DNA polymorphisms in the glucokinase gene have recently been shown to be tightly linked to early-onset non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in approximately 80% of French families with this form of diabetes. We previously identified a nonsense mutation in exon 7 in one of these families and showed that it was the likely cause of glucose intolerance in this dominantly inherited disorder. Here we report the isolation and partial sequence of the human glucokinase gene and the identification of two missense mutations in exon 7, Thr-228----Met and Gly-261----Arg, that cosegregate with early-onset non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. To assess the molecular mechanism by which mutations at these two sites may affect glucokinase activity, the crystal structure of the related yeast hexokinase B was used as a simple model for human beta-cell glucokinase. Computer-assisted modeling suggests that mutation of Thr-228 affects affinity for ATP and mutation of Gly-261 may alter glucose binding. The identification of mutations in glucokinase, a protein that plays an important role in hepatic and beta-cell glucose metabolism, indicates that early-onset non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus may be primarily a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism.
Dinitroaniline herbicides are antimicrotubule drugs that bind to tubulins and inhibit polymerization. As a result of repeated application of dinitroaniline herbicides, highly resistant and intermediately resistant biotypes of goosegrass (Eleusine indica) developed in previously wild-type populations. Three alpha-tubulin cDNA classes (designated TUA1, TUA2, and TUA3) were isolated from each biotype. Nucleotide differences between the susceptible and the resistant (R) alpha-tubulins were identified in TUA1 and TUA2. The most significant differences were missense mutations that occurred in TUA1 of the R and intermediately resistant (I) biotypes. Such mutations convert Thr-239 to Ile in the R biotype and Met-268 to Thr in the I biotype. These amino acid substitutions alter hydrophobicity; therefore, they may alter the dinitroaniline binding property of the protein. These mutations were correlated with the dinitroaniline response phenotypes (Drp). Plants homozygous for susceptibility possessed the wild-type TUA1 allele; plants homozygous for resistance possessed the mutant tua1 allele; and plants heterozygous for susceptibility possessed both wild-type and mutant alleles. Thus, we conclude that TUA1 is at the Drp locus. Using polymerase chain reaction primer-introduced restriction analysis...
Type IIB von Willebrand Disease (vWD) is characterized by the selective loss of large von Willebrand Factor (vWF) multimers from plasma, presumably due to their increased reactivity with platelets and subsequent clearance from the circulation. Using the PCR, one of a panel of four potential missense mutations was identified in each of the 14 patients studied from 11 unrelated families. None of these substitutions was encountered in a large panel of normal DNAs. These changes all represent C----T transitions at CpG dinucleotides, proposed "hot spots" for mutation in the human genome. The four resulting amino acid substitutions, Arg543----Trp, Arg545----Cys, Val553----Met, and Arg578----Gln, are all clustered within the GpIb binding domain of vWF. Disruption of this latter functional domain may explain the pathogenesis of Type IIB vWD. By sequence polymorphism analysis, the Arg543----Trp substitution was shown to have occurred as at least two independent mutational events. This latter observation, along with the identification of mutations in all 14 patients studied and their localization to the GpIb binding domain, all strongly suggest that these substitutions represent the authentic defects responsible for Type IIB vWD. This panel of mutations may provide a useful diagnostic tool for the majority of patients with Type IIB vWD.
At least 40% of families affected with cerebral cavernous malformation have a mutation in Krit1. We previously identified two point mutations in Krit1 leading to changes in amino acids (D137G and Q210E) in two different families. Further RNA analysis reveals that both point mutations actually activate cryptic splice-donor sites, causing aberrant splicing and leading to a frameshift and protein truncation. To date, no simple missense mutations have been detected in Krit1.
Keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness syndrome (KID) is a rare ectodermal dysplasia characterized by vascularizing keratitis, profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), and progressive erythrokeratoderma, a clinical triad that indicates a failure in development and differentiation of multiple stratifying epithelia. Here, we provide compelling evidence that KID is caused by heterozygous missense mutations in the connexin-26 gene, GJB2. In each of 10 patients with KID, we identified a point mutation leading to substitution of conserved residues in the cytoplasmic amino terminus or first extracellular domain of Cx26. One of these mutations was detected in six unrelated sporadic case subjects and also segregated in one family with vertical transmission of KID. These results indicate the presence of a common, recurrent mutation and establish its autosomal dominant nature. Cx26 and the closely related Cx30 showed differential expression in epidermal, adnexal, and corneal epithelia but were not significantly altered in lesional skin. However, mutant Cx26 was incapable of inducing intercellular coupling in vitro, which indicates its functional impairment. Our data reveal striking genotype-phenotype correlations and demonstrate that dominant GJB2 mutations can disturb the gap junction system of one or several ectodermal epithelia...
Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is a microvasculature disorder leading to microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure. Most cases of HUS are associated with epidemics of diarrhea caused by verocytotoxin-producing bacteria, but atypical cases of HUS not associated with diarrhea (aHUS) also occur. Early studies describing the association of aHUS with deficiencies of factor H suggested a role for this complement regulator in aHUS. Molecular evidence of factor H involvement in aHUS was first provided by Warwicker et al., who demonstrated that aHUS segregated with the chromosome 1q region containing the factor H gene (HF1) and who identified a mutation in HF1 in a case of familial aHUS with normal levels of factor H. We have performed the mutational screening of the HF1 gene in a novel series of 13 Spanish patients with aHUS who present normal complement profiles and whose plasma levels of factor H are, with one exception, within the normal range. These studies have resulted in the identification of five novel HF1 mutations in four of the patients. Allele HF1Δexon2, a genomic deletion of exon 2, produces a null HF1 allele and results in plasma levels of factor H that are 50% of normal. T956M, W1183L, L1189R...
Two disease-associated missense mutations in the sialin gene (G328E and G409E) have recently been identified in patients with lysosomal free sialic acid storage disease. We have assessed the effect of these mutations and find complete loss of measurable transport activity with both and impaired trafficking of the G409E protein. These results suggest that the two residues are important for proper function of sialin and confirm the association of loss of transport with disease causative mutations.
Missense mutations in the α-subunit of the human skeletal muscle sodium channel (hSkM1) have been detected in some heritable forms of myotonia. By recording Na+ currents from cells transfected with cDNA encoding either wild-type or mutant hSkM1, we characterized the functional consequences of two myotonia-associated mutations that lie at the cytoplasmic end of the sixth transmembrane segment in domain II (S804F) or domain III (V1293I).Both mutations caused modest, but unequivocal, alterations in the voltage-dependent gating behaviour of hSkM1. For S804F, the abnormalities were limited to fast inactivation: the persistent Na+ current at the end of a 50 ms depolarization was increased 3-fold, the rate of inactivation from the open state was slowed 2-fold, and the voltage dependence of fast inactivation (h∞) was shifted by +3 mV. V1293I also disrupted fast inactivation, as evidenced by a 3-fold faster rate of recovery at hyperpolarized potentials (< = -70 mV). Activation was altered as well for V1293I: the voltage dependence was shifted by -6 mV (hyperpolarized).Slow inactivation was not altered by S804F or V1293I.We conclude that S804F and V1293I are not benign polymorphisms. Either mutation causes detectable alterations in channel gating and...
Clinical management of individuals found to harbor a mutation at a known disease-susceptibility gene depends on accurate assessment of mutation-specific disease risk. For missense mutations (MMs)—mutations that lead to a single amino acid change in the protein coded by the gene—this poses a particularly challenging problem. Because it is not possible to predict the structural and functional changes to the protein product for a given amino acid substitution, and because functional assays are often not available, disease association must be inferred from data on individuals with the mutation. Inference is complicated by small sample sizes and by sampling mechanisms that bias toward individuals at high familial risk of disease. We propose a Bayesian hierarchical model to classify the disease association of MMs given pedigree data collected in the high-risk setting. The model’s structure allows simultaneous characterization of multiple MMs. It uses a group of pedigrees identified through probands tested positive for known disease associated mutations and a group of test-negative pedigrees, both obtained from the same clinic, to calibrate classification and control for potential ascertainment bias. We apply this model to study MMs of breast-ovarian susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2...
