Página 9 dos resultados de 287434 itens digitais encontrados em 0.158 segundos

‣ The World Health Organization European Health in Prisons Project After 10 Years: Persistent Barriers and Achievements

Gatherer, Alex; Moller, Lars; Hayton, Paul
Fonte: © American Journal of Public Health 2005 Publicador: © American Journal of Public Health 2005
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2005 Português
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The recognition that good prison health is important to general public health has led 28 countries in the European Region of the World Health Organization (WHO) to join a WHO network dedicated to improving health within prisons. Within the 10 years since that time, vital actions have been taken and important policy documents have been produced. A key factor in making progress is breaking down the isolation of prison health services and bringing them into closer collaboration with the country’s public health services.

‣ Translating Research Evidence Into Practice to Reduce Health Disparities: A Social Determinants Approach

Koh, Howard K.; Oppenheimer, Sarah C.; Massin-Short, Sarah B.; Emmons, Karen M.; Geller, Alan C.; Viswanath, K.
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2010 Português
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Translating research evidence to reduce health disparities has emerged as a global priority. The 2008 World Health Organization Commission on Social Determinants of Health recently urged that gaps in health attributable to political, social, and economic factors should be closed in a generation. Achieving this goal requires a social determinants approach to create public health systems that translate efficacy documented by research into effectiveness in the community. We review the scope, definitions, and framing of health disparities and explore local, national, and global programs that address specific health disparities. Such efforts translate research evidence into real-world settings and harness collaborative social action for broad-scale, sustainable change.

‣ Obesity Stigma: Important Considerations for Public Health

Puhl, Rebecca M.; Heuer, Chelsea A.
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2010 Português
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Stigma and discrimination toward obese persons are pervasive and pose numerous consequences for their psychological and physical health. Despite decades of science documenting weight stigma, its public health implications are widely ignored. Instead, obese persons are blamed for their weight, with common perceptions that weight stigmatization is justifiable and may motivate individuals to adopt healthier behaviors. We examine evidence to address these assumptions and discuss their public health implications. On the basis of current findings, we propose that weight stigma is not a beneficial public health tool for reducing obesity. Rather, stigmatization of obese individuals threatens health, generates health disparities, and interferes with effective obesity intervention efforts. These findings highlight weight stigma as both a social justice issue and a priority for public health.

‣ Global Health and the Global Economic Crisis

Benatar, Solomon R.; Gill, Stephen; Bakker, Isabella
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2011 Português
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Although the resources and knowledge for achieving improved global health exist, a new, critical paradigm on health as an aspect of human development, human security, and human rights is needed. Such a shift is required to sufficiently modify and credibly reduce the present dominance of perverse market forces on global health. New scientific discoveries can make wide-ranging contributions to improved health; however, improved global health depends on achieving greater social justice, economic redistribution, and enhanced democratization of production, caring social institutions for essential health care, education, and other public goods. As with the quest for an HIV vaccine, the challenge of improved global health requires an ambitious multidisciplinary research program.

‣ Making ENDS Meet: Community Networks and Health Promotion Among Blacks in the City of Brotherly Love

Carthon, Margo Brooks
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2011 Português
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This historical inquiry illustrates the power of social networks by examining the Starr Centre and the Whittier Centre, two civic associations that operated in Philadelphia during the early 20th century, a time when Black Americans faced numerous public health threats. Efforts to address those threats included health initiatives forged through collaborative social networks involving civic associations, health professionals, and members of Black communities. Such networks provided access to important resources and served as cornerstones of health promotion activities in many large cities. I trace the origins of these two centers, the development of their programs, their establishment of ties with Black community residents, and the relationship between strong community ties and the development of community health initiatives. Clinicians, researchers, and community health activists can draw on these historical precedents to address contemporary public health concerns by identifying community strengths, leveraging social networks, mobilizing community members, training community leaders, and building partnerships with indigenous community organizations.

