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‣ Psychosocial work environment and depression: epidemiologic assessment of the demand-control model.

Mausner-Dorsch, H; Eaton, W W
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2000 Português
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OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relation between occupational variables and 3 forms of depression (major depressive episode, depressive syndrome, and dysphoria). It was hypothesized that individuals working in occupations with high psychologic strain (high psychologic demands and low decision authority) would have a higher prevalence of depression relative to those working in occupations with the other 3 possible conditions. METHODS: The analysis was based on data for 905 respondents who were employed full-time in the year before the follow-up interview for the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Program in Baltimore, Md, between 1993 and 1996. Psychosocial work environment, sociodemographic variables, and psychopathology were assessed in a household interview that included the National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Subscales for the demand-control model for psychosocial work environment were modified slightly after factor analysis. RESULTS: High job strain was associated with greater prevalence of all 3 forms of depression, especially major depressive episode. The results were stronger for women; for men, being unmarried was the strongest prevalence correlate. CONCLUSIONS: Major depressive episode, depressive syndrome...

‣ Epidemiologic trends in the hospitalization of elderly Medicare patients for pneumonia, 1991-1998.

Baine, W B; Yu, W; Summe, J P
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2001 Português
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OBJECTIVES: This study determined hospitalization rates of elderly Americans for pneumonia from 1991 through 1998. METHODS: Epidemiologic data were described for 273,143 pneumonia hospitalizations. RESULTS: Annual hospitalizations for aspiration pneumonia increased by 93.5%. Pneumonia hospitalization rates increased steeply with age, especially among men. Black men were at highest risk for aspiration, unspecified, Klebsiella, "other gram-negative," and staphylococcal pneumonia; White men had the highest Haemophilus and pneumococcal pneumonia rates. Among women, Blacks predominated in aspiration and Klebsiella pneumonia; Whites had the highest Haemophilus and bronchopneumonia rates. CONCLUSIONS: An epidemic of hospitalization for aspiration pneumonia smoldered over 8 years. Significant disparities existed in hospitalization risks by race, sex, and principal diagnosis.

‣ Geographic information systems: their use in environmental epidemiologic research.

Vine, M F; Degnan, D; Hanchette, C
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1997 Português
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Advances in geographic information system (GIS) technology, developed by geographers, provide new opportunities for environmental epidemiologists to study associations between environmental exposures and the spatial distribution of disease. A GIS is a powerful computer mapping and analysis technology capable of integrating large quantities of geographic (spatial) data as well as linking geographic with nongeographic data (e.g., demographic information, environmental exposure levels). In this paper we provide an overview of some of the capabilities and limitations of GIS technology; we illustrate, through practical examples, the use of several functions of a GIS including automated address matching, distance functions, buffer analysis, spatial query, and polygon overlay; we discuss methods and limitations of address geocoding, often central to the use of a GIS in environmental epidemiologic research; and we suggest ways to facilitate its use in future studies. Collaborative efforts between epidemiologists, biostatisticians, environmental scientists, GIS specialists, and medical geographers are needed to realize the full potential of GIS technology in environmental health research and may lead to innovative solutions to complex questions.

‣ Coronary heart disease risk factors and attributable risks in African-American women and men: NHANES I epidemiologic follow-up study.

Gillum, R F; Mussolino, M E; Madans, J H
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1998 Português
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OBJECTIVES: This study assessed associations of risk factors with coronary heart disease incidence in African Americans. METHODS: The participants in the NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-Up Study included in this analysis were 1641 Black and 9660 White persons who were aged 25 to 74 years when examined and who did not have a history of coronary heart disease. Average follow-up for survivors was 19 years. RESULTS: Significant, independent risk factors for coronary heart disease were age, systolic blood pressure, and smoking in Black women and age, systolic blood pressure, serum cholesterol, low education, and low family income in Black men. In this cohort, 19% of incident coronary heart disease in Black women and 34% in Black men might be prevented if systolic blood pressure were below 140 mm Hg. In Black men, attributable risk for low education (46%) was even higher than that for elevated blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated systolic blood pressure and smoking were predictive of coronary heart disease incidence in African Americans. Estimates of population attributable risk were highest for elevated systolic blood pressure in women and education less than high school in men. Further studies of serum lipids, education, and coronary heart disease in Black women are needed.

‣ Modeling all-cause mortality: projections of the impact of smoking cessation based on the NHEFS. NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study.

