Página 8 dos resultados de 125734 itens digitais encontrados em 0.057 segundos

‣ Manganese and health in the welding environment

Balmforth, Mikal Chad, 1971-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 65 leaves; 2281791 bytes; 2281599 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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by Mikal Chad Balmforth.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; and, (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Engineering Systems Division, Technology and Policy Program, 2001.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 61-65).

‣ Trust policy management for the financial industry using semantic web rules

Neogy, Chitravanu
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 94 leaves; 4721928 bytes; 4730914 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Trust Management is a growing problem in large corporations today. In industries like financial services, firms need to comply with constantly changing regulations, security requirements and business policies. Information technology is often the backbone of the processes that are regulated by such policies. Traditionally fine-grained Trust Management has been attempted by embedding policies within business logic of silo software applications. This practice leads to high total costs of ownership, minimal interoperability, potential security vulnerabilities and low management visibility into policy specifications and enforcement, which complicates compliance challenges with regulations like Sarbanes Oxley. This thesis makes several new contributions. First, it evaluates trust-policy related applications in the overall financial services industry that can benefit from rule technologies. A second contribution is proposing SCLP RuleML, an emerging semantic web rule language, for representing trust policies (SCLP = The Situated Courteous Logic Programs knowledge representation). A third contribution is providing several financial application scenarios in SCLP that demonstrate the effectiveness of RuleML, including credit card authorizations for electronic transactions...

‣ Broadband Internet portal strategy analysis for telecom company

Motohashi, Takeshi, 1968-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 91 leaves; 3852268 bytes; 3860865 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This paper analyzes the changes in the Internet portal business strategy for telecom and other Internet access service providers (ISPs) because broadband Internet access is becoming the standard due to the rapid technology development and growth of Internet access needs and services. I provide some viable strategies for telecom companies that compete with successful Internet portals such as Yahoo. Based on my survey results, I propose the following three workable strategies. The first is outsourcing excellent modules to web sites at both large corporations and individual sites. The second strategy is providing specialized information management services for individual activities in order to retain loyal users, and the third strategy is making this service available for brand building by providing solid security/privacy policies at portals available only at telecom companies. Also, I identified the following four issues that telecom companies need to address to implement the above strategies. First, to introduce modularized services to large-scale competitors, I encourage protocol interoperability on both sides until substantial results and benefits have been realized. Next, telecom companies need to prepare to provide services that first-tier portals are unable to introduce...

‣ Economically and ecologically sustainable adoption of stationary fuel cells in the USA

Bhaumick, Benjamin, 1967-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 93 leaves; 6179113 bytes; 6187954 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Energy in various forms is essential to all human activity, be it leisure or business. Currently employed stationary energy generation technology is marked by relatively high emissions of pathogenic chemicals such as carbon dioxide, sulfur oxide and other criteria pollutants. These chemicals are proven to adversely affect human health and are suspected of influencing the global climate. Consequently, there is a high potential for damages in some parts of earth but also benefits in others, particularly to agricultural yields and weather related catastrophes. Last not least, current energy conversion is largely based on fossil fuels such as coal, gas and oil. On timescales relevant to humans, these sources are physically exhaustible and beyond that economically not sustainable. This thesis will provide details of renewable and therefore sustainable energy concepts as they support the emergence of hydrogen based stationary energy conversion using fuel cells. Given this premise, several sources of naturally available and long-term sustainable energy supply are identified, quantified and discussed with respect to their economical utilization. Wind energy, foremost, but also solar energy, hydropower and others are identified as viable options for generating hydrogen. Fuel cells provide the link between intermittent and randomly located renewable energy sources and demand properties. Given infrastructure availability will identify natural gas as the immediate but transitional hydrogen source prior to renewable energy being commercially viable at large scales. Since technical obstacles to fuel cell adoption can be overcome...

