Últimos itens adicionados do Acervo: Proceedings Nature

Nature é uma das mais prestigiosas e antigas revistas científicas do mundo: sua primeira edição é de 4 de novembro de 1869. Entre as inúmeras descobertas científicas publicadas na Nature estão a dos raios X, da estrutura em dupla hélice do ADN e o buraco na camada de ozônio.

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‣ New insight into DNA damage by cisplatin at the atomic scale

Raji Heyrovska
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Manuscript
Português
Cisplatin is cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) of chemical formula, Pt(NH3)Cl2, abbreviated as cis-DDP and known commercially as platinol. It is used widely as an anticancer drug for various types of cancer, ever since its discovery two centuries ago and has become a target of extensive researches. Transplatin, trans-DDP on the other hand, is found to be less or ineffective to treat cancers. Cisplatin is known to interact mainly with the N(7) nitrogen of guanine in nucleic acids, after a water molecule takes away one of the chlorines by hydrolysis. This initiates the damage of nucleic acids and eventually leads to apoptosis. However the way how this happens and why transplatin is less effective is not completely clear. Here the author brings some new insights, using the precise structures of these molecules at the atomic level, how cisplatin can interact with the nitrogen of guanine and adenine and rupture the hydrogen bonding in the Watson Crick base pairs and damage the structure of DNA. It is hoped that the results presented here will contribute to a better atomistic insight into the structure, bonding and feasibility of the biochemical reactions involving these compounds and their derivates for the alleviation of cancer.

‣ An albumin-derived peptide scaffold capable of binding and catalysis

Immacolata Luisi; Silvia Pavan; Giampaolo Fontanive; Alessandro Tossi; Fabio Benedetti; Adriano Savoini; Elisa Maurizio; Riccardo Sgarra; Daniele Sblattero; Federico Berti
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Manuscript
Português
We have identified a 101-amino-acid polypeptide derived from the sequence surrounding the IIA binding site of human albumin. The polypeptide contains residues that make contact with ligands as warfarin in the parent protein, and eight cysteine residues to form disulfide bridges, which stabilize the polypeptide structure. Seventy-four amino acids are located in six [alpha]-helical regions, with the remaining amino acids forming six connecting coil/loop regions. Codon usage optimization was used to express a GST fusion protein in E. coli in yields as high as 4 mg/l. This fusion protein retains its structural integrity and aldolase activity, the ability to direct the stereochemical outcome of a diketone reduction, and its binding capacity to warfarin and efavirenz. Notably, this newly cloned polypeptide represents a valuable starting point for the construction of libraries of binders and catalysts with improved proficiency.

‣ Socio-economic determinants of anthropometric measures of abdominal adiposity among older people in England

Jose Iparraguirre; Sam SzeLam
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Manuscript
Português
Objective: to look into the socio-economic determinants of levels of three anthropometric measures of abdominal adiposity among older people in England -body mass index, waist circumference (WC), and waist-hip ratio (WHR)- and of changes along two health risk classifications: the World Health Organisation classification based on BMI levels and the WHO combined classification based on BMI and waist circumference measurements. Design: quantile regression and multinomial analysis using data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), wave 2 (2004-05) and wave 4 (2008-09) Results: The quantile analysis on levels led to disparate results depending on the wave, which would question results previously published based on only one wave. However, we found that age tends to present an inverse U-shaped relationship with BMI and WC, smoking is negatively associated with BMI and positively with WC and WHR, alcohol consumption is negatively associated with BMI and WC levels, net total wealth is negatively related with the three anthropometric measures, educational attainment is negatively associated with each measure, and depression is positively associated with each measure. The multinomial analysis found that living in a larger household size increases the likelihood of becoming or remaining unhealthy irrespective of which classification we used. Furthermore...

‣ Crosstalk and the spectrum of biological global broadcasts: Toward generalization of the Baars consciousness model across physiological subsystems

Rodrick Wallace
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Manuscript
Português
Once cognitive biological phenomena are recognized as necessarily having 'dual' information sources, it is easy to show that the information theory chain rule implies isolating coresident information sources from crosstalk requires more metabolic free energy than permitting correlation. This provides conditions for an evolutionary exaptation leading to dynamic global broadcasts of interacting cognitive biological processes analogous to, but slower than, consciousness, itself included within the paradigm. The argument is closely analogous to the well-studied exaptation of noise to trigger stochastic resonance amplification in physiological systems.