Russell, L B; Carson, J L; Taylor, W C; Milan, E; Dey, A; Jagannathan, R
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1998 Português
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OBJECTIVES: A model that relates clinical risk factors to subsequent mortality was used to simulate the impact of smoking cessation. METHODS: Survivor functions derived from multivariate hazard regressions fitted to data from the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I) Epidemiologic Followup Study, a longitudinal survey of a representative sample of US adults, were used to project deaths from all causes. RESULTS: Validation tests showed that the hazard regressions agreed with the risk relationships reported by others, that projected deaths for baseline risk factors closely matched observed mortality, and that the projections attributed deaths to the appropriate levels of important risk factors. Projections of the impact of smoking cessation showed that the number of cumulative deaths would be 15% lower after 5 years and 11% lower after 20 years. CONCLUSIONS: The model produced realistic projections of the effects of risk factor modification on subsequent mortality in adults, Comparison of the projections for smoking cessation with estimates of the risk attributable to smoking published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention suggests that cessation could capture most of the benefit possible from eliminating smoking.

‣ The prevalence and health burden of self-reported diabetes in older Mexican Americans: findings from the Hispanic established populations for epidemiologic studies of the elderly.

Black, S A; Ray, L A; Markides, K S
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1999 Português
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OBJECTIVES: The prevalence and health burden of self-reported adult-onset diabetes mellitus were examined in older Mexican Americans. METHODS: Data from the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly were used to assess the prevalence of self-reported diabetes and its association with other chronic conditions, disability, sensory impairments, health behaviors, and health service use in 3050 community-dwelling Mexican Americans 65 years and older. RESULTS: The prevalence of self-reported diabetes in this sample was 22%, and there were high rates of obesity, diabetes-related complications, and diabetic medication use. Myocardial infarction, stroke, hypertension, angina, and cancer were significantly more common in diabetics than in nondiabetics, as were high levels of depressive symptoms, low perceived health status, disability, incontinence, vision impairment, and health service use. Many of the rate differences found in this sample of older Mexican Americans were higher than those reported among other groups of older adults. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that the prevalence and health burden of diabetes are greater in older Mexican Americans than in older non-Hispanic Whites and African Americans...

‣ Epidemiologic problems associated with exposure to several agents.

Waxweiler, R J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1981 Português
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Simultaneous exposure to many potentially hazardous agents in the environment is the rule, yet there have been few studies that have addressed the issue of interactions of these agents in modifying disease outcomes, even though such interactions may potentially be important in terms of policy-making. Epidemiological methods may be an important way to identify interaction effects, especially for chronic disease outcomes. Some examples of epidemiologic investigations of this problem are given, and a matrix method used to evaluate the contribution of nineteen chemicals to the risk of liver angiosarcoma in vinyl chloride workers is discussed.

‣ Quantifying the disease impact of cigarette smoking with SAMMEC II software.

Shultz, J M; Novotny, T E; Rice, D P
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1991 Português
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Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs Software, Release II (SAMMEC II) has been developed for the Office on Smoking and Health, Public Health Service, to permit rapid calculation of deaths, years of potential life lost, direct health-care costs, indirect mortality costs, and disability costs associated with cigarette smoking. For the mortality-related measures, age-specific and age-adjusted rates are also calculated. The pivotal epidemiologic measure in these calculations is the smoking-attributable fraction, and attributal risk measure. A multiple-measure approach (attributable mortality and economic costs) to quantifying a health problem is termed "disease impact estimation." Previously, national and State-specific estimates of smoking-attributable mortality and economic costs were calculated using SAMMEC software, the predecessor of SAMMEC II. SAMMEC II is completely menu-driven and operates within the Lotus 1-2-3 software as a set of linked spreadsheets. SAMMEC II adapts national epidemiologic methods for use by State and local health departments. Increased exposure of public health professionals to disease impact estimation techniques, as demonstrated by SAMMEC II, will lead to improvements in both methodology and the quality of smoking-related health data. The primary purpose of SAMMEC II...

‣ Ribotyping as an epidemiologic tool for Escherichia coli.