‣ Integrating Clinical Practice and Public Health Surveillance Using Electronic Medical Record Systems

Klompas, Michael; McVetta, Jason; Lazarus, Ross; Eggleston, Emma; Haney, Gillian; Kruskal, Benjamin A.; Yih, W. Katherine; Daly, Patricia; Oppedisano, Paul; Beagan, Brianne; Lee, Michael; Kirby, Chaim; Heisey-Grove, Dawn; DeMaria, Alfred; Platt, Richard
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Electronic medical record (EMR) systems have rich potential to improve integration between primary care and the public health system at the point of care. EMRs make it possible for clinicians to contribute timely, clinically detailed surveillance data to public health practitioners without changing their existing workflows or incurring extra work. New surveillance systems can extract raw data from providers’ EMRs, analyze them for conditions of public health interest, and automatically communicate results to health departments. We describe a model EMR-based public health surveillance platform called Electronic Medical Record Support for Public Health (ESP). The ESP platform provides live, automated surveillance for notifiable diseases, influenza-like illness, and diabetes prevalence, care, and complications. Results are automatically transmitted to state health departments.

‣ A New Framework for Childhood Health Promotion: The Role of Policies and Programs in Building Capacity and Foundations of Early Childhood Health

Mistry, Kamila B.; Minkovitz, Cynthia S.; Riley, Anne W.; Johnson, Sara B.; Grason, Holly A.; Dubay, Lisa C.; Guyer, Bernard
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Although the connection between early life experiences and later health is becoming increasingly clear, what is needed, now, is a new organizing framework for childhood health promotion, grounded in the latest science. We review the evidence base to identify the steps in the overall pathway to ensuring better health for all children. A key factor in optimizing health in early childhood is building capacities of parents and communities. Although often overlooked, capacities are integral to building the foundations of lifelong health in early childhood. We outline a framework for policymakers and practitioners to guide future decision-making and investments in early childhood health promotion.

‣ Persons With Disabilities as an Unrecognized Health Disparity Population

Krahn, Gloria L.; Walker, Deborah Klein; Correa-De-Araujo, Rosaly
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Disability is an emerging field within public health; people with significant disabilities account for more than 12% of the US population. Disparity status for this group would allow federal and state governments to actively work to reduce inequities. We summarize the evidence and recommend that observed differences are sufficient to meet the criteria for health disparities: population-level differences in health outcomes that are related to a history of wide-ranging disadvantages, which are avoidable and not primarily caused by the underlying disability. We recommend future research and policy directions to address health inequities for individuals with disabilities; these include improved access to health care and human services, increased data to support decision-making, strengthened health and human services workforce capacity, explicit inclusion of disability in public health programs, and increased emergency preparedness.

‣ The socio-cultural context of health behaviour among Esan communities, Edo State, Nigeria

Omorodion, Francisca Isi
Fonte: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University Publicador: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 37696 bytes; application/pdf
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This paper reports on health beliefs and their influence on treatment decisions and behaviour among the Esan people of mid-west Nigeria. The sources for the study are my own experience of growing up in Esan society, anthropological field work, and focus groups. The research revealed a transitional society where both traditional and modern medicine are employed and where the choice between them is determined by belief systems which are themselves in the process of change, as well as by distance and costs. The traditional health-belief system was one which placed most responsibility and blame upon women, and a system of social control over the adult female population. Changing health beliefs are less the result of the introduction of a new health philosophy than of the retreat, under the impact of Christianity, of traditional religion which embodied the older health philosophy.; no

‣ The pasts and futures of private health insurance in Australia

Quinn, Casey
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 843084 bytes; 349 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
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By 1997 only about 30% of the population in Australia was covered by private health insurance. Using what has been labelled a ‘carrot and stick’ approach, the government implemented three policies to alternatively entice and coerce Australians into joining private health funds. These were the Private Health Insurance Incentives Scheme, the Private Health Insurance Incentives Act 1998 and lifetime community rating. They were of two basic types: financial incentives based upon subsidies and punitive taxation, and ‘equity’ incentives which mitigated premium rating restrictions. At various times prior to and since the implementation of these policies, there has been much and varied prediction of both their impact on demand for private health insurance and the likely result if they had not been implemented. This paper follows up these predictions to determine which if any were borne out, or were likely to be. It also adds to these predictions its own estimates of future membership of health funds now that lifetime community rating has been introduced by using a non-deterministic Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average process. Among the results of the study is the conclusion that, if the long-term decline in membership witnessed in the 1990s resumes...