In Alzheimer disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked
to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17) and other tauopathies, tau accumulates and forms
paired helical filaments (PHFs) in the brain. Tau isolated from PHFs is
phosphorylated at a number of sites, migrates as ∼60-, 64-, and 68-kDa
bands on SDS-gel, and does not promote microtubule assembly. Upon
dephosphorylation, the PHF-tau migrates as ∼50–60-kDa bands on
SDS-gels in a manner similar to tau that is isolated from normal brain and
promotes microtubule assembly. The site(s) that inhibits microtubule
assembly-promoting activity when phosphorylated in the diseased brain is not
known. In this study, when tau was phosphorylated by Cdk5 in vitro,
its mobility shifted from ∼60-kDa bands to ∼64- and 68-kDa bands in a
time-dependent manner. This mobility shift correlated with phosphorylation at
Ser202, and Ser202 phosphorylation inhibited tau
microtubule-assembly promoting activity. When several tau point mutants were
analyzed, G272V, P301L, V337M, and R406W mutations associated with FTDP-17,
but not nonspecific mutations S214A and S262A, promoted Ser202
phosphorylation and mobility shift to a ∼68-kDa band. Furthermore,
Ser202 phosphorylation inhibited the microtubule assembly-promoting
activity of FTDP-17 mutants more than of WT. Our data indicate that FTDP-17
The Drosophila RNase III enzyme Dicer-2 processes double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) precursors into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). It also interacts with the siRNA product and R2D2 protein to facilitate the assembly of an RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) that mediates RNA interference. Here, we characterized six independent missense mutations in the dicer-2 gene. Four mutations (P8S, L188F, R269W, and P365L) in the DExH helicase domain reduced dsRNA processing activity. Two mutations were located within an RNase III domain. P1496L caused a loss of dsRNA processing activity comparable to a null dicer-2 mutation. A1453T strongly reduced both dsRNA processing and RISC activity, and decreased the levels of Dicer-2 and R2D2 proteins, suggesting that this mutation destabilizes Dicer-2. We also found that the carboxyl-terminal region of R2D2 is essential for Dicer-2 binding. These results provide further insight into the structure–function relationship of Dicer, which plays a critical role in the siRNA pathway.
A deficiency of functional dystrophin protein in muscle cells causes muscular dystrophy (MD). More than 50% of missense mutations that trigger the disease occur in the N-terminal actin binding domain (N-ABD or ABD1). We examined the effect of four disease-causing mutations—L54R, A168D, A171P, and Y231N—on the structural and biophysical properties of isolated N-ABD. Our results indicate that N-ABD is a monomeric, well-folded α-helical protein in solution, as is evident from its α-helical circular dichroism spectrum, blue shift of the native state tryptophan fluorescence, well-dispersed amide crosspeaks in 2D NMR 15N-1H HSQC fingerprint region, and rotational correlation time calculated from NMR longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) relaxation experiments. Compared to WT, three mutants—L54R, A168D, and A171P—show a decreased α-helicity and do not show a cooperative sigmoidal melt with temperature, indicating that these mutations exist in a wide range of conformations or in a “molten globule” state. In contrast, Y231N has an α-helical content similar to WT and shows a cooperative sigmoidal temperature melt but with a decreased stability. All four mutants experience serious misfolding and aggregation. FT-IR, circular dichroism...