‣ Agriculture: Nanotechnology’s Green Field

Siddhartha Sankar Mukhopadhyay
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Português
Natural agricultural production functions in open system, where energy and matter are exchanged freely between geosphere (especially pedosphere), biosphere, and atmosphere. The self regulation of biophysical processes in these spheres is crucial for global sustainability. However, modern farming practices have stressed the system to the extent that damaged C, N, and P cycles are threatening catastrophic consequences. High food-wastage coupled with high food price, high soil fertility zones but low crop productivity, and highly productive irrigated farming marred with ecological disasters are examples of global paradoxes associated with modern farming. High incidence of pesticide residues in soil and water bodies, low use efficiency of agricultural inputs, vulnerability to climate, and low conversion of energy by crops leaving high amount of residues and their subsequent burden on environment, and hunger and malnutrition in many parts of the world are threatening civilizations to crumble. Nanotechnology promises to break these vicious cycles, because technology is based on applying exact amounts of inputs for use by the crops, and only when they are required. Some of the examples are: nanofabricating nutrient ions to improve nutrient use efficiency...

‣ Cancer chemopreventive action of α-(-)-bisabolol, a sesquiterpene alcohol involves inhibition of cathepsin D and ornithine decarboxylase via tramping nitric oxide

Suchita Srivastava; Suaib Luqman
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Poster
Português
Terpenoids, traditionally used for cosmetic and medicinal purposes, are currently being explored as cancer chemopreventive as well as chemotherapeutic agent in clinical trials. α-(-)-bisabolol, a naturally occurring monocyclic sesquiterpene alcohol is a major component of essential oil of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L., Chamomilla recutita L., Matricaria chamomilla; Family Asteraceae). As substantiated previously, α-(-)-bisabolol is known to have antimicrobial, anti-irritant, anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic properties. It also affects cell viability and growth of various human and murine cell lines by either inducing apoptosis or suppressing Akt activation or down regulating expression of some genes implicated in carcinogenesis. To elucidate the possible mechanism for its cancer chemopreventive action, herein we are reporting dose-dependent effect of α-(-)-bisabolol on ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, a key rate limiting enzyme in mammalian polyamine biosynthesis), cathepsin D (CATD, a lysosomal aspartyl protease) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR, a protein of purine biosynthetic pathway) all of these proteins get over-expressed during cell transformation, proliferation and malignancy. Our results demonstrate greater activity of α-(-)-bisabolol by exhibiting potent inhibition of ODC (99% at a concentration of 100μM with an IC50 value of 0.01μM) and CATD (22% at 10μM). The molecule did not affect DHFR activity significantly. To establish the hypothesis whether inhibition of CATD and ODC involves tramping of nitric oxide (NO)...

‣ Protective effect of (-) α-bisabolol on markers of oxidative stress in erythrocytes subjected to oxidative insult

Suaib Luqman; Suchita Srivastava
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Poster
Português
(-)-α-bisabolol is a sesquiterpene alcohol found as a major component of essential oil of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L., Chamomilla recutita L., Matricaria chamomilla L.; Family Asteraceae). Chamomile, one of the most ancient and widely recognized herbs to mankind, has been used traditionally for centuries as an anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, carminative, mild astringent and healing medicine. It is also known to be very helpful as an external agent for encouraging the rapid healing of ulcers and burns without infection, as well as persistent skin problems such as eczema and psoriasis. Since clinical trials and human studies are limited, we have investigated the effect of (-)-α-bisabolol on markers of oxidative stress in human erythrocytes by incubating with hydrogen peroxide (2mM) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (10 µM). Subjecting erythrocyte to oxidative stress caused a significant alteration in reduced glutathione GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration as well as superoxide dismutase and catalase activity compare to control. Presence of (-)-α-bisabolol as low as 0.1µM in incubation medium protected the erythrocytes from oxidative stress and helps to maintain the basal level of GSH and MDA. The activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase were also restored in a concentration-dependent manner (0.01-100µM). The effect was also compared with L-Ascorbic acid...