‣ Health and development: knowledge systems and local practice in rural Thailand

Lyttleton, Chris
Fonte: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University Publicador: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 81331 bytes; application/pdf
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The specific framing of health within a development context has implications for constructions of wellness and illness and how people react in times of ill health. In Thailand, recent national HIV/AIDS education-prevention campaigns commonly use top-down relay of public health information. This pattern replicates numerous development projects that aim to bring useful and beneficial knowledge to rural villagers. How villagers integrate this information depends, in part, on previous experiences with development programs in general and public health programs in particular. This paper considers the political economy of medical knowledge and multiple local health strategies in rural Northeast Thailand as a background to the contingent response to public health directives.; no

‣ Internet access for delivery of health information to South Australians older than 50

Wilson, C.; Flight, I.; Hart, E.; Turnbull, D.; Cole, S.; Young, G.
Fonte: Public Health Assoc Australia Inc Publicador: Public Health Assoc Australia Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 Português
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OBJECTIVE: An exploratory study to determine the proportion of people aged 50-76 years who have Internet access, the location of this access, predictive characteristics of such access, and preparedness to receive unsolicited health information through this medium. METHODS: A random sample of 1,000 South Australians was identified from the Australian Electoral Commission roll and contacted by telephone in 2006. They were invited to answer questions about their access to the Internet and attitude towards receiving unsolicited health information via the Internet. RESULTS: Of those contacted, 41% provided information. Of this group, 59% indicated that they had Internet access, mostly at home. Men were more likely than women to have home access (p<0.05). Higher educational achievement, higher economic status and younger age were all significantly associated with access. Of those who had access, 65% would be willing to receive health information through the Internet. CONCLUSIONS: More than half the population older than 50 years has access to the Internet at some location, and there is a general acceptance of the possibility of receiving health-promoting material via this medium. However, delivery via the Internet alone would disadvantage those who are less educated...

‣ Effect of removing user fees on attendance for curative and preventive primary health care services in rural South Africa

Wilkinson, David; Gouws, Eleanor; Sach, Marlene; Abdool Karim, Salim S.
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2001 Português
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User fees are used to recover costs and discourage unnecessary attendance at primary care clinics in many developing countries. In South Africa, user fees for children aged under 6 years and pregnant women were removed in 1994, and in 1997 all user fees at all primary health care clinics were abolished. The intention of these policy changes was to improve access to health services for previously disadvantaged communities. We investigated the impact of these changes on clinic attendance patterns in Hlabisa health district. Average quarterly new registrations and total attendances for preventive services (antenatal care, immunization, growth monitoring) and curative services (treatment of ailments) at a mobile primary health care unit were studied from 1992 to 1998. Regression analysis was undertaken to assess whether trends were statistically significant. There was a sustained increase in new registrations (P = 0.0001) and total attendances (P = 0.0001) for curative services, and a fall in new registrations (P = 0.01) and total attendances for immunization and growth monitoring (P = 0.0002) over the study period. The upturn in demand for curative services started at the time of the first policy change. The decreases in antenatal registrations (P = 0.07) and attendances (P = 0.09) were not statistically significant. The number of new registrations for immunization and growth monitoring increased following the first policy change but declined thereafter. We found no evidence that the second policy change influenced underlying trends. The removal of user fees improved access to curative services but this may have happened at the expense of some preventive services. Governments should remain vigilant about the effects of new health policies in order to ensure that objectives are being met.; David Wilkinson...

‣ Mental health problems among young people on remand: has anything changed since 1989?