Tarkka, E.; Ahman, H.; Siitonen, A.
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1994 Português
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Restriction fragment length polymorphism of ribosomal RNA genes was analysed among 133 Escherichia coli strains predominantly from blood and urine, including 21 isolates from faeces of healthy persons. The strains had also been characterized for their O:K:H serotypes, for the presence of P, S and type 1C fimbriae, non-P, non-S mannose-resistant haemagglutinins and haemolysin production. Hind III-digested genomic DNA was subjected to Southern blot analysis with either plasmid pKK3535 containing E. coli rRNA operon or purified rRNA as a probe. Among the 133 strains 20 ribotypes were obtained. The distribution of strains into different ribotypes generally correlated with their O:K:H serotype. Ribotype variation within serotypes was mainly seen among strains with the K5 capsule. The origin of the strains or the presence of virulence-associated factors did not correlate with the ribotype. In conclusion, ribotyping appears to be a valuable method in epidemiologic studies especially when the serotyping methods are not available.

‣ Use of fimH Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms for Strain Typing of Clinical Isolates of Escherichia coli for Epidemiologic Investigation▿

Dias, Rubens C. S.; Moreira, Beatriz M.; Riley, Lee W.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Strain typing methods that compare electrophoresis banding patterns are commonly used but are difficult to standardize and poorly portable. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) is a sequence-based alternative, but it is not practical for large-scale epidemiological studies. In the present study, the usefulness of fimH single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for Escherichia coli typing was explored. fimH SNPs were determined for 345 E. coli clinical isolates (including 3 reference strains) and compared to PCR-based ECOR (E. coli reference collection) phylogrouping. The fimH gene could be amplified for 316 (92%) of the 345 isolates. fimH SNP analysis found 46 distinct terminal groups in the nucleotide sequence-based phylogenetic tree (fimH types). A subset of the E. coli isolates (162 clinical isolates and the 3 reference strains) were compared by fimH type, PCR phylogroup, and MLST. These isolates fell into 27 fimH types and 18 MLST clonal complexes (CCs) that contained 2 to 28 isolates per complex. The combination of PCR phylogroup and fimH type corresponded to a single CC for 113 (68%) isolates and 2 or 3 CCs for the other 52 (32%) isolates. We propose that the combination of PCR phylogrouping and fimH SNP analysis may be a useful method to type a large collection of clinical E. coli isolates for epidemiologic studies.

‣ Epidemiologic and Genetic Factors Associated with Ovarian Cancer

McLemore, Monica R.; Miaskowski, Christine; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Chen, Lee-may; Dodd, Marylin J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
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The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the epidemiologic and genetic factors associated with ovarian cancer. A more complete understanding of the determinants of ovarian cancer may lead to the development of better screening and detection methods for this disease. The first section of this paper reviews current literature on screening and early detection of ovarian cancer. The second section reviews the epidemiology of ovarian cancer, specifically highlighting the risk factors associated with the development of this disease. The paper concludes with a discussion of how oncology nurses can apply this information to improve patient care.

‣ Epidemiologic Approaches to Global Health

Quinn, Thomas C.; Samet, Jonathan M.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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In this introduction to volume 32 of Epidemiologic Reviews, the authors highlight the diversity and complexity of global health concerns, and they frame the 12 articles included in this issue within the diverse topics of research in this emerging and ever-expanding field. The authors emphasize the need for ongoing research related to the methods used in global health and for comprehensive surveillance, and they offer suggestions for future directions in global health research.

‣ Epidemiologic Approaches to Injury and Violence

Baker, Susan P.; Li, Guohua
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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This volume of Epidemiologic Reviews features 13 articles covering a variety of injury problems and research topics. In this commentary, the authors highlight the remarkable achievements in injury control and the important role the Haddon Matrix has played in understanding injury causation and developing preventive strategies; comment on the individual articles included in this volume in the broad categories of research methods, childhood injury, motor-vehicle-related injury, alcohol-related injury, intentional injury, and occupational injury; and outline research gaps and future directions in injury epidemiology and prevention.

‣ Some Epidemiologic, Clinical, Microbiologic, and Organizational Assumptions That Influenced the Design and Performance of the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS)

Farag, Tamer H.; Nasrin, Dilruba; Wu, Yukun; Muhsen, Khitam; Blackwelder, William C.; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Panchalingam, Sandra; Nataro, James P.; Kotloff, Karen L.; Levine, Myron M.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/12/2012 Português
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The overall aim of the Global Enteric Multicenter Study–1 (GEMS-1) is to identify the etiologic agents associated with moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) among children <5 years of age, and thereby the attributable pathogen-specific population-based incidence of MSD, to guide investments in research and public health interventions against diarrheal disease. To accomplish this, 9 core assumptions were vetted through widespread consultation: (1) a limited number of etiologic agents may be responsible for most MSD; (2) a definition of MSD can be crafted that encompasses cases that might otherwise be fatal in the community without treatment; (3) MSD seen at sentinel centers is a proxy for fatal diarrheal disease in the community; (4) matched case/control is the appropriate epidemiologic design; (5) methods across the sites can be standardized and rigorous quality control maintained; (6) a single 60-day postenrollment visit to case and control households creates mini-cohorts, allowing comparisons; (7) broad support for GEMS-1 messages can be achieved by incorporating advice from public health spokespersons; (8) results will facilitate the setting of investment and intervention priorities; and (9) wide acceptance and dissemination of the GEMS-1 results can be achieved.

