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‣ Cancer Immunology & Immunotherapy 2008: From Discovery to Development to Drug

Fonte: Academy of Cancer Immunology Publicador: Academy of Cancer Immunology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/12/2008 Português
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‣ Focus on TILs: Prognostic significance of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in human melanoma

Oble, Darryl A.; Loewe, Robert; Yu, Ping; Mihm, Martin C.
Fonte: Academy of Cancer Immunology Publicador: Academy of Cancer Immunology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/04/2009 Português
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Tumors contain variable numbers of lymphocytes, referred to as tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). In melanoma, the intensity of this lymphocytic infiltrate is believed to correlate with outcome, though there is some debate about the applicability of this finding for all melanomas. Much research has gone into classifying TILs with respect to antigen receptor structure and the antigen to which melanoma-specific T cells react. However, these studies for the most part did not immunophenotype TILs, and recent data has revealed that the composition of tumoral lymphocytes is not homogenous, but rather represents varying contributions from many lymphocytic subsets. Furthermore, the function of TILs is often compromised as a result of the accumulation of immunoregulatory cells and various tumor escape mechanisms. These recent insights stress the need to collect more data on the composition and function of TIL infiltrates before definitive conclusions about the prognostic significance of TILs can be drawn. Advances in immunology have also facilitated the development of immunotherapeutic strategies, examples of which will be discussed with a special emphasis on blocking antibodies against CTLA-4, which are prototypical immunotherapeutic agents. This flurry of novel "biological" therapies will undoubtedly complicate our already incomplete understanding of TIL immunobiology as each of these agents has the potential to uniquely distort the series of immunological events which normally occur in untreated melanoma. Therefore...

‣ Involvement of T helper type 17 and regulatory T cell activity in tumour immunology of bladder carcinoma

Chi, L J; Lu, H T; Li, G L; Wang, X M; Su, Y; Xu, W H; Shen, B Z
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2010 Português
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T helper type 17 (Th17) and regulatory T cells (Treg) play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammation and autoimmune disorders. Recent studies have suggested that they also had an impact on tumour immunology. However, the relationship between Th17 and Treg cells in the pathogenesis of bladder carcinoma is still unclear. Flow cytometry was used to analyse the numbers, phenotype and cytokine production of Th17 cells in peripheral blood and tumour tissue from bladder carcinoma patients, in parallel with analysis of Treg cells. The suppressor capacity of Treg and the potential effects of interleukin (IL)-2 on the differentiation of Th17 and Treg cells in vitro were studied in a T cell stimulation and suppression assays. The results were as follows: Th17 cells were enriched in the tumours of patients with bladder carcinoma compared with the peripheral blood of patients and controls; patients with bladder carcinoma had a higher proportion of Treg cells in peripheral blood compared with healthy controls and nearly all patients examined showed a relative enrichment of tumour-infiltrating Treg with respect to peripheral blood; there appeared to be an inverse relationship between tumour-infiltrating Th17 and Treg cells; IL-2 could convert tumour-infiltrating Treg cells cultured in the presence of the autologous irradiated CD3– fraction into Th17 cells...

‣ ADVANCES IN BASIC AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY 2010

Chinen, Javier; Shearer, William T.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/02/2011 Português
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Reports in basic and clinical immunology in 2010 reflected the use of state of the art genetic and immunological tools to characterize the pathogenesis of immunological diseases, and the development of novel therapies directed to these conditions. B cell biology has been explained in greater detail, significantly with lessons from the genetic defects found in the humoral immunodeficiencies. Monoclonal therapeutic antibodies are given for an increasing number of indications, such as anti-CD20 antibodies or Rituximab, which was initially developed for non-Hodgkin lymphomas and is currently used in diverse autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. The report of an infant with severe combined immunodeficiency in Massachusetts detected by newborn screening and successfully treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation validated recent efforts towards newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCID). Improvement of survival outcomes of primary immunodeficiencies patients treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was demonstrated in a large European cohort with significant appreciation of the type of donor graft, particularly the use of HLA-matched unrelated donors for non-SCID patients. Progress in cellular mechanism of drug hypersensitivity included the characterization of nitroso-modified drug metabolites as potent T cell activators and the identification of the relocation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells from blood to skin as a potential risk factor for reactivation of viral disease.