Sawyer, M.; Guidolin, M.; Schulz, K.; McGinnes, B.; Baghurst, P.; Zubrick, S.
Fonte: Public Health Assoc Australia Inc Publicador: Public Health Assoc Australia Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 Português
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Objectives: To determine whether the prevalence of mental health problems among adolescents on court ordered remand in South Australia has changed since 1989. To compare the prevalence of mental health problems reported among adolescents on remand in 1989 and 2008/09 with the prevalence among adolescents in the general community. Method: Mental health problems were identified using the Youth Self-Report (YSR), which was completed by 11-17 year olds on remand in South Australia in 1989 (n=100) and in 2008/09 (n=197), and 13-17 year olds (n=1,283) in the national survey of mental health problems among Australian adolescents conducted in 1998. Results: Although adolescents on remand reported somewhat fewer mental health problems in 2008/09 than were reported in 1989, the prevalence of problems in both groups of adolescents on remand was significantly higher than that reported for adolescents in the general community. Conclusion: Adolescents on remand have a much higher prevalence of mental health problems than other adolescents in the community, with little change evident over the past 20 years. Implications: To reduce the high levels of mental health problems experienced by adolescents on remand, interventions need to provide effective management and treatment both during the time adolescents are on remand and after they return to the general community.; Michael G. Sawyer...

‣ The recent global socioeconomic crisis and its effects on mental health in Portugal

Santos, José Carlos Pereira dos; Cutcliffe, John
Fonte: Mental Health Nurses Publicador: Mental Health Nurses
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/11/2013 Português
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While these data seem to 'paint' a rather bleak picture, it is the view of the authors that this time can be actually be an opportunity for mental health nurses, as periods of economic downturn can be times of innovation for service delivery and dynamic changes in roles and skill mix. Mental health nurses may not realize this, but they are in a primary or pole position to give voice to the quality principle and lead the development of new models of care. Mental health nurses could develop innovative new models of care delivery, and nurses are ideally placed to co-ordinate the delivery of care closer to patients' homes and along care pathways (RCN, 2009). Community care, skill-mix, psychotherapies, e-health-therapy and further research need to be reconsidered to improve the mental health of the population, and perhaps we, as Mental Health Nurses, are in a unique position to contribute to and achieve that.

‣ The health of poor women under welfare reform

Kaplan, G.; Siefert, K.; Ranjit, N.; Raghunathan, T.; Young, E.; Tran, D.; Danziger, S.; Hudson, S.; Lynch, J.; Tolman, R.
Fonte: Amer Public Health Assoc Inc Publicador: Amer Public Health Assoc Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 Português
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Objectives: We compared the health of single mothers affected by welfare reform with the health of a nationally representative sample of women to document the prevalence of poor health as single mothers experience the effects of welfare reform. Methods: We compared risk factors and measures of health among women randomly sampled from the welfare rolls with similar data from a nationally representative sample of women. Results: Women in our welfare recipient sample had higher rates of elevated glycosylated hemoglobin (≥6%; prevalence ratio [PR]=4.87; 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.69, 7.04), hypertension (systole ≥140 or diastole ≥90; PR=2.36; 95% CI=1.47, 3.24), high body mass index (≥30; PR=1.78; 95% CI=1.49, 2.08), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (≤35 mg/dL; PR=1.91; 95% CI=1.17, 2.65); lower peak expiratory flow; and less physical functioning. Current smoking rates were higher (PR=1.85; 95% CI=1.50, 2.19) and smoking cessation rates were lower (PR=0.62; 95% CI=0.37, 0.86) than in the national sample. Conclusions: Current and former welfare recipients bear a substantial burden of illness. Further studies are necessary to interpret our findings of worsened health in the wake of welfare reform.; George A. Kaplan...

‣ Fathers' perception of child health: a case study in a squatter settlement of Karachi, Pakistan

Jahn, Albrecht; Aslam, Asif
Fonte: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University Publicador: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 51467 bytes; application/pdf
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This study looks at child health from a father’s perspective. While the close relationship between children and mothers has been acknowledged, and brought about the concept of Mother and Child Health (MCH), little attention has been paid to the role of fathering. In Pakistan, where the study was undertaken, a high infant and under-five mortality coincides with a low acceptance of MCH services and a tradition of female seclusion, , which severely limits women’s movements in public. Purdah is often cited as an important cause for the low MCH-coverage, indicating an inappropriate design of established MCH-services with its exclusive focus on mothers, and prompting the questions taken up in this study: what is the role of fathers in child health, how do they define child health needs and how do they participate in child care? The study was undertaken in the squatter settlement Orangi in Karachi where the Aga Khan University is involved in a PHC program. A set of qualitative methods was used including key informant interviews, focus group interviews with fathers, group interviews with women and community health workers with a total of 61 informants, and observation of father-child interaction. Apart from their basic role as breadwinners...

