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‣ Crescimento econômico e desigualdade de renda no estado de São Paulo: uma análise das disparidades regionais; Income Inequality in the state of Sao Paulo: an analysis of regional disparities

Pinto, Jeronymo Marcondes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/12/2007 Português
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Esta pesquisa visa realizar uma radiografia da desigualdade de renda no estado de São Paulo a partir da base de dados disponibilizada pelos Censos de 1991 e 2000. Nesse sentido, avaliar-se-á qual o valor dos indicadores de desigualdade de renda para os diferentes níveis de agregação existentes no Estado disponibilizados pelo Censo. No caso, a metodologia aplicada é a mesma utilizada por Bourguignon e Morrisson em seu trabalho seminal "Inequality among world citizens: 1820 - 1992" (2002), que ressalta o fato de que os estudos sobre a desigualdade mundial são, em sua maioria, simplistas demais ao só considerarem a desigualdade de renda entre países, mas não levar em conta desigualdade dentro dos mesmos. Assim, baseados nos indicadores tratados em Bourguignon (1979), os autores estimam a desigualdade entre países e dentro dos países, dado que a soma de ambas seria igual à desigualdade de renda total. A presente pesquisa faz a mesma análise, mas tendo como foco o estado de São Paulo ao invés do mundo e utilizando-se da variável rendimento mensal domiciliar - dada pelo Censo - dividida pelo número de moradores por domicílio. A radiografia da desigualdade de renda no Estado é feita nos seguinte níveis de agregação: Mesorregiões...

‣ Proposta de incentivo à produção de habitações populares: emissão de títulos de investimento passíveis de utilização para pagamento de tributos federais.; A suggestion for low-income housing construction incentive: issuance of federal tax-deductible securities.

Veronezi, Ana Beatriz Poli
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/12/2008 Português
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A carência habitacional é uma marca da sociedade atual, sendo muito evidente no Brasil. Ela está concentrada na faixa de renda mais baixa da população. O confronto entre custo de produção da habitação popular e seu conseqüente preço mínimo e capacidade de pagar deste mercado alvo, isto é, da população de baixa renda, configura a produção de habitação popular como um negócio com baixa atratividade econômica. Assim, tal negócio não desperta interesse da iniciativa privada e o Estado é obrigado a desenvolvê-lo, ainda que sem qualidade econômica. Esta Tese propõe uma forma de incentivo à produção de habitação popular através de relacionamento entre Estado e iniciativa privada, de maneira a tornar tal negócio economicamente atrativo para esta última. Para isto é apresentado um mecanismo que contempla a segmentação do fluxo de recebíveis destes empreendimentos empregando instrumentos disponíveis no mercado de capitais, o que inclui a alteração da forma de pagamento de determinados tributos, visando a conferir atratividade econômica, sob o ponto de vista da iniciativa privada, para a produção desta habitação com preço que se enquadre na capacidade de pagar do mercado alvo. Em última análise...

‣ Influência da renda familiar e dos preços dos alimentos sobre a composição da dieta consumida nos domicílios brasileiros; Influence of family income and food prices on the composition of the diet consumed in Brazilian households

Claro, Rafael Moreira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/09/2010 Português
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Objetivos: Estudar a influência que a renda das famílias e os preços dos alimentos exercem sobre a aquisição de alimentos mais saudáveis (frutas e hortaliças, F&H) e menos saudáveis (bebidas adoçadas, BA). Metodologia: Utilizaram-se dados sobre aquisição de alimentos coletados pela Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares (POF), realizada entre julho de 2002 e junho de 2003 pelo IBGE em uma amostra probabilística de 48.470 domicílios do país. A influência da renda familiar e do preço de frutas e hortaliças e de bebidas adoçadas sobre seu consumo foi estudada empregando-se técnicas de análise de regressão múltipa para estimação de coeficientes de elasticidade, controlando-se variáveis sócio-demográficas e preço dos demais alimentos. Resultados: Com a diminuição do preço de F&H haveria aumento da participação desses alimentos no total de aquisições: 10 por cento de redução nos preços de F&H aumentaria em 7,9 por cento sua participação no total calórico. Com o aumento da renda familiar também haveria aumento na participação calórica de F&H: 10 por cento de aumento na renda aumentaria em 2,7 por cento a participação de F&H no total calórico. O efeito dos aumentos de renda tendeu a ser menor nos estratos de maior renda. Haveria significativa redução na aquisição de bebidas adoçadas frente a aumentos no seu preço: para cada 10 por cento de aumento nos preços de bebidas adoçadas haveria uma redução de 8...

