most frequently used. Antibodies appear to be the principal mediators of resistance, but the action seems to be only upon very young larvae, while fully grown cysticerci are unharmed. Several immunological methods are valuable in the diagnosis of cysticercosis, the choice depending more on the purpose of the study than on differences in their ability to discriminate between healthy and sick. The presence of anticysticercus antibodies in the serum of up to 50% of human patients indicates that human vaccination may be possible in high-risk areas; the remaining patients pose an interesting problem open to speculation and research on immunological evasion...

‣ The immunology of filariasis*

Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1981 Português
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This report summarizes the available information on the immunology of filariasis, and discusses immunodiagnosis and the immunological factors influencing the host—parasite relationship in lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis. Several areas that require further research are identified, particularly concerning the development of new serological techniques, and the fractionation of specific antigens. The problems associated with vaccine development are considered and the importance of finding better animal models for research is stressed.

‣ Surgical Immunology: A Historical Review of Its Role in the Armamentarium of the Surgical Oncologist

Walker, Charlotte Rose
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1979 Português
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Immunology is taking its place in multimodality therapy of malignant diseases—currently an adjuvant role. Historical development of this role and definition of terms and principles are herein presented in brief fashion.

‣ Current status of the immunology of malaria and of the antigenic analysis of plasmodia*: A five-year review

Zuckerman, Avivah
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1969 Português
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The immunology of malaria has been intensively studied, and many reviews of separate topics have appeared. Among host factors contributing to susceptibility to malaria, the following are studied in the present paper: (1) genetic factors affecting susceptibility to human and rodent plasmodia; (2) physiological and nutritional factors affecting susceptibility of vertebrate and vector hosts; (3) sterile immunity in malaria as exemplified by radical cure and by modification of challenge infection following exposure to non-living parasite products; (4) the role of the lymphoid-macrophage system in malaria; and (5) the excessive anaemia of malaria and its etiology.

‣ Access to immunology through the Gene Ontology

Lovering, Ruth C; Camon, Evelyn B; Blake, Judith A; Diehl, Alexander D
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2008 Português
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The Gene Ontology (GO) is widely recognized as the premier tool for the organization and functional annotation of molecular aspects of cellular systems. However, for many immunologists the use of GO is a very foreign concept. Indeed, as a controlled vocabulary, GO can almost be considered a new language, and it can be difficult to appreciate the use and value of this approach for understanding the immune system. This review reflects on the application of GO to the field of immunology and explains the process of GO annotation. Finally, this review hopes to inspire immunologists to invest time and energy in improving both the content of the GO and the quality of GO annotations associated with genes of immunological interest.

‣ Advances in Mechanisms of Asthma, Allergy, and Immunology in 2008

Boyce, Joshua A.; Broide, David; Matsumoto, Kenji; Bochner, Bruce S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2009 Português
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This review summarizes selected articles appearing in 2008 in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (JACI). Papers chosen include those improving our understanding of mechanisms of allergic diseases by focusing on human basophil, mast cell and eosinophil biology; IgE and its high affinity receptor on various cells; novel properties of omalizumab; airways remodeling; and genetics. Papers from other journals have been included to supplement the topics being presented.

‣ Clinical Immunology Review Series: An approach to the management of pulmonary disease in primary antibody deficiency

Tarzi, M D; Grigoriadou, S; Carr, S B; Kuitert, L M; Longhurst, H J
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2009 Português
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The sinopulmonary tract is the major site of infection in patients with primary antibody deficiency syndromes, and structural lung damage arising from repeated sepsis is a major determinant of morbidity and mortality. Patients with common variable immunodeficiency may, in addition, develop inflammatory lung disease, often associated with multi-system granulomatous disease. This review discusses the presentation and management of lung disease in patients with primary antibody deficiency.

‣ Respiratory Viral Infections in Infants: Causes, Clinical Symptoms, Virology, and Immunology

Tregoning, John S.; Schwarze, Jürgen
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2010 Português
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Summary: In global terms, respiratory viral infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Infancy, in particular, is a time of increased disease susceptibility and severity. Early-life viral infection causes acute illness and can be associated with the development of wheezing and asthma in later life. The most commonly detected viruses are respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rhinovirus (RV), and influenza virus. In this review we explore the complete picture from epidemiology and virology to clinical impact and immunology. Three striking aspects emerge. The first is the degree of similarity: although the infecting viruses are all different, the clinical outcome, viral evasion strategies, immune response, and long-term sequelae share many common features. The second is the interplay between the infant immune system and viral infection: the immaturity of the infant immune system alters the outcome of viral infection, but at the same time, viral infection shapes the development of the infant immune system and its future responses. Finally, both the virus and the immune response contribute to damage to the lungs and subsequent disease, and therefore, any prevention or treatment needs to address both of these factors.

‣ AAIR, a leading open access journal in allergy, asthma and immunology research

Park, Choon-Sik
Fonte: The Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology; The Korean Academy of Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Disease Publicador: The Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology; The Korean Academy of Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Disease
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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‣ Advances in Basic and Clinical Immunology 2009

Chinen, Javier; Shearer, William T.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2010 Português
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In 2009, reports on basic and clinical immunology had an increased focus on human disease mechanisms and management. The molecular pathogenesis of familial angioedema associated with estrogen was further explored to find possible factors affecting severity, including polymorphisms in enzymes and receptors related to bradykinin pathways. A placebo-controlled clinical trial of C1INH concentrate in hereditary angioedema patients demonstrated the safety of its use and the efficacy to reduce duration of angioedema attacks. The interaction of innate immunity and adaptive responses was further examined in several reports establishing the significant role of toll-like receptor stimulation for the development of optimal specific antibody responses. The 2009 update of the classification of primary immunodeficiencies introduced over 15 new genetic defects related to the immune response, including DOCK8 mutations responsible for the autosomal recessive form of the hyper IgE syndrome. Other reports expanded the clinical spectrum of disease and improved the characterization of conditions such as warts, hypogammaglobulinemia and myelokathexis (WHIM) syndrome, or the occurrence of mucormycosis and Serratia infections in chronic granulomatous disease. The frequent presentation of gastrointestinal disorders in humoral immunodeficiencies was recognized and recommendations for management were reviewed. Clinical research focused in severe combined immunodeficiency included the development and implementation of a state-wide newborn screening program for this condition...

‣ Contribution to Enrichment of Korean Academy of Asthma Allergy Clinical Immunology: Homage to Professor You-Young Kim, the Pioneer Exploring Allergology in Korea

Cho, Sang Heon
Fonte: The Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology; The Korean Academy of Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Disease Publicador: The Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology; The Korean Academy of Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Disease
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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