‣ Investigations on biological activity of Vetiveria zizanioides L. Nash, a palingenesis of some important findings in miracle grass

Suaib Luqman
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Poster
Português
Vetiveria zizanioides L. Nash synonymously known as Chrysopogon zizanioides L. Roberty (Family: Poaceae/Graminae), widely cultivated in the tropical regions of the world, is a miraculous grass native to India first developed for soil and water conservation by the World Bank during mid 1980s. Popularly known as ‘KHUS’, it is the major source of the well-known oil of vetiver, which is used in medicine, cosmetics and in perfumery making agarbattis, soaps, soft drinks, pan masala. Being a major constituent of ‘Rasayana’ in Ayurveda, different parts of the vetiver plant have traditionally been used by the Indian tribes for treating various ailments, diseases and disorders including boils, burns, epilepsy, fever, scorpion sting, snakebite, sores in the mouth, headache, toothache, weakness, lumbago, sprain, rheumatism, urinary tract infection, malarial fever, acidity relief and as an anti-helmintic. It has also been used in traditional medicine of Asia and Africa, particularly ancient Tamil literature mentions the use of vetiver for medical purposes. The essential oil of vetiver has extensive applications in toiletries and cosmetics, possesses sedative property and has traditionally been used in aromatherapy for relieving stress...

‣ Suppression of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced ornithine decarboxylase activity by resveratrol derivatives

Suaib Luqman; Tamara P. Kondratyuk; Juma Hosino; Mark Cushman; John M. Pezzuto
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Poster
Português
As demonstrated previously, resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) inhibits 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the key rate limiting enzyme in mammalian polyamine synthesis. Using human bladder epithelial carcinoma HTB-24 cells in culture where resveratrol inhibits induction with an IC50 of 8.8 µM, we now report potential metabolites demonstrate greater activity [tetrabutylammonium (E)-4-(3,5-dihydroxystyryl)phenyl sulfate (IC50 1.2 µM), resveratrol tripotassium 3,5,4'-trisulfate (IC50 1.8 µM), resveratrol tripotassium 3,4'-disulfate (IC50 1.8 µM), and resveratrol tripotassium 3,5-disulfate (IC50 2.3 µM)]. Based on RT-PCR studies, ODC inhibition occurs at the transcriptional level, but this was not due to direct inhibition of protein kinase C (e.g., resveratrol IC50, 79 µM; resveratrol tripotassium 3,5-disulfate IC50, 49 µM). Additional work is underway to more fully investigate this potentially important observation. [This work was supported by program project P01 CA48112 awarded by the National Cancer Institute. SL acknowledges Indo-US Science and Technology Forum (IUSSTF), New Delhi for a Research Fellowship].

‣ Weight matrix based identification of terpene synthases conserved motifs in Arabidopsis thaliana proteome

Suchita Srivastava; Suaib Luqman; Feroz Khan
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Poster
Português
Terpenes comprise the most diverse collection of natural products. Out of more than 30,000 individual terpenoids identified, at least half are synthesized by plants. A relatively small, but quantitatively significant, number of terpenoids are involved in primary plant metabolism. However, the vast majorities are classified as secondary metabolites; compounds not required for plant growth and development but presumed to have an ecological function in communication or defense and are widely used in industrial applications. Terpene hydrocarbon scaffolds are generated by the action of the mechanistically intriguing family of mono-, sesqui-, and diterpene synthases collectively termed as terpene synthases, that catalyze multistep reactions with diphosphorylated substrates of 10 (geranyl diphosphate), 15 (farnesyl diphosphate) or 20 (geranylgeranyl diphosphate) carbons. In the studied work, we performed a computational study on proteome wide identification of terpene synthase motifs in Arabidopsis thaliana proteome on the basis of weight matrix approach. We have developed an optimal weight matrix for the identification of terpene synthase motifs in the plant’s proteome. Weight matrix was constructed by aligning orthologous sequences of known terpene synthases originated from diverse plant species viz....