‣ Histological and Demographic Characteristics of the Distribution of Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors’ Sizes: Results from SEER Registries Using Statistical Methods

Pokhrel, Keshav P.; Vovoras, Dimitrios; Tsokos, Chris P.
Fonte: Master Publishing Group Publicador: Master Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2012 Português
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The examination of brain tumor growth and its variability among cancer patients is an important aspect of epidemiologic and medical data. Several studies for tumors of brain interpreted descriptive data, in this study we perform inference in the extent possible, suggesting possible explanations for the differentiation in the survival rates apparent in the epidemiologic data. Population based information from nine registries in the USA are classified with respect to age, gender, race and tumor histology to study tumor size variation. The Weibull and Dagum distributions are fitted to the highly skewed tumor sizes distributions, the parametric analysis of the tumor sizes showed significant differentiation between sexes, increased skewness for both the male and female populations, as well as decreased kurtosis for the black female population. The effect of population characteristics on the distribution of tumor sizes is estimated by quantile regression model and then compared with the ordinary least squares results. The higher quantiles of the distribution of tumor sizes for whites are significantly higher than those of other races. Our model predicted that the effect of age in the lower quantiles of the tumor sizes distribution is negative given the variables race and sex. We apply probability and regression models to explore the effects of demographic and histology types and observe significant racial and gender differences in the form of the distributions. Efforts are made to link tumor size data with available survival rates in relation to other prognostic variables.

‣ Environmental chemicals and DNA methylation in adults: a systematic review of the epidemiologic evidence

Ruiz-Hernandez, Adrian; Kuo, Chin-Chi; Rentero-Garrido, Pilar; Tang, Wan-Yee; Redon, Josep; Ordovas, Jose M; Navas-Acien, Ana; Tellez-Plaza, Maria
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/04/2015 Português
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Current evidence supports the notion that environmental exposures are associated with DNA-methylation and expression changes that can impact human health. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of epidemiologic studies evaluating the association between environmental chemicals with DNA methylation levels in adults. After excluding arsenic, recently evaluated in a systematic review, we identified a total of 17 articles (6 on cadmium, 4 on lead, 2 on mercury, 1 on nickel, 1 on antimony, 1 on tungsten, 5 on persistent organic pollutants and perfluorinated compounds, 1 on bisphenol A, and 3 on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). The selected articles reported quantitative methods to determine DNA methylation including immunocolorimetric assays for total content of genomic DNA methylation, and microarray technologies, methylation-specific quantitative PCR, Luminometric Methylation Assay (LUMA), and bisulfite pyrosequencing for DNA methylation content of genomic sites such as gene promoters, LINE-1, Alu elements, and others. Considering consistency, temporality, strength, dose-response relationship, and biological plausibility, we concluded that the current evidence is not sufficient to provide inference because differences across studies and limited samples sizes make it difficult to compare across studies and to evaluate sources of heterogeneity. Important questions for future research include the need for larger and longitudinal studies...

‣ A Framework for Examining Social Stress and Susceptibility to Air Pollution in Respiratory Health

Clougherty, Jane E.; Kubzansky, Laura Diane
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Objective: There is growing interest in disentangling the health effects of spatially clustered social and physical environmental exposures and in exploring potential synergies among them, with particular attention directed to the combined effects of psychosocial stress and air pollution. Both exposures may be elevated in lower-income urban communities, and it has been hypothesized that stress, which can influence immune function and susceptibility, may potentiate the effects of air pollution in respiratory disease onset and exacerbation. In this paper, we attempt to synthesize the relevant research from social and environmental epidemiology, toxicology, immunology, and exposure assessment to provide a useful framework for environmental health researchers aiming to investigate the health effects of environmental pollution in combination with social or psychological factors. Data synthesis: We review the existing epidemiologic and toxicologic evidence on synergistic effects of stress and pollution, and then describe the physiologic effects of stress and key issues related to measuring and evaluating stress as it relates to physical environmental exposures and susceptibility. Finally, we identify some of the major methodologic challenges ahead as we work toward disentangling the health effects of clustered social and physical exposures and accurately describing the interplay among these exposures. Conclusions: There is still tremendous work to be done toward understanding the combined and potentially synergistic health effects of stress and pollution. As this research proceeds...

