Página 9 dos resultados de 95517 itens digitais encontrados em 0.073 segundos

‣ Relationship between oral cancer and implants: clinical cases and systematic literature review

Jané-Salas, Enrique; López-López, José; Roselló-Llabrés, Xavier; Rodríguez-Argueta, Oscar-Francisco; Chimenos-Küstner, Eduardo
Fonte: Medicina Oral S.L. Publicador: Medicina Oral S.L.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The use of implants for oral rehabilitation of edentulous spaces has recently been on the increase, which has also led to an increase in complications such as peri-implant inflammation or periimplantitis. Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for developing oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Objectives: To review the literature of cases that associate implant placement with the development of oral cancer. Study design: We present two clinical cases and a systematic review of literature published on the relationship between oral cancer and implants. Results: We found 13 articles published between the years 1996 and 2009, referencing 18 cases in which the osseointegrated implants are associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Of those, 6 articles were excluded because they did not meet the inclusion criteria. Of the 18 cases reported, only 7 cases did not present a previous history of oral cancer or cancer in other parts of the body. Conclusions: Based on the review of these cases, a clear cause-effect relationship cannot be established, although it can be deduced that there is a possibility that implant treatment may constitute an irritant and/or inflammatory cofactor which contributes to the formation and/or development of OSCC.

‣ Craniofacial bone abnormalities and malocclusion in individuals with sickle cell anemia: a critical review of the literature

Costa, Cyrene Piazera Silva; de Carvalho, Halinna Larissa Cruz Correia; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca; Sousa, Soraia de Fátima Carvalho
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
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This study aims to critically review the literature in respect to craniofacial bone abnormalities and malocclusion in sickle cell anemia individuals. The Bireme and Pubmed electronic databases were searched using the following keywords: malocclusion, maxillofacial abnormalities, and Angle Class I, Class II and lass III malocclusions combined with sickle cell anemia. The search was limited to publications in English, Spanish or Portuguese with review articles and clinical cases being excluded from this study. Ten scientific publications were identified, of which three were not included as they were review articles. There was a consistent observation of orthodontic and orthopedic variations associated with sickle cell anemia, especially maxillary protrusions. However, convenience sampling, sometimes without any control group, and the lack of estimates of association and hypotheses testing undermined the possibility of causal inferences. It was concluded that despite the high frequency of craniofacial bone abnormalities and malocclusion among patients with sickle cell anemia, there is insufficient scientific proof that this disease causes malocclusion

‣ Iodine intake in human nutrition: a systematic literature review

Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Dahl, Lisbeth
Fonte: Co-Action Publishing Publicador: Co-Action Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/10/2012 Português
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The present literature review is a part of the NNR5 project with the aim of reviewing and updating the scientific basis of the 4th edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) issued in 2004. The main objective of the review is to assess the influence of different intakes of iodine at different life stages (infants, children, adolescents, adults, elderly, and during pregnancy and lactation) in order to estimate the requirement for adequate growth, development, and maintenance of health. The literature search resulted in 1,504 abstracts. Out of those, 168 papers were identified as potentially relevant. Full paper selection resulted in 40 papers that were quality assessed (A, B, or C). The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive, and no conclusion. We found suggestive evidence for improved maternal iodine status and thyroid function by iodine supplementation during pregnancy. Suggestive evidence was found for the relationship between improved thyroid function (used as an indicator of iodine status) during pregnancy and cognitive function in the offspring up to 18 months of age. Moderately to severely iodine-deficient children will probably benefit from iodine supplementation or improved iodine status in order to improve their cognitive function...

‣ Does milk and dairy consumption during pregnancy influence fetal growth and infant birthweight? A systematic literature review

Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Olafsdottir, Anna S.; Forsum, Elisabet; Olsen, Sjurdur F.; Thorsdottir, Inga
Fonte: Co-Action Publishing Publicador: Co-Action Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/11/2012 Português
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It is increasingly acknowledged that the maternal diet influences fetal development and health of the child. Milk and milk products contribute essential nutrients and bioactive substances; they are of ample supply and have a long tradition in Nordic countries. To revise and update dietary guidelines for pregnant women valid in Nordic countries, the Pregnancy and Lactation expert group within the NNR5 project identified a need to systematically review recent scientific data on infant growth measures and maternal milk consumption. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of milk and dairy consumption during pregnancy on fetal growth through a systematic review of studies published between January 2000 and December 2011. A literature search was run in June 2011. Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion from the 495 abstracts according to predefined eligibility criteria. A complementary search in January 2012 revealed 64 additional abstracts published during the period June to December 2011, among them one study of interest previously identified. Of the 33 studies extracted, eight were relevant research papers. Five were prospective cohort studies (including a retrospective chart review), one was a case–control study...

‣ Bolstering the Evidence Base for Integrating Abortion and HIV Care: A Literature Review

Manski, Ruth; Dennis, Amanda; Blanchard, Kelly; Lince, Naomi; Grossman, Dan
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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HIV-positive women have abortions at similar rates to their HIV-negative counterparts, yet little is known about clinical outcomes of abortion for HIV-positive women or the best practices for abortion provision. To fill that gap, we conducted a literature review of clinical outcomes of surgical and medication abortion among HIV-positive women. We identified three studies on clinical outcomes of surgical abortion among HIV-positive women; none showed significant differences in infectious complications by HIV status. A review of seven articles on similar gynecological procedures found no differences in complications by HIV status. No studies evaluated medication abortion among HIV-positive women. However, we did find that previously expressed concerns regarding blood loss and vomiting related to medication abortion for HIV-positive women are unwarranted based on our review of data showing that significant blood loss and vomiting are rare and short lived among women. We conclude that although there is limited research that addresses clinical outcomes of abortion for HIV-positive women, existing data suggest that medication and surgical abortion are safe and appropriate. Sexual and reproductive health and HIV integration efforts must include both options to prevent maternal mortality and morbidity and to ensure that HIV-positive women and women at risk of HIV can make informed reproductive decisions.