‣ Natureza jurídica da retenção na fonte do imposto sobre a renda; Legal nature of the withholding income tax

Faria, Renato Vilela
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/04/2012 Português
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No contexto do sistema tributário nacional, a tributação da renda obriga o legislador não apenas a obedecer aos princípios abrigados sob o manto da Constituição Federal, mas também ao atendimento dos valores impregnados na sociedade, de forma que seus trabalhos sejam orientados por meio da ponderação de prioridades. O princípio da praticabilidade é tomado neste estudo como a pedra de toque no debate sobre a validade da incidência do Imposto de Renda na Fonte. A praticabilidade, elevada ao grau de princípio, é confrontada com outros princípios constitucionais, em especial com a capacidade contributiva, a vedação ao confisco, o mínimo existencial e a segurança jurídica. Focado nos aspectos material, temporal e quantitativo da regra matriz do Imposto Sobre a Renda, o presente estudo procura identificar os regimes jurídicos aplicáveis a cada uma das situações onde este imposto incide, de forma antecipada e isolada, por meio do conceito da retenção na fonte, com a transferência da responsabilidade por seu pagamento para a fonte pagadora. O tema é examinado sob a ótica do Imposto de Renda na Fonte, sobretudo no tocante às pessoas físicas, onde surge um campo maior de questionamentos. A presente abordagem percorre...

‣ Do lottery sales differ across income classes becoming an inferior good for rich countries?

Faustino, Horácio C.; Kaizeler, Maria João
Fonte: ISEG - SOCIUS Publicador: ISEG - SOCIUS
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em //2009 Português
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Do the populations of low per-capita income countries participate with a stronger desire to win and spent relatively more money on lottery products? Is such a desire to buy lottery products constant, or does it decrease when the country reaches a higher per-capita income class? To answer these questions, this paper tests the hypothesis that per-capita lottery sales vary across income classes in addition to the hypothesis that the income elasticity of demand for lottery products differs across income class countries. Using an econometric model with significant control variables, the results confirm the hypothesis that per-capita lottery sales vary positively with income classes and that lottery spending differs between classes. The results also show that the lower income-class countries spend more than the higher income-class countries, suggesting, but not confirming, that the lottery may be an inferior good in countries having the highest levels of per-capita GDP.

‣ Achieving the Middle Ground in an Age of Concentrated Extremes: Mixed Middle-Income Neighborhoods and Emerging Adulthood

Sampson, Robert J.; Mare, R. D.; Perkins, Kristin Laurel
Fonte: SAGE Publications Publicador: SAGE Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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This paper focuses on stability and change in “mixed middle-income” neighborhoods. We first analyze variation across nearly two decades for all neighborhoods in the U.S. and the Chicago area. We then analyze a new longitudinal study of almost 700 Chicago adolescents over an 18-year span, including their neighborhood income experiences during the transition to young adulthood. The concentration of income extremes is highly persistent among neighborhoods, whereas mixed middle-income neighborhoods are more fluid. Persistence dominates among individuals too, although Latino-Americans are much more likely than African-Americans or whites to be exposed to mixed middle-income neighborhoods in the first place and to transition into them over time, adjusting for immigrant status, education, income, and residential mobility. The results enhance our knowledge of the course of income inequality at the neighborhood level, and the endurance of concentrated extremes suggests that policies seeking to promote mixed-income neighborhoods face greater odds than commonly thought.; Sociology

‣ How Should Fiscal Policy Respond to the Economic Crisis in the Low Income Commonwealth of Independent States? Some pointers from Tajikistan

Brownbridge, Martin; Canagarajah, Sudharshan
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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The paper analyses how the global economic crisis will affect the economies of the low income Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and discusses the fiscal measures which can be taken to help mitigate the adverse impact of the crisis. It focuses on Tajikistan, the poorest member of the CIS but also highlights similarities with the economies of Armenia, the Kyrgyz Republic and Moldova. The main channels through which the global economic crisis will affect the low income CIS economies is through a sharp reduction in remittances from migrant workers in Russia and lower export earnings. The adjustment to this external shock will involve a reduction in imports, private consumption, domestic output and government revenue. Fiscal policy, constrained by very limited macroeconomic and fiscal space, faces acute challenges. Maintaining budget targets for fiscal deficits and domestic borrowing in the face of revenue shortfalls will lead to a tightening of the fiscal stance, exacerbating recessionary pressures and making it very difficult to protect priority social expenditures from cuts. To avoid these outcomes...