‣ Effect of real-time electricity pricing on renewable generators and system emissions

Connolly, Jeremiah P. (Jeremiah Peter)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 158 p.
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Real-time retail pricing (RTP) of electricity, in which the retail price is allowed to vary with very little time delay in response to changes in the marginal cost of generation, offers expected short-run and long-run benefits at the societal level. While the effects of RTP on most market participants have been examined previously, its effects on a) renewable generator revenues and b) power sector emissions are not well understood. This thesis presents a counterfactual model of the new England wholesale power market, including within-hour consumer price response, to analyze revenues under RTP for four renewable test cases and emissions of CO2, SO2, and NOx. Assuming a moderate consumer price-response ( e = -0.3), I find that revenues for both wind and solar cases will decrease by about 3%, a smaller loss than that expected by the generation sector as a whole (~ 6%) or by peak generators ( ~ 55%). In the same scenario, RTP is expected to decrease emissions of CO2, SO2, and NOx by 2-3% in the short-run. These results are qualitatively robust across a range of elasticities and other input parameters. A discussion of the political barriers to RTP highlights interest group pressure from peak generators and the framing of gains and losses for consumers. These barriers are likely to attract significant policymaker attention in RTP discussions...

‣ Electric field engineering in GaN high electron mobility transistors

Zhao, Xu, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 70 leaves
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In the last few years, AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) have become the top choice for power amplification at frequencies up to 20 GHz. Great interest currently exists in industry and academia to increase the frequency to mm-wave frequencies. The goal of this thesis has been to identify new solutions to some of the main challenges to increase this frequency performance even further. Electron velocity is a critical parameter affecting the transistor performance. In standard GaN transistors, the extremely high electric fields present in the channel of the device reduce the average electron velocity well below the peak electron velocity, resulting in low cutoff frequencies. In this thesis, we introduced a partial recess in the drain access region of the transistor to engineer the electric field along the channel of the device without introducing parasitic capacitances. By reducing the peak electric field, the average electron velocity is increased by 50%. This new technology has the potential to improve not only the cutoff frequencies, but also the breakdown voltage of GaN transistors. To successfully engineer the electric field in GaN devices, an accurate, reliable and low damage etching technology is needed. However none of the traditional GaN dry etching technologies meets these requirements. This lack of suitable technology has motivated us to develop a new atomic layer etching technique of AlGaN/GaN structures. This technology has been shown to be a self limited process with very high reliability and low damage...

‣ Prospects for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in the United States : a general equilibrium analysis; Prospects for PHEVs in the United States : a general equilibrium analysis

Karplus, Valerie Jean
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 80 p.
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The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) could significantly contribute to reductions in carbon dioxide emissions from personal vehicle transportation in the United States over the next century, depending on the cost-competitiveness of the vehicle, the relative cost of refined fuels and electricity, and the existence of an economy-wide carbon emissions constraint. Using a computable general equilibrium model, I evaluated the potential for the PHEV to enter the U.S. personal vehicle market before 2100 and alter electricity output, refined oil consumption, carbon dioxide emissions, and the economic welfare losses associated with the imposition of a strict climate policy. The PHEV is defined by its ability to run on battery-stored electricity supplied from the grid as well as on refined fuel in an internal combustion engine. Sectors that produce PHEV transportation as well as other electric-drive vehicle technologies were added to the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) Model as a perfect substitute for internal combustion engine (ICE)-only vehicles. Engineering cost estimates for the PHEV, as well as information about the pre-existing fleet, were used to specify PHEV sector input shares and substitution elasticities in the model. Based on the model results...

‣ Moving fiction : novelists, technology designers, and the art of the exchange

Epstein, Michael, 1969-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 86 leaves
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How can concepts from literature and technology design combine to create new forms of storytelling on mobile devices? This paper examines the theory and practice of bringing literary techniques into mobile technology design. First I present a model of media technology evolution which is not progressive, but atemporal-grounded in the ongoing expressive challenges of the humanities. This theory forms the basis for what I call the exchange: temporary collaborations between creative writers and interaction designers which lead to new forms of fiction and communications technology. I promote close readings of literature as a starting point for the exchange, examining specific passages for mobile storytelling inspiration and innovative means of modeling users. I then look at nascent efforts in storytelling over mobile devices, focusing on museum tours, grassroots organizations, artist collectives, research groups, and, lastly, my own work. In the end, I advocate a hybrid form of "Moving Fiction," combining mobile media characters with live actors, music, and sensory input from the surrounding environment.; by Michael Epstein.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Comparative Media Studies, 2004.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves [61]-63).