‣ Distribution of metals exposure and associations with cardiometabolic risk factors in the “Modeling the Epidemiologic Transition Study”

Ettinger, Adrienne S; Bovet, Pascal; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Lupoli, Nicola; Shine, James; Dugas, Lara R; Shoham, David; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A; Cooper, Richard S; Luke, Amy
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Background: Metals are known endocrine disruptors and have been linked to cardiometabolic diseases via multiple potential mechanisms, yet few human studies have both the exposure variability and biologically-relevant phenotype data available. We sought to examine the distribution of metals exposure and potential associations with cardiometabolic risk factors in the “Modeling the Epidemiologic Transition Study” (METS), a prospective cohort study designed to assess energy balance and change in body weight, diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk in five countries at different stages of social and economic development. Methods: Young adults (25–45 years) of African descent were enrolled (N = 500 from each site) in: Ghana, South Africa, Seychelles, Jamaica and the U.S.A. We randomly selected 150 blood samples (N = 30 from each site) to determine concentrations of selected metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury) in a subset of participants at baseline and to examine associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. Results: Median (interquartile range) metal concentrations (μg/L) were: arsenic 8.5 (7.7); cadmium 0.01 (0.8); lead 16.6 (16.1); and mercury 1.5 (5.0). There were significant differences in metals concentrations by: site location...

‣ Maternal history of childhood sexual abuse and preterm birth: an epidemiologic review

Wosu, Adaeze C.; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Background: History of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is highly prevalent with as many as one in four American women being victims. Exposure to CSA or other early life traumatic experiences has been associated with adverse reproductive and pregnancy outcomes. However, the effects of CSA on preterm delivery (PTB), a leading cause of neonatal mortality, remain poorly understood. The objectives of this review are (i) to synthesize the available research investigating the relationship between maternal history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and preterm delivery (PTB); (ii) to provide suggestions for improving future research on this topic; and (iii) to highlight implications for clinical practice and public health. Methods: Relevant articles were identified through searches of four electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science Core Collection and BIOSIS Online) for studies published before March 2014, as well as through reviewing references of published articles. Results: A total of six studies published from 1992 to 2010 were included in this review. Overall, findings were inconsistent. Three studies reported statistically significant associations of CSA with PTB (<37 weeks gestation) or shorter mean gestational age at birth. Women with a history of CSA had 2.6 to 4.8-fold increased odds of PTB as compared with women without a history of CSA. Three other studies did not observe statistically significant differences in rates of PTB or mean gestational age at birth in relation to a history of CSA. Conclusions: Available evidence on this topic is sparse and inconsistent...

‣ Clinical, pathologic and epidemiologic features of infection with Scedosporium prolificans: four cases and review

Gosbell, I.; Morris, M.; Gallo, J.; Weeks, K.; Neville, S.; Rogers, A.; Andrews, R.; Ellis, D.
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1999 Português
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Objective: To describe the features of infection with Scedosporium prolificans and to investigate the possibility of a common source of infection. Methods: S.prolificans caused invasive infections in four patients at Liverpool Hospital from 1994 to 1997, prompting a pathologic and epidemiologic investigation. Blood cultures were processed by either the BACTEC NR660 or VITAL systems. MIC testing was performed with Etest strips. Strain differentiation of isolates from three of the patients and two soil samples from the home of one of the patients was performed by allozyme electrophoresis. Results: The four cases represented disseminated infections that arose during prolonged neutropenia, and progressed relentlessly despite treatment, including in one case high-dose liposomal amphotericin B. In two cases, VITAL blood culture bottles contained mycelia of S. prolificans without the reader having signaled. An autopsy was performed in three of the cases. Angio-invasion, tissue necrosis and multiple abscesses were found in each patient. Multiple air samples from the ward were negative for S. prolificans. The organism was grown from two samples of pot plant soil from the home of one patient. Allozyme electrophoresis performed on isolates from three cases and pot plant soil indicated that all strains were unrelated. Furthermore...