‣ Improving antimicrobial use among health workers in first-level facilities: results from the Multi-Country Evaluation of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness strategy

Gouws,Eleanor; Bryce,Jennifer; Habicht,Jean-Pierre; Amaral,João; Pariyo,George; Schellenberg,Joanna Armstrong; Fontaine,Olivier
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2004 Português
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OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the effect of Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) case management training on the use of antimicrobial drugs among health-care workers treating young children at first-level facilities. Antimicrobial drugs are an essential child-survival intervention. Ensuring that children younger than five who need these drugs receive them promptly and correctly can save their lives. Prescribing these drugs only when necessary and ensuring that those who receive them complete the full course can slow the development of antimicrobial resistance. METHODS: Data collected through observation-based surveys in randomly selected first-level health facilities in Brazil, Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania were statistically analysed. The surveys were carried out as part of the multi-country evaluation of IMCI effectiveness, cost and impact (MCE). FINDINGS: Results from three MCE sites show that children receiving care from health workers trained in IMCI are significantly more likely to receive correct prescriptions for antimicrobial drugs than those receiving care from workers not trained in IMCI. They are also more likely to receive the first dose of the drug before leaving the health facility...

‣ Comparison of patient evaluations of health care quality in relation to WHO measures of achievement in 12 European countries

Kerssens,Jan J.; Groenewegen,Peter P.; Sixma,Herman J.; Boerma,Wienke G.W.; Eijk,Ingrid van der
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2004 Português
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OBJECTIVES: To gain insight into similarities and differences in patient evaluations of quality of primary care across 12 European countries and to correlate patient evaluations with WHO health system performance measures (for example, responsiveness) of these countries. METHODS: Patient evaluations were derived from a series of Quote (QUality of care Through patients' Eyes) instruments designed to measure the quality of primary care. Various research groups provided a total sample of 5133 patients from 12 countries: Belarus, Denmark, Finland, Greece, Ireland, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, United Kingdom, and Ukraine. Intraclass correlations of 10 Quote items were calculated to measure differences between countries. The world health report 2000 - Health systems: improving performance performance measures in the same countries were correlated with mean Quote scores. FINDINGS: Intra-class correlation coefficients ranged from low to very high, which indicated little variation between countries in some respects (for example, primary care providers have a good understanding of patients' problems in all countries) and large variation in other respects (for example, with respect to prescription of medication and communication between primary care providers). Most correlations between mean Quote scores per country and WHO performance measures were positive. The highest correlation (0.86) was between the primary care provider's understanding of patients' problems and responsiveness according to WHO. CONCLUSIONS: Patient evaluations of the quality of primary care showed large differences across countries and related positively to WHO's performance measures of health care systems.

‣ Criteria for priority-setting in health care in Uganda: exploration of stakeholders' values

Kapiriri,Lydia; Norheim,Ole Frithjof
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2004 Português
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OBJECTIVE: To explore stakeholders' acceptance of criteria for setting priorities for the health care system in Uganda. METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire was used. It was distributed to health workers, planners and administrators working in all levels of the Ugandan health care system. It was also distributed to members of the public. Participants were asked how strongly they agreed or disagreed with 18 criteria that could be used to set priorities for allocating health care. A total of 408 people took part . Data were entered and analysed using SPSS statistical software. Predetermined cut-off points were used to rank the criteria into three different categories: high weight (>66% of respondents agreed), average weight (33-66% of respondents agreed) and low weight (<33% of respondents agreed). We also tested for associations between respondents' characteristics and their degree of agreement with the criteria. FINDINGS: High-weight criteria included severity of disease, benefit of the intervention, cost of the intervention, cost-effectiveness of the intervention, quality of the data on effectiveness, the patients age, place of residence, lifestyle, importance of providing equity of access to health care and the community's views. The average-weight criteria included the patient's social status...