‣ Impacts of Large-Scale Expansion of Biofuels on Global Poverty and Income Distribution

Cororaton, Caesar B.; Timilsina, Govinda R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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This paper analyzes the impact of large-scale expansion of biofuels on the global income distribution and poverty. A global computable general equilibrium model is used to simulate the effects of the expansion of biofuels on resource allocation, commodity prices, factor prices and household income. A second model based on world-wide household surveys uses these results to calculate the impacts on poverty and global income inequality. The study finds that the large-scale expansion of biofuels leads to an increase in production and prices of agricultural commodities. The increased prices would cause higher food prices, especially in developing countries. Moreover, wages of unskilled rural labor would also increase, which slows down the rural to urban migration in many developing countries. The study also shows that the effects on poverty vary across regions; it increases in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, whereas it decreases in Latin America. At the global level, the expansion of biofuels increases poverty slightly.

‣ Efficiency and Equity of a Marginal Tax Reform - Income, Quality, and Price Elasticities for Mexico

Nicita, Alessandro
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Português
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The author investigates the effects of a marginal tax reform on household welfare in Mexico. He estimates the extent to which Mexican households react to changes in prices, and uses the estimates to simulate changes in social welfare resulting from marginal tax reform. Results indicate that poorer households tend to have significantly larger income and price elasticities. Hence, to correctly evaluate the effects of economic policies on the poor, it is important to estimate elasticities that reflect the behavioral responses of the poor rather than of the entire population. The results from the micro simulation suggest that since poorer households rely mostly on maize, legumes, and vegetables to fulfill their caloric intake, any price reform that reduces the price of these products will have a larger effect on the welfare of poor households. In particular, reducing the taxes on maize, alcoholic beverages, and vegetables would be both more equitable and more efficient in terms of social welfare. Meanwhile, a reduction in the tax on legumes...

‣ The Regulatory and Supervisory Framework for Fixed Income Markets in Europe

Dumoulin, Hubert Grignon; Kruse, Mogens
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Português
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This paper looks at the development and regulation of fixed income securities markets in Europe. Fixed income securities markets in Europe have historically been characterized by a number of national markets that were interconnected by way of foreign exchange markets. They are presently undergoing major changes in size, infrastructure, and regulation. The authors describe the current state of the ongoing European regulatory and supervisory reform and the main drivers behind it. They conclude that European fixed income securities market regulation and infrastructure are not (yet) homogeneous. In some countries fixed income market regulation has been developed after intense political reflections on ways and means of promoting safe and efficient capital markets. In other countries, fixed income market regulation is a product of learning-by-doing (such as ad hoc reflections based on negative market experiences and financial scandals). To illustrate the heterogeneity in the European fixed income markets, the authors include two examples: France as an example of a country from the euro area...

‣ Measuring Financial Capability : Questionnaires and Implementation Guidance for Low-, and Middle-Income Countries

Kempson, Elaine; Perotti, Valeria; Scott, Kinnon
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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This manual is designed to provide guidance to institutions, researchers, and survey firms on how to measure financial capability in middle, and low income countries using a new survey instrument that was developed and tested, from start to finish, in middle- and low-income countries. This new survey was developed as part of a larger project financed by the Russia Financial Literacy and Education Trust Fund (RTF) and implemented by the World Bank that encompassed both measurement of financial capability and evaluation of financial literacy programs. The development of the new RTF Financial Capability Survey (FCS) was done in collaboration with a team of external experts and teams from a total of 12 low- and middle-income countries. The full description of how the survey was developed can be found in Kempson, Perotti, and Scott (2013) along with findings from the first wave of surveys that have been done. In this manual we briefly summarize reasons why the FCS might be of interest to a country, provide a detailed outline of the issues related to implementing the survey successfully...