Spondylocostal dysostosis (SCD) is an inherited disorder with abnormal vertebral segmentation that results in extensive hemivertebrae, truncal shortening and abnormally aligned ribs. It arises during embryonic development by a disruption of formation of somites (the precursor tissue of the vertebrae, ribs and associated tendons and muscles). Four genes causing a subset of autosomal recessive forms of this disease have been identified: DLL3 (SCDO1: MIM 277300), MESP2 (SCDO2: MIM 608681), LFNG (SCDO3: MIM609813) and HES7 (SCDO4). These genes are all essential components of the Notch signalling pathway, which has multiple roles in development and disease. Previously, only a single SCD-causative missense mutation was described in HES7. In this study, we have identified two new missense mutations in the HES7 gene in a single family, with only individuals carrying both mutant alleles being affected by SCD. In vitro functional analysis revealed that one of the mutant HES7 proteins was unable to repress gene expression by DNA binding or protein heterodimerization.
Heterodimeric hCG is one of the key hormones determining early pregnancy success. We have previously identified rare missense mutations in hCGβ genes with potential pathophysiological importance. The present study assessed the impact of these mutations on the structure and function of hCG by applying a combination of in silico (sequence and structure analysis, molecular dynamics) and in vitro (co-immunoprecipitation, immuno- and bioassays) approaches. The carrier status of each mutation was determined for 1086 North-Europeans [655 patients with recurrent miscarriage (RM)/431 healthy controls from Estonia, Finland and Denmark] using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The mutation CGB5 p.Val56Leu (rs72556325) was identified in a single heterozygous RM patient and caused a structural hindrance in the formation of the hCGα/β dimer. Although the amount of the mutant hCGβ assembled into secreted intact hCG was only 10% compared with the wild-type, a stronger signaling response was triggered upon binding to its receptor, thus compensating the effect of poor dimerization. The mutation CGB8 p.Pro73Arg (rs72556345) was found in five heterozygotes (three RM cases and two control individuals) and was inherited by two of seven studied live born children. The mutation caused ∼50% of secreted β-subunits to acquire an alternative conformation...
Several known or putative glycosyltransferases are required for the synthesis of laminin-binding glycans on alpha-dystroglycan (αDG), including POMT1, POMT2, POMGnT1, LARGE, Fukutin, FKRP, ISPD and GTDC2. Mutations in these glycosyltransferase genes result in defective αDG glycosylation and reduced ligand binding by αDG causing a clinically heterogeneous group of congenital muscular dystrophies, commonly referred to as dystroglycanopathies. The most severe clinical form, Walker–Warburg syndrome (WWS), is characterized by congenital muscular dystrophy and severe neurological and ophthalmological defects. Here, we report two homozygous missense mutations in the β-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 1 (B3GNT1) gene in a family affected with WWS. Functional studies confirmed the pathogenicity of the mutations. First, expression of wild-type but not mutant B3GNT1 in human prostate cancer (PC3) cells led to increased levels of αDG glycosylation. Second, morpholino knockdown of the zebrafish b3gnt1 orthologue caused characteristic muscular defects and reduced αDG glycosylation. These functional studies identify an important role of B3GNT1 in the synthesis of the uncharacterized laminin-binding glycan of αDG and implicate B3GNT1 as a novel causative gene for WWS.
Renal hypodysplasia (RHD) is characterized by small and/or disorganized kidneys following abnormal organogenesis. Mutations in several genes have been identified recently to be associated with RHD in humans, including BMP4, a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β family of growth factors. DACH1 has been proposed as a candidate gene for RHD because of its involvement in the EYA-SIX-DACH network of renal developmental genes. Here, we present a patient with renal dysplasia carrying homozygous missense mutations in both BMP4 (p.N150K) and DACH1 (p.R684C). The genotype–phenotype correlation in the family hints at an oligogenic mode of inheritance of the disease in this kindred. Functional analyses of the identified DACH1 mutation in HEK293T cells demonstrated enhanced suppression of the TGF-β pathway suggesting that both mutations could act synergistically in the development of the phenotype in this patient. This finding provides a model for RHD as an oligo-/polygenic disorder and supports a role for DACH1 in the development of RHD in humans.