‣ Inhibiton of NFκB activation and aromatase activity by vanilloids: An in vitro and in silico study

Suaib Luqman; Abha Meena; Laura E. Marler; Tamara P. Kondratyuk; John M. Pezzuto
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Poster
Português
Target-specific drugs, including natural products, offer promise for the amelioration of cancer and other human ailments with reduced side-effects. Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient present in chillies (Capsicum annuum L.), and capsazepine, a synthetic analogue of capsaicin (collectively referred to as vanilloids), are known to possess a variety of pharmacological and physiological properties. In our continuous effort to discover cancer chemopreventive agents from natural products, we investigated the effect of vanilloids on NFκB activation with stably transfected 293/NFκB-Luc human embryonic kidney cells induced by treatment with tumor necrosis factor (TNFα), and aromatase activity. Capsaicin and capsazepine blocked TNFα-induced NFκB activation in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 values of 13.5 and 8.5 μM, respectively. No cytotoxicity was observed at higher test concentration (20 μg/mL). In addition, these vanilloids inhibited aromatase activity with IC50 values of 0.68 and 4.21 μM, respectively. Computer aided molecular docking studies showed acceptable docking scores indicating good binding affinity of vanilloids with aromatase and NFκB. Based on these findings, aromatase and NFκB are suggested as valid targets for these compounds; additional investigation of chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic potential is required.

‣ Biodiversity is a cauliflower under the sunlight

Roberto Gatti Cazzolla
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Manuscript
Português
For a long time ecologists have questioned the variations of biodiversity across the latitudinal gradient. Recently it has emerged that the changes in [beta]-diversity are caused simply by changes in the sizes of species pools. I combined the species pool size and the fractal nature of ecosystems to clarify some general patterns of this gradient. Considering temperature, humidity and NPP as the main variables of an ecosystem niche and as the axis of the polygon in the Cartesian plane, it is possible to build fractal hypervolumes, whose the fractal dimension rises up to three, moving towards the equator. It follows that the best figure that graphically synthesizes the evolutionary forces that fit this ecosystem hypervolume is the fractal cauliflower.

‣ Concentration-dependent free radical scavenging and ferric reducing ability of Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash: Protective effect of vetiver root extract during oxidative stress

Suaib Luqman; Ritesh Kumar; Shubhangi Kaushik; Suchita Srivastava; Mahendra P. Darokar; Suman P. S. Khanuja
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Poster
Português
Vetiveria zizanioides, popularly known as ‘KHUS’ grass, has been known to India since ancient times. It is the major source of well-known oil of vetiver, which is used in medicine and in perfumery. A concentration-dependent ferric reducing, free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of two genotypes, namely KS 1 and gulabi of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides L. Nash) root, were evaluated by using in vitro assays: the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), total phenolic content (TPC), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and reducing power (RP) assay. A positive co-relation was observed between FRAP, DPPH and TPC of cv KS 1, whereas TAC and RP showed a negative co-relation. A significant protective effect of cv KS 1 (100 [mu]g/mL) extract was also observed in erythrocytes reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration after subjecting erythrocytes to oxidative stress by incubating them with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Our observations suggest that cv KS 1 has better antioxidant activity compared to cv gulabi of vetiver and may, in part, explain the use of spent/waste part of vetiver root as an economically viable source of natural antioxidant against complications arising from oxidative stress.