‣ Understanding Latin America and the Caribbean’s Income Gap

Thompson Araujo, Jorge; Vostroknutova, Ekaterina; Wacker, Konstantin M.; Clavijo, Mateo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
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Even nearly ten years of solid growth cannot guarantee long-term income convergence. The countries of the Latin America and Caribbean region (LAC), like other emerging economies, have benefited from a decade of remarkable growth and some income per capita convergence towards the United States and other industrialized countries. Yet, despite this recent progress, LAC still faces a significant per capita income gap with the developed world. The studies in this volume contribute to the ongoing debate on the reasons for this persistent income gap and the potential drivers of convergence, and propose some broad avenues for reform.

‣ How to Avoid Middle-Income Traps?

Flaaen, Aaron; Ghani, Ejaz; Mishra, Saurabh
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Brief
Português
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Malaysias structural transformation from low to middle income has made it one of the most prominent manufacturing exporters in the world. However, in the competitive global economy, like many other middle-income economies, it is sandwiched between low-wage economies on one side and more innovative advanced economies on the other. What can Malaysia do? Does Malaysia need a new growth strategy?

‣ El declive del estado de resultados tradicional ante la irrupción actual del excedente limpio. Perspectiva histórica y conceptual.; The decline of the traditional statement of income in the face of the recent rise.

Sousa Fernández, Francisco
Fonte: Facultad de Contaduría y Administración, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Publicador: Facultad de Contaduría y Administración, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; publishedVersion
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RESUMEN. Con la adopción del resultado global (comprehensive income) a partir de la década de los noventa del siglo XX por los organismos emisores de normas contables más relevantes en el concierto mundial, entre los que cabe destacar el International Accounting Standards Board (iasb) y el Financial Accounting Standards Board (fasb), estamos asistiendo a un posicionamiento a favor del enfoque del excedente limpio. Como consecuencia el resultado empresarial queda más vinculado a las oscilaciones de los precios de los títulos y a los tipos de cambio, frente al enfoque del excedente sucio que nos lleva a la determinación del mismo desde una óptica más restrictiva y, por ello, mucho menos conectado con la realidad de los mercados. En este trabajo nos planteamos como primer objetivo el estudio desde una óptica histórica y conceptual del antiguo y controvertido debate del enfoque del excedente limpio versus el enfoque del excedente sucio, circunscrito esencialmente a los países del área de influencia anglosajona. Posteriormente, queremos constatar que con la revisión de la Norma Internacional de Contabilidad 1 (nic 1) del International Accounting Standards Board (iasb) en el año 2007 cobra más fuerza el resultado global; con ello se confirman los planteamientos a favor del enfoque del excedente limpio...

‣ Comprehensive income in times of crisis: evidence from spanish companies.

Sousa Fernández, Francisco; Carro Arana, María Mercedes
Fonte: The Institute for Business & Financial Research Publicador: The Institute for Business & Financial Research
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; publishedVersion
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Given the increasing importance of comprehensive income as an indicator of corporate performance internationally, especially since the revision of International Accounting Standard 1 (IAS 1) by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) in 2007, in this paper we intend to assess its impact on the more traditional net income during the period 2004-2008 for the select group of the Spanish IBEX-35 listed companies, pursuant to the information disclosed in accordance with said IAS. This will allow us to verify the importance of comprehensive income for the corporate groups at a time of serious financial and economic crisis as was 2008. The non-parametric Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test was used to perform the corresponding statistic comparisons, as the variables did not conform to normalcy. The results showed a statistically significant impact of comprehensive income on net income for three of the five years that were studied, especially for 2008, when there was a spectacular decline in corporate performance when considering the impact of the first on the second. This confers more informational relevance to comprehensive income, being much more in tune with market reality than traditional net income.

‣ Estimating demand for food commodities by income groups in Indonesia

Jensen, Helen; Manrique, Justo
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper; info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /08/1993 Português
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An analysis of the structure of demand was performed on household data, classified into income groups for urban Indonesia. A demographically augmented Linearized Almost Ideal Demand System was used to estimate the structural parameters of the demand equations. Endogenous switching regressions techniques yielded unbiased and consistent demand parameter estimates for the low income group, which had a large number of zeros for some food groups. Standard seemingly unrelated equation techniques were used to estimate the demand parameters for the other income groups. The results showed demands for the medium-high and high income households to be responsive to prices, income and demographic variables. Demands for the medium-low income households were responsive to income and prices only. Demands for lowincome households were responsive to income and prices of rice and fish only.