‣ Better learning of mechanics through information technology

Regalado S., Carlos A. (Carlos Andrés Regalado Santamaría), 1971-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 254 p.; 9507153 bytes; 9540898 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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(cont.) visualize complex geometric arrangements. Finally, the tools developed represent an alternative to what learning technology has always done; transmit academic knowledge to the student. These tools are an example of how IT can be used to go beyond the traditional forms of academic teaching by using technology with an approach that is not attached to this transmission model. They also show how to exploit the adaptive potential of IT to serve a different, more effective kind of learning.; The use of Information Technology (IT) in engineering education offers the opportunity to teach concepts more effectively than the methods of instruction most commonly used. IT can assist students in making abstractions and improve their understanding of more complicated concepts starting from simple principles and/or real-world physical phenomena. This thesis presents two interactive computer-aided learning tools. For their development, educational theory is first reviewed from which important learning concepts are extracted. These concepts are proposed as essential elements to be incorporated in computer-assisted learning tools. The thesis also reviews the history of technology in education since the 1600's, including the major contributions...

‣ Social networks and firm formation : a study of Boston's biotechnology sector

Kanda, Vishwanath, 1975-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 58 leaves; 2742209 bytes; 2747396 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This research focuses on two specific research problems in the context of innovation in the biotech industry. These research problems map to the two phases of innovation process--creation of new scientific expertise (Phase I) and commercialization of that new expertise (Phase II). The research problem in Phase I, examines determinants of productivity in the creation of new scientific expertise, specifically following scholarship in the sociology of networks, assessing the impact of patterns of scientific research networks on research productivity. The setting for the study is a group of research scientists associated with the Du Pont-MIT Alliance. Findings suggest that optimal research networks should have a large number of relatively strong links and avoid over-dependence on a few research collaborators, to enhance research productivity. With respect to Phase II and the transformation of scientific ideas into commercial products, existing innovation literature has identified several ingredients for commercial success, and in particular, for start-up ventures: reputed management teams, BODs (Board of Directors), SABs (Scientific Advisory Boards) and prominent VC (venture capital) firms. However the relative influence of the inventor's reputation versus the quality of the research idea in assembling these necessary constituents has not been researched. The study sample for the research problem under Phase II...

‣ Bits of power : the involvement of municipal electric utilities in broadband services; Involvement of municipal electric utilities in broadband services

Osorio Urzúa, Carlos A. (Carlos Alberto), 1968-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 110 leaves; 8126159 bytes; 8139324 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Municipal electric utilities have been increasingly involved in telecommunications during the last decade. This research investigates why, with three hypotheses. First, the probability of MEUs involvement in telecommunications responds to technology-based economies of scope from internal services deployed to support their power business. Second, MEUs' likelihood for offering telecommunication services decreases in presence of restrictive regulatory framework and low levels of local discretionary authority (LDA). Third, MEUs involvement in telecommunications decreases in the presence of competitive alternatives. The hypotheses are tested using quantitative response models, controlling for deployment cost and demographic characteristics. Results confirm the existence of a technology-push generated by economies of scope between internal services supporting the power business and offering external telecommunication services. One reason for this, as qualitative analysis supports, would be the uniqueness of MEU communities as resulting from historical and technological path-dependence, which makes the MEU phenomenon unlikely to be repeated by local governments in non-MEU communities. Additionally, results support that MEUs' likelihood for offering telecommunication services is reduced by regulations explicitly prohibiting it...

‣ Fuel cycle options for optimized recycling of nuclear fuel

Aquien, Alexandre
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 200 p.
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The accumulation of transuranic inventories in spent nuclear fuel depends on both deployment of advanced reactors that can be loaded with recycled transuranics (TRU), and on availability of the facilities that separate and reprocess spent fuel. Three recycling strategies are explored in this study: (1) Recycling in thermal Light 'Water Reactors (LWR) using CONFU technology (COmbined Non-Fertile and UO2 fuel), (2) recycling of TRU in fast cores of Actinide Burner Reactors (ABR), and (3) recycling of TRU with UO2 in self-sustaining Gas-cooled Fast Reactors (GFR). Choosing one fuel cycle strategy over the others involves trade-offs that need to be quantified. The CONFU, ABR, and GFR strategies differ from each other in terms of TRU loading in the reactor, net TRU incineration, capacities of recycling facilities needed, technology option availability, and flexibility. The CONFU and GFR are assumed to achieve zero net TRU incineration, while the ABR is a net consumer of TRU. The TRU loading is greatest in GFR and lowest in CONFU. While both CONFU and ABR require separation (of TRU from U) and reprocessing (recycling of TRUs from fertile-free fuel), the GFR is designed to, in equilibrium, recycle TRU+U after extraction of fission products only. It is assumed that thermal recycling is available in the short-term (2015)...