‣ Safety evaluation of Asparagus racemosus: a commonly used herb of Ayurvedic Medicine in Charles Foster rats

Debabrata Chanda; K Patider; Anirban Pal; Suaib Luqman; D U. Bawankule; D N. Mani; Narayan P. Yadav
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Poster
Português
Asparagus racemosus Willd., one of the most important medicinal plants, is regarded as a ‘rasayana’ in the Ayurvedic system of medicine and has been recommended for use as a galactagogue, aphrodisiac, anodyne, diuretic and nerve tonic since time immemorial, necessitating its incorporation into a number of important Ayurvedic formulations like Shatavarikalpa, Phalaghrita and Vishnutaila. However, data regarding safety or toxicity of Asparagus racemosus in animal systems is lacking. Hence, the present experiment envisaged acute and sub-acute toxicity of Asparagus racemosus root aqueous extract in adult Charles Foster rats following the guidelines of OECD including parameters like observational, hematological, biochemical and pathological studies. Except serum creatinine level in acute study and SGPT activity and serum creatinine level in sub-acute study, all the observational, hematological and biochemical parameters studied showed non-significant changes. Histopathological examination of hepatic sections of sub-acute samples showed mild inflammatory and fatty changes at higher doses.

‣ Suppression of TNF-α induced NFκB activity by gallic acid and its semi-synthetic alkyl-gallates: Possible role in cancer chemoprevention

Suaib Luqman; Mauro C. C. Morais; Tamara P. Kondratyuk; Maicon S. Petronio; Luis O. Regasini; Dulce H. S. Silva; Vanderlan S. Bolzani; Christiane P. Soares; John M. Pezzuto
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Poster
Português
NFκB, a transcription factor, regulates the expression of a number of genes involved in carcinogenesis. Thus, agents that can suppress NFκB activation have the potential to suppress carcinogenesis. In the present investigation, gallic acid was isolated from Alchornea glandulosa (Euphorbiaceae) and eight semi-synthetic alkyl gallates were prepared from the reaction of the corresponding alcohols with gallic acid at 80oC for 48 h in good yields (70-97%). All the compounds were evaluated against TNF-α-induced NFκB activation with stable transfected 293/NFκB-Luc human embryonic kidney cells. Treatment of cells with gallic acid and the gallate esters (20 µg/ml) significantly reduced TNF-α induced NFκB activation. With IC50 values in a range of 10 to 50 µM, gallic acid esters mediated inhibitory activity greater than that of gallic acid (IC50 76 µM). In addition to the inhibition of NFκB activation, gallic acid mediated a modest cytotoxic effect, but none of the gallate esters affected cell viability at the tested concentrations. Based on these encouraging intracellular responses, we suggest suppression of NFκB activation by gallate esters could play a chemopreventive role in carcinogenesis...

‣ Chemopreventive potential of natural products isolated from a alchornea glandulosa, pterogyne nitens and its semisynthetic analogs

Mauro C. C. Morais; Laura E. Marler; Suaib Luqman; Tamara P. Kondratyuk; Maicon S. Petronio; Luis O. Regasini; Dulce H. S. Silva; Vanderlan S. Bolzani; Christiane P. Soares; John M. Pezzuto
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Poster
Português
INTRODUCTION: Chemoprevention involves the use of natural or synthetic substances to reduce the risk of developing cancer. Gallic acid was found to possess several pharmacological activities, such as anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory. Guanidine alkaloids display a broad spectrum of biological activities and its cytotoxic effect were well investigated. OBJECTIVES: The present study evaluated the chemopreventive potential of natural products and its semi-synthetic analogs using quinone reductase (QR) induction, aromatase inhibition and the suppression of NFκB activity, which are well established strategies for screening compounds to cancer chemoprevention. METHODS: Gallic acid was isolated from Alchornea glandulosa, and alkyl gallates were prepared from the reaction of the corresponding alcohols with gallic acid or from the reaction with acetic anhydride. The guanidine alkaloids nitensidines A and B were isolated from Pterogyne nitens. All compounds were evaluated for QR induction using murine hepatoma cell line Hepa 1c1c7 and two mutant cell lines; for in vitro aromatase inhibition; and against TNFα-induced NFκB activation with stable transfected 293/NFκB-Luc human embryonic kidney cells. Compounds were tested at 20Bg/mL following 1:3 serial dilutions. RESULTS: No QR induction was observed at tested concentrations. Nitensidine A and B showed aromatase inhibition (IC50 18...