‣ Fetal Cell Microchimerism and Cancer: A Nexus of Reproduction, Immunology and Tumor Biology

Kallenbach, Lisa R.; Johnson, Kirby L.; Bianchi, Diana W.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/01/2011 Português
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Fetal cell microchimerism (FCM) is the persistence of fetal cells in the maternal circulation and organs following pregnancy. Proposed hypotheses regarding the function of fetal cells in the pathogenesis of maternal cancer include promotion of tumorigenesis, protection by providing immunosurveillance, and participation in tissue repair. To date, studies of FCM and cancer have been primarily descriptive and quantitative. More research is needed to understand the cellular phenotype of the microchimeric cells in maternal tumors and whether or not they have a functional role. This will require further study using a multidisciplinary approach, incorporating knowledge of the fetomaternal relationship, tumor biology, immunology, and clinical oncology.

‣ Fundamentals of Vaccine Immunology

Clem, Angela S
Fonte: Medknow Publications Publicador: Medknow Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 Português
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From a literature review of the current literature, this article provides an introduction to vaccine immunology including a primer on the components of the immune system, passive vs. active immunization, the mechanism(s) by which immunizations stimulate(s) immunity, and the types of vaccines available. Both the innate and adaptive immune subsystems are necessary to provide an effective immune response to an immunization. Further, effective immunizations must induce long-term stimulation of both the humoral and cell-mediated arms of the adaptive system by the production of effector cells and memory cells. At least seven different types of vaccines are currently in use or in development that produce this effective immunity and have contributed greatly to the prevention of infectious disease around the world.

‣ EMBO workshop on immunology and metabolism

Staels, Bart; Dombrowicz, David; Grohmann, Ursula
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The EMBO Workshop on Immunology and Metabolism took place in January 2011. The meeting brought together around 100 scientists to discuss interactions between metabolism and inflammation.

‣ The immunology of parasite infections in immunocompromised hosts

Evering, T.; Weiss, L. M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2006 Português
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Immune compromise can modify the severity and manifestation of some parasitic infections. More widespread use of newer immnosuppressive therapies, the growing population of individuals with immunocompromised states as well as the prolonged survival of these patients have altered the pattern of parasitic infection. This review article discusses the burden and immunology of parasitic infections in patients who are immunocompromised secondary to congenital immunodeficiency, malnutrition, malignancy, and immunosuppressive medications. This review does not address the literature on parasitic infections in the setting of HIV-1 infection.

‣ Congratulations are due to Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology Research (AAIR) on being listed in Web of Science (SCIE)

Park, Choon-Sik
Fonte: The Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology; The Korean Academy of Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Disease Publicador: The Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology; The Korean Academy of Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Disease
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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‣ Innovating immunology: an interview with Ruslan Medzhitov

Fonte: The Company of Biologists Limited Publicador: The Company of Biologists Limited
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2011 Português
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Ruslan Medzhitov was inspired to become a researcher in immunology on reading a 1989 paper written by Charles Janeway that outlined a new theory for immune system activation. Just a few years later, having achieved a postdoc position in Janeway’s lab, he carried out the experiments that confirmed the theory, re-igniting interest in the field of innate immunity and launching his own career. Here, he discusses this early discovery and explains what he considers the three most important questions facing immunologists today.

‣ The immunology of stroke: from mechanisms to translation

Iadecola, Costantino; Anrather, Josef
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/07/2011 Português
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Immunity and inflammation are key elements of the pathobiology of stroke, a devastating illness second only to cardiac ischemia as a cause of death worldwide. While the immune system participates in the brain damage produced by ischemia, the damaged brain, in turn, exerts a powerful immunosuppressive effect that promotes fatal intercurrent infections and threatens the survival of stroke patients. Inflammatory signaling is instrumental in all stages of the ischemic cascade, from the early damaging events triggered by arterial occlusion, to the late regenerative processes underlying post-ischemic tissue repair. Recent developments have revealed that stroke, like multiple sclerosis, engages both innate and adaptive immunity. But, unlike multiple sclerosis, adaptive immunity triggered by newly exposed brain antigens does not have an impact on the acute phase of the damage. Nevertheless, modulation of adaptive immunity exerts a remarkable protective effect on the ischemic brain and offers the prospect of new stroke therapies. However, immunomodulation is not devoid of deleterious side effects, and gaining a better understanding of the reciprocal interaction between the immune system and the ischemic brain is essential to harness the full therapeutic potential of the immunology of stroke.