‣ The Soviet Farm Complex : industrial agriculture in a Socialist context, 1945-1965

Smith, Jenny Leigh
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 204 leaves
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"The Soviet Farm Complex" is a history of food, farming and the environment in the postwar Soviet Union. It tells the story of how different technical and institutional authorities created an industrial Soviet countryside in the generation after World War II. Beyond the leadership of the Soviet state, international trade relationships, new technologies, unusual scientific cultures, stubborn environmental realities and human shortcomings played important roles in shaping the progress of agricultural change. Four historical fields inform this project: the history of technology, agricultural history, Soviet history and environmental history. Each of the five chapters addresses a different time, place and theme in the history of the Soviet countryside, providing a close-up view of the most important aspects of postwar rural change. Soviet agricultural reform has often been interpreted as a failure: a textbook case of poor central planning and destructive, high-modernist logic on the part of the Soviet state. In fact, this study shows that the collective farming system as a whole was not particularly dysfunctional, nor was it doomed to failure simply by virtue of being centrally planned.; (cont.) Much like the capitalist farms with which it competed...

‣ In sync over distance : flexible coordination through communication in geographically distributed software development work; Flexible coordination through communication in geographically distributed software development work

Im, Hyun Gyung
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 227 p.
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In this dissertation, I examine how the members of a distributed software development team (LC) operating entirely virtually for four and half years developed useful social practices to collaborate across time and space. Based on various communication data from LC, I analyze the communicative structuring of distributed work in members' daily practices. I show that "temporal flexibility," often mentioned as key advantage of virtual organizing, is socially accomplished through "boundary management," as members negotiate different temporal boundaries and learn and adapt to others' temporal patterns. Second, I identify dynamic coordination practices in LC that interweave multiple modes of communication and coordination in evolving work contexts, and demonstrate how these coordination practices facilitate temporal flexibility in LC. Finally, I analyze how members used the asynchronous communication medium of email to coordinate their tasks, using the notion of genre and genre system.; (cont.) My analysis suggests that communicating, coordinating, and temporal structuring are not distinctive activities, but are closely bound up with each other in a local practice; time, communication, and coordination are dynamically reconfigured over time...

‣ Command in air war : centralized vs. decentralized control of combat airpower

Kometer, Michael W
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 259 p.; 22050515 bytes; 22066919 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This study answers the question, "What has been the impact of the Information Age on the Air Force's doctrinal tenet of "centralized control and decentralized execution?" It traces the evolution of command and control of airpower through operations Desert Storm, Allied Force, Enduring Freedom, and Iraqi Freedom and compares its practice with classic theories established by Huntington, Cohen, Van Creveld, and Air Force doctrine. In the absence of a peer superpower in the 1990s, U.S. decision-makers often resorted to the use of detailed constraints to gain direct influence on military operations. The more detailed the constraints from the strategic level, the closer the theater military commander held authority for planning air strikes, and the less proactive the air component was in coordinating with other components. The Air Force developed the Air Operations Center (AOC) to put together battlespace information; it is not yet possible to do this at lower levels, so the AOC has become dominant in controlling air operations. Initially resistant to get involved in ongoing missions, commanders found the AOC was needed to accomplish some "time-sensitive targeting" missions; however, they have also learn to delegate to speed up the processes.; (cont.) But the insertion of the AOC into ongoing operations also led to distribution of tasks-where before the aircrew had performed the whole "kill chain" sequence...

‣ Telecommunications business venturing in China : identification of investment orientations using deal reporting

Lim, Tony Whey Yit
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 102 p.; 7414967 bytes; 7420357 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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China's recent entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO) in December 2001 has lent speed to an ongoing series of market reforms that has opened up the massive Chinese domestic market to the world. The thought of China selling its products and services freely in global markets in exchange for opening up its own growing domestic market of 1.2 billion people is staggering and demands for business and policy decision makers to have an understanding of China's unique investment landscape. Centering on technology venturing in the telecommunications sector in mainland China, this research identifies and analyzes patterns of deal-making and strategies that motivate business investments in the technology space in mainland China. Three investment orientations - cost- minimization, domestic market-driven and joint development - are proposed and verified using the research data. Data was collected on all publicly-reported deals in China, published in business reporting services in the English language including the China Business Review, Reuters, Investext, Dow Jones, and The Economist Intelligence Unit. Objective data on deal attributes was matched with subjective and evaluative data on strategies and expected deal significance. By performing content analysis and statistical analysis on the data collected...