‣ Ferric reducing antioxidant power and free radical scavenging activity of Moringa oleifera: Relevance in oxidative stress

Suaib Luqman
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Português
Moringa oleifera of family Moringaceae, commonly known as Horseradish-tree or the Ben-oil tree is an exceptionally nutritious vegetable tree with a variety of medicinal uses, distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The tree's bark, roots, fruit (pod), flowers, leaves, seeds and gum are used as an antiseptic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and in treating rheumatism, venomous bites and other conditions. The immature green pods, called ‘drumsticks’ are probably the most valued and widely used part of the tree for water purification (e.g. desalination of ocean salt water). The leaves are highly nutritious, being a significant source of beta-carotene, vitamin C, protein, iron and potassium used in soups and sauces. The present study focuses on concentration-dependent ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), free radical scavenging (DPPH), total phenolics (TP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and reducing power (RP) of moringa leaf and fruit (pod) extract compared with standard antioxidant. A strong positive co-relation was observed between FRAP, DPPH, TP and RP activity. Comparatively, the antioxidant potential of fruit extract was more pronounced than the leaf extract and ethanolic extract showed better activity than aqueous. On the basis of our observations...

‣ Biotransformation of artemisinin mediated through fungal strains for obtaining derivatives with novel activities

Suchita Srivastava; Suaib Luqman; Atiya Fatima; Mahendra P. Darokar; Arvind S. Negi; J K. Kumar; Karuna Shanker; Chandan S. Chanotiya; Sudeep Tandon; Suman P. S. Khanuja
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Poster
Português
Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone, is the active antimalarial constituent of Artemisia annua. Several fungal strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Picchia pastoris were used to biotransform artemisinin. Among these strains, A. flavus was the only microorganism capable of transforming artemisinin to deoxyartemisinin in higher yields than the previous reports. The structure of deoxyartemisinin was elucidated by spectroscopy. Deoxyartemisinin showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and S. mutans at a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 1 mg/mL compared to artemisinin whose MIC was >2 mg/mL.

‣ Bioconversion of eugenol into food flavouring agent vanillin

Suaib Luqman; Sudeep Tandon; Alok Somvanshi; Suchita Srivastava; Mahendra P. Darokar; Suman P. S. Khanuja
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Poster
Português
Microorganisms have the ability to chemically modify a wide variety of organic compounds by a process referred to as biological or microbial transformation, or in general, bioconversion. The microbial cells and their catalytic machinery (enzymes) accept a wide array of complex molecules as substrates, yielding products with unparallel chiral (enantio-), positional (region-) and chemical (chemo-) selectivity through various biochemical reactions. The present study was formulated on the objective of the conversion of abundantly available phytomolecules eugenol into vanillin, a compound of industrial importance, using microorganisms Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These microbes were found to be capable of converting eugenol to industrially important cost-effective products, vanillin (used as flavouring agent). The results were analyzed using thin layer and gas chromatographic techniques. Our results demonstrated that A. flavus, A. niger and P. aerouginosa were able to transform eugenol to vanillin. Our findings may provide a novel approach for the production of cost-effective vanillin using microorganisms.

‣ _Trichoderma pseudokoningii_ Rifai isolation from Egyptian immunocompromised cattle with _Mycobacterium bovis_ infection

Helmy Torky; Eman Khalifa
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Manuscript
Português
Recently, _Trichoderma_ species have emerged as potent fungal pathogens in immunocompromised humans. We report the first three cases of _Trichoderma pseudokoningii_ Rifai pulmonary infection in the Egyptian tuberculous dairy cattle with _Mycobacterium bovis_, from the heart of a generalized bovine TB in a cow over 5 years old, a mediastinal lymph node of pulmonary TB in a cow of 3 years old, and a lung of mixed pulmonary and digestive BTB in a cow of 4 years old. We have also developed a pathogenisity test technique for _Trichoderma pseudokoningii_ Rifai infection in 3 G. pigs by intraperitoneal injection of 2 G. pigs with mixed infection of _Mycobacterium bovis_ and _Trichoderma pseudokoningii_ Rifai; death of both animals 14 days, thereafter, and by injection of 1 G. pig with single infection of _Trichoderma pseudokoningii_ Rifai; death of animal 21 days, thereafter. We did not report any animal case along review of literature.