‣ Orthotopic Hind-Limb Transplantation in Rats

Sucher, Robert; Oberhuber, Rupert; Margreiter, Christian; Rumberg, Guido; Jindal, Rishi; Lee, WP Andrew; Margreiter, Raimund; Pratschke, Johann; Schneeberger, Stefan; Brandacher, Gerald
Fonte: MyJove Corporation Publicador: MyJove Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/07/2010 Português
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Composite tissue allotransplantation (CTA) now represents a valid therapeutic option after the loss of a hand, forearm or digits and has become a novel therapeutic entity in reconstructive surgery. However, long term high-dose multi-drug immunosuppressive therapy is required to ensure graft survival, bearing the risk of serious side effects which halters broader application. Further progression in this field may depend on better understanding of basic immunology and ischemia reperfusion injury in composite tissue grafts.

‣ Colon Ascendens Stent Peritonitis (CASP) - a Standardized Model for Polymicrobial Abdominal Sepsis

Traeger, Tobias; Koerner, Pia; Kessler, Wolfram; Cziupka, Katharina; Diedrich, Stephan; Busemann, Alexandra; Heidecke, Claus-Dieter; Maier, Stefan
Fonte: MyJove Corporation Publicador: MyJove Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/12/2010 Português
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Sepsis remains a persistent problem on intensive care units all over the world. Understanding the complex mechanisms of sepsis is the precondition for establishing new therapeutic approaches in this field. Therefore, animal models are required that are able to closely mimic the human disease and also sufficiently deal with scientific questions. The Colon Ascendens Stent Peritonitis (CASP) is a highly standardized model for polymicrobial abdominal sepsis in rodents. In this model, a small stent is surgically inserted into the ascending colon of mice or rats leading to a continuous leakage of intestinal bacteria into the peritoneal cavity. The procedure results in peritonitis, systemic bacteraemia, organ infection by gut bacteria, and systemic but also local release of several pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The lethality of CASP can be controlled by the diameter of the inserted stent. A variant of this model, the so-called CASP with intervention (CASPI), raises opportunity to remove the septic focus by a second operation according to common procedures in clinical practice. CASP is an easily learnable and highly reproducible model that closely mimics the clinical course of abdominal sepsis. It leads way to study on questions in several scientific fields e.g. immunology...

‣ Facilitating the Analysis of Immunological Data with Visual Analytic Techniques

Shih, David C.; Ho, Kevin C.; Melnick, Kyle M.; Rensink, Ronald A.; Kollmann, Tobias R.; Fortuno III, Edgardo S.
Fonte: MyJove Corporation Publicador: MyJove Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/01/2011 Português
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Visual analytics (VA) has emerged as a new way to analyze large dataset through interactive visual display. We demonstrated the utility and the flexibility of a VA approach in the analysis of biological datasets. Examples of these datasets in immunology include flow cytometry, Luminex data, and genotyping (e.g., single nucleotide polymorphism) data. Contrary to the traditional information visualization approach, VA restores the analysis power in the hands of analyst by allowing the analyst to engage in real-time data exploration process. We selected the VA software called Tableau after evaluating several VA tools. Two types of analysis tasks analysis within and between datasets were demonstrated in the video presentation using an approach called paired analysis. Paired analysis, as defined in VA, is an analysis approach in which a VA tool expert works side-by-side with a domain expert during the analysis. The domain expert is the one who understands the significance of the data, and asks the questions that the collected data might address. The tool expert then creates visualizations to help find patterns in the data that might answer these questions. The short lag-time between the hypothesis generation and the rapid visual display of the data is the main advantage of a VA approach.