‣ Future naval ship procurement : a case study of the Navy's next-generation destroyer; DDG 1000

Jaglom, Peter Stampfl
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 115 p.; 5845565 bytes; 5850346 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Cost growth and inefficiencies are a serious problem in almost all major U.S. defense procurement programs, and have existed for many years despite repeated efforts to control them. These problems are particularly virulent in the design and acquisition of new naval warships. If the Navy cannot bring its costs under control, it will not be able to afford the capabilities it needs to execute the nation's national security. Several factors influence the cost growth of weapons procurement programs. Intentionally low estimates can help convince Congress to commit to programs that are actually very expensive. Bureaucratic politics can cause the Navy to spend money on superfluous features unjustified by strategic requirements. Private industry can push new, expensive technology on the Navy. Members of Congress can include pork-barrel provisions to bring more money to their constituents, often without national interest justifications. This thesis evaluates the development of the DDG 1000, the Navy's next-generation destroyer, and the dramatic change that occurred to the design of that ship during its development. Based on that analysis, it makes recommendations for the future of the DDG 1000 and for naval ship procurement more generally.; (cont.) The thesis finds that though a new ship was justified in the post-Cold War world...

‣ Civilian applications and policy implications of commercial unmanned aerial vehicles

Sprague, Kara Lynn, 1980-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 52 leaves; 902303 bytes; 1188213 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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As UAV capabilities continue to improve the technology will spill out of the military sector and into commercial and civil applications. Already, UAVs have demonstrated commercial marketability in such diverse areas as scientific and environmental research, cross-seas shipping, communications relays, emergency management, border monitoring, agriculture, and aerial photography. Small-scale tactical UAVs in particular have an enormous potential to fulfill a number of roles within urban centers, transforming the way civil safety institutions carry out their jobs. A lack of established flight regulations is currently the greatest barrier to the standardized use of these vehicles. While the United States is currently the world's leader in UAV manufacturing, this position is tenuous given strong competitive threats from a variety of foreign countries who are already ahead in establishing a standardized regulatory environment for UAVs. As part of a larger research effort focused on the design, implementation, and demonstration of highly maneuverable rotorcraft UAVs, the primary objective of this work is to examine how UAVs might gain access to and function safely in civil and commercial markets. Despite the wide variety of existing UAVs in terms of size...

‣ A study of US government's satellite incumbents and follow-on competitions; Study of United States government's satellite incumbents and follow-on competitions

Scearce, Paul (Paul Taylor)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 94 leaves
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In many high technology industries, incumbents routinely find themselves loosing to new entrants as well as established competitors in the battle for leadership across successive generations of new technology. However, the demise of the incumbent is most typically associated with the entry of start-up firms particularly in settings with minimal complementary assets, few intellectual property rights and limited technical expertise. This thesis will explore a different competitive setting - the U.S. Government's unclassified satellite competitions - an arena characterized by deep technical skills, strong and lasting complementary assets and robust IP. Given these strengths, we would expect to find that incumbents would successfully win most competitions. In fact, according to newly gathered data, satellite producers for the U.S. Government have historically experienced an almost 90% loss rate in follow-on satellites competitions. This pattern is prevalent in satellite competitions undertaken by the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA), the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the United States Air Force (USAF) and the United Stated Navy (USN).; (cont.) The winners of these competitions are not to new entrants into the satellite business...

‣ Lifecycle perspectives on product data management

Hines, Erisa K. (Erisa Kimberly)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 130 p.; 10512749 bytes; 10518210 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Implementing a new IT system often requires the enterprise to transform in order to maximally leverage the capabilities generated by the new system. The challenge in using IT as an enabler to change arises from the need to synergistically redesign processes, develop and implement a solution using internal talent and external suppliers, and establish adoption by users. Product Data Management (PDM) technology represents a substantial portion of large industry IT investment over the last decade. The ability to manage and deliver product data throughout the lifecycle has become increasingly important to the aerospace enterprise as products become more complex, cost and development cycles shorten, and customer, partner, and supplier relationships evolve. Currently, the aerospace community does not have capability to provide traceability from requirements and design through field maintenance. While initially an attempt to understand the application of PDM in product development, what emerged was a study in how PDM affects and enables lean enterprise transformation. The selection, development, and deployment of PDM solutions were studied in the aerospace industry in order to enable better implementation decisions in varying complex environments. Organizational...