‣ Distributive implications of member level income aggregation within the household : an approximation through mobility indices

Ruiz-Castillo, Javier; Sastre, Mercedes
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/plain; application/pdf
Publicado em /07/2001 Português
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This paper adapts the ethical index of income mobility first suggested by Chakravarty, Dutta and Weymark (1985) to assess the contribution of wives, husbands, and other adults' member level income to husband-wife households' income mobility according to two of the criteria discussed in the literature. For any partition of the population, a source's contribution is seen to be decomposable into within-group and between-group income mobility indices plus a term capturing sub-group differences in income shares. The approach is applied to a sample of husband-wife households where both spouses are present, extracted from the 1990–91 Encuesta de Presupuestos Familiares, the Spanish household budget survey. While the husbands' income contribution is large and positive, the contribution of wives and other adults is practically equal to zero. When mean income differences are eliminated, all member contributions to husband-wife households' income mobility are substantially reduced; Financial help from Project BEC2000-0173 from the Spanish DGICYT is also gratefully acknowledged

‣ Income inequality and mortality: a multilevel prospective study of 521 248 individuals in 50 US states

Backlund, E.; Rowe, G.; Lynch, J.; Wolfson, M.; Kaplan, G.; Sorlie, P.
Fonte: Oxford Univ Press Publicador: Oxford Univ Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 Português
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Background: Some of the most consistent evidence in favour of an association between income inequality and health has been among US states. However, in multilevel studies of mortality, only two out of five studies have reported a positive relationship with income inequality after adjustment for the compositional characteristics of the state's inhabitants. In this study, we attempt to clarify these mixed results by analysing the relationship within age–sex groups and by applying a previously unused analytical method to a database that contains more deaths than any multilevel study to date. Methods: The US National Longitudinal Mortality Study (NLMS) was used to model the relationship between income inequality in US states and mortality using both a novel and previously used methodologies that fall into the general framework of multilevel regression. We adjust age–sex specific models for nine socioeconomic and demographic variables at the individual level and percentage black and region at the state level. Results: The preponderance of evidence from this study suggests that 1990 state-level income inequality is associated with a 40% differential in state level mortality rates (95% CI = 26–56%) for men 25–64 years and a 14% (95% CI = 3–27%) differential for women 25–64 years after adjustment for compositional factors. No such relationship was found for men or women over 65. Conlcusions: The relationship between income inequality and mortality is only robust to adjustment for compositional factors in men and women under 65. This explains why income inequality is not a major driver of mortality trends in the United States because most deaths occur at ages 65 and over. This analysis does suggest...

‣ Who Will Feed China in the 21st Century? Income Growth and Food Demand and Supply in China

Fukase, Emiko; Martin, Will
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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This paper uses resource-based cereal equivalent measures to explore the evolution of China's demand and supply for food. Although demand for food calories is probably close to its peak level in China, the ongoing dietary shift to animal-based foods, induced by income growth, is likely to impose considerable pressure on agricultural resources. Estimating the relationship between income growth and food demand with data from a wide range of countries, China's demand growth appears to have been broadly similar to the global trend. On the supply side, output of food depends strongly on the productivity growth associated with income growth and on the country's agricultural land endowment, with China appearing to be an out-performer. The analyses of income-consumption-production dynamics suggest that China's current income level falls in the range where consumption growth outstrips production growth, but that the gap is likely to begin to decline as China's population growth and dietary transition slow down. Continued agricultural productivity growth through further investment in research and development...

‣ Mid-point for open-ended income category and the effect of equivalence scales on the income-health relationship

Celeste,Roger Keller; Bastos,João Luiz
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2013 Português
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To estimate the mid-point of an open-ended income category and to assess the impact of two equivalence scales on income-health associations. Data were obtained from the 2010 Brazilian Oral Health Survey ( Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde Bucal – SBBrasil 2010). Income was converted from categorical to two continuous variables ( per capita and equivalized) for each mid-point. The median mid-point was R$ 14,523.50 and the mean, R$ 24,507.10. When per capita income was applied, 53% of the population were below the poverty line, compared with 15% with equivalized income. The magnitude of income-health associations was similar for continuous income, but categorized equivalized income tended to decrease the strength of association.