‣ Retroviral Transduction of T-cell Receptors in Mouse T-cells

Zhong, Shi; Malecek, Karolina; Perez-Garcia, Arianne; Krogsgaard, Michelle
Fonte: MyJove Corporation Publicador: MyJove Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/10/2010 Português
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T-cell receptors (TCRs) play a central role in the immune system. TCRs on T-cell surfaces can specifically recognize peptide antigens presented by antigen presenting cells (APCs)1. This recognition leads to the activation of T-cells and a series of functional outcomes (e.g. cytokine production, killing of the target cells). Understanding the functional role of TCRs is critical to harness the power of the immune system to treat a variety of immunology related diseases (e.g. cancer or autoimmunity).

‣ Immunoglobulin E in health and disease

Amarasekera, M.
Fonte: Asia Pacific Association of Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology Publicador: Asia Pacific Association of Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The discovery of immunoglobulin E (IgE) was a breakthrough in the field of Allergy and Immunology. Our understanding of mechanisms of allergic reactions and the role of IgE in these disorders has paralleled to the discovery of treatment modalities for patients with allergy. Apart from allergic diseases, IgE is involved in pathogenesis of other disorders. Much controversy exists about the control of total IgE (tIgE) levels and allergen-specific IgE (sIgE) profiles in allergic individuals. This review aims at giving a comprehensive overview of IgE molecule and discussing the issues related to its importance in clinical setting.

‣ Immunology of fibrotic lung disease: managing infections whilst preventing autoimmunity?

Hügle, Thomas
Fonte: Dove Medical Press Publicador: Dove Medical Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/02/2011 Português
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Interstitial lung disease (ILD) and lung fibrosis are characterized by different grades of fibrosis and inflammation. Persistent low-grade inflammation is believed to play a major pathogenic role, leading to an imbalance of cytokines, growth factors, and tissue proteinases. Recruited monocytes and macrophages play a pivotal role through their cytokine expression and possibly differentiation into fibrocytes, pericytes, or myofibroblasts. Atypical bacterial infections can cause ILD, although not usually in the form of usual interstitial pneumonia. On the other hand, bacterial colonization is frequently encountered in patients with chronic fibrotic lung disorders, and patients regularly undergo antibacterial treatment. As demonstrated in patients with diffuse panbronchiolitis and other chronic respiratory disorders, treatment with macrolides can be beneficial. This is partly explained by their antimicrobial effects but, for macrolides, immunomodulatory properties have been identified which might also be beneficial in patients with ILD or lung fibrosis. This article reviews the immunology of lung fibrogenesis and putative implications of macrolides for reinstallation of tolerance.

‣ Cancer Immunology - Analysis of Host and Tumor Factors for Personalized Medicine

Ogino, Shuji; Galon, Jérôme; Fuchs, Charles S.; Dranoff, Glenn
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/08/2011 Português
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Cancer is a disease characterized by the uncontrolled cellular growth, invasion and metastasis. Immune cells in the tumor microenvironment have an important role in regulating tumor progression. Stimulating immune reactions to tumors are attractive therapeutic and prevention strategies. Cancer cells and host non-transformed cells constantly interact with each other in the tumor microenvironment. Thus, cancer immunology is an interdisciplinary area where integrated analysis of both host and tumor factors is essential. However, most previous studies on anti-tumor immunity and clinical outcome lack analysis of tumor molecular biomarkers. Because cancer represents a heterogeneous group of diseases with different sets of genetic and epigenetic alterations, molecular classification of cancer (e.g., lung, pancreas, prostate, and breast cancers) has become an important component in clinical decision-making. In this Review, we discuss colorectal cancer as a prototypical example of cancer. Common molecular classifiers of colon cancer include KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA oncogene mutations, microsatellite instability (MSI), LINE-1 methylation, and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP); each feature constitutes a potential prognostic or predictive biomarker. Since tumor molecular features and immune reactions are interrelated...

‣ Congratulations to All are in order, as Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research (AAIR) is going to Change to a Bimonthly Publication From a Quarterly One

Park, Choon-Sik
Fonte: The Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology; The Korean Academy of Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Disease Publicador: The Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology; The Korean Academy of Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Disease
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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‣ Immunology in the Clinic Review Series; focus on allergies: immunotherapy for food allergy

Mousallem, T; Burks, A W
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2012 Português
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OTHER THEMES PUBLISHED IN THIS IMMUNOLOGY IN THE CLINIC REVIEW SERIES