Recently, we showed that truncation of the X-linked cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5/STK9) gene caused mental retardation and severe neurological symptoms in two female patients. Here, we report that de novo missense mutations in CDKL5 are associated with a severe phenotype of early-onset infantile spasms and clinical features that overlap those of other neurodevelopmental disorders, such as Rett syndrome and Angelman syndrome. The mutations are located within the protein kinase domain and affect highly conserved amino acids; this strongly suggests that impaired CDKL5 catalytic activity plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this neurodevelopmental disorder. In view of the overlapping phenotypic spectrum of CDKL5 and MECP2 mutations, it is tempting to speculate that these two genes play a role in a common pathogenic process.
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) leads to heart failure, a leading cause of death in industrialized nations. Approximately 30% of DCM cases are genetic in origin, with some resulting from point mutations in cardiac myosin, the molecular motor of the heart. The effects of these mutations on myosin's molecular mechanics have not been determined. We have engineered two murine models characterizing the physiological, cellular, and molecular effects of DCM-causing missense mutations (S532P and F764L) in the α-cardiac myosin heavy chain and compared them with WT mice. Mutant mice developed morphological and functional characteristics of DCM consistent with the human phenotypes. Contractile function of isolated myocytes was depressed and preceded left ventricular dilation and reduced fractional shortening. In an in vitro motility assay, both mutant cardiac myosins exhibited a reduced ability to translocate actin (Vactin) but had similar force-generating capacities. Actin-activated ATPase activities were also reduced. Single-molecule laser trap experiments revealed that the lower Vactin in the S532P mutant was due to a reduced ability of the motor to generate a step displacement and an alteration of the kinetics of its chemomechanical cycle. These results suggest that the depressed molecular function in cardiac myosin may initiate the events that cause the heart to remodel and become pathologically dilated.
A previously constructed Escherichia coli transformant carrying a functional copy of bacteriophage phi X174 gene G on a plasmid, p phi XG, was used to isolate gene G mutants carrying temperature sensitive and lethal missense mutations. Two of the mutations have been characterized by sequencing: one carries a G --> A transition at residue 2821 producing a Gly --> Ser change in codon 143 of the G spike protein; the other carries an A --> G transition at residue 2678 producing Glu --> Gly change in codon 95. Sequencing DNA from 2 other mutants carrying lethal mutations that are rescued with p phi XG did not reveal any changes in the coding sequence. The lesion is believed to be in the intercistronic region between genes F and G. The adsorption kinetics for these mutants appear to be normal. Their burst size is about 25% that of wild type phi X174 on the host carrying p phi XG. These results along with previous results from the senior author's laboratory demonstrate that p phi XG can be used to rescue any gene G mutant of phi X174 regardless of the nature of the mutation involved.
Bestrophin-1 is preferentially expressed at the basolateral membrane of the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) of the retina. Mutations in the BEST1 gene cause the retinal dystrophies vitelliform macular dystrophy, autosomal-dominant vitreochoroidopathy, and autosomal-recessive bestrophinopathy. Here, we describe four missense mutations in bestrophin-1, three that we believe are previously unreported, in patients diagnosed with autosomal-dominant and -recessive forms of retinitis pigmentosa (RP). The physiological function of bestrophin-1 remains poorly understood although its heterologous expression induces a Cl−-specific current. We tested the effect of RP-causing variants on Cl− channel activity and cellular localization of bestrophin-1. Two (p.L140V and p.I205T) produced significantly decreased chloride-selective whole-cell currents in comparison to those of wild-type protein. In a model system of a polarized epithelium, two of three mutations (p.L140V and p.D228N) caused mislocalization of bestrophin-1 from the basolateral membrane to the cytoplasm. Mutations in bestrophin-1 are increasingly recognized as an important cause of inherited retinal dystrophy.