‣ A review of breast tomosynthesis. Part II. Image reconstruction, processing and analysis, and advanced applications

Sechopoulos, Ioannis
Fonte: American Association of Physicists in Medicine Publicador: American Association of Physicists in Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Many important post-acquisition aspects of breast tomosynthesis imaging can impact its clinical performance. Chief among them is the reconstruction algorithm that generates the representation of the three-dimensional breast volume from the acquired projections. But even after reconstruction, additional processes, such as artifact reduction algorithms, computer aided detection and diagnosis, among others, can also impact the performance of breast tomosynthesis in the clinical realm. In this two part paper, a review of breast tomosynthesis research is performed, with an emphasis on its medical physics aspects. In the companion paper, the first part of this review, the research performed relevant to the image acquisition process is examined. This second part will review the research on the post-acquisition aspects, including reconstruction, image processing, and analysis, as well as the advanced applications being investigated for breast tomosynthesis.

‣ Adjunctive Therapies to Cerclage for the Prevention of Preterm Birth: A Systematic Review

DeFranco, Emily A.; Valent, Amy Miyoshi; Newman, Tondra; Regan, Jodi; Smith, Jessica; Muglia, Louis J.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The aim of this paper is to provide a thorough summary of published studies that have assessed the efficacy of adjunctive therapies used in addition to cervical cerclage as a preventive measure for preterm birth. We limited our paper to patients treated with cerclage plus an additional prophylactic therapy compared to a reference group of women with cerclage alone. The specific adjunctive therapies included in this systematic review are progesterone, reinforcing or second cerclage placement, tocolytics, antibiotics, bedrest, and pessary. We searched PubMed and Cochrane databases without date criteria with restriction to English language and human studies and performed additional bibliographic review of selected articles and identified 305 total studies for review. Of those, only 12 studies compared the use of an adjunctive therapy with cerclage to a reference group of cerclage alone. None of the 12 were prospective randomized clinical trials. No comparative studies were identified addressing the issues of antibiotics, bedrest, or pessary as adjunctive treatments to cerclage. None of the 12 studies included in this paper demonstrated a clear benefit of any adjunctive therapy used in addition to cerclage over and above cerclage used alone; however...

‣ Breastfeeding, introduction of other foods and effects on health: a systematic literature review for the 5th Nordic Nutrition Recommendations

Hörnell, Agneta; Lagström, Hanna; Lande, Britt; Thorsdottir, Inga
Fonte: Co-Action Publishing Publicador: Co-Action Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/04/2013 Português
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The present systematic literature review is part of the 5th revision of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. The overall aim was to review recent scientific data valid in a Nordic setting on the short- and long-term health effects of breastfeeding (duration of both any and exclusive breastfeeding) and introduction of foods other than breast milk. The initial literature search resulted in 2,011 abstracts; 416 identified as potentially relevant. Full paper review resulted in 60 quality assessed papers (6A, 48B, and 6C). A complementary search found some additional papers. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, limited-suggestive, and limited-no conclusion. The evidence was convincing of a protective dose/duration effect of breastfeeding against overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence, overall infections, acute otitis media, and gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections. The evidence was probable that exclusive breastfeeding for longer than 4 months is associated with slower weight gain during the second half of the first year which could be part of the reason behind the reduced risk of later overweight or obesity. There was also probable evidence that breastfeeding is a protective factor against inflammatory bowel disease...

‣ Major Depressive Disorder and Measures of Cellular Aging: An Integrative Review

Kinser, Patricia Anne; Lyon, Debra E.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects millions of individuals and causes significant suffering worldwide. It has been speculated that MDD is associated with accelerated aging-related biological and functional decline. To examine the accelerated aging hypothesis, one of the biomarkers under study is leukocyte telomeres, and specifically the measure of telomere length and telomerase activity. This review integrates findings from eleven human studies which evaluated telomere length and telomerase activity, in order to synthesize the state of the current science and to inform the development of new knowledge and enhance nursing research of depression using appropriate biobehavioral measures. Although preliminary, the findings from this integrated review suggest that there is evidence to support a conceptualization of depression as a stress-related condition in which telomeres shorten over time in relation to cumulative exposure to the chronic stress of depression. For the purposes of testing in future nursing research, visual representations of the theoretical connection between stress vulnerabilities, depression, and health outcomes and key moderators and mediators involved in this conceptualization are provided. The findings from this review and the conceptual framework provided may be a useful step towards advancing therapeutic nursing interventions for this debilitating chronic condition.

‣ Prognostic Value of the Six-Minute Walk Test in Heart Failure Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: A Literature Review

Zielińska, Dominika; Bellwon, Jerzy; Rynkiewicz, Andrzej; Elkady, Mohamed Amr
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Background. The prognostic value of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is known, but the predictive value of 6MWT in patients with heart failure (HF) and patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is not established yet. Objective. We conducted a systematic review exploring the prognostic value of 6MWT in HF patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The aim was to find out whether the change in the distance walked during follow-up visits was associated with prognosis. Data Source. We searched “PubMed” from January 1990 to December 2012 for any review articles or experimental studies investigating the prognostic value of 6MWT in HF patients and patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Results. 53 studies were included in the review, and they explored the role of 6MWT in cardiology, cardiac surgery, and rehabilitation. The results did not show the relation between the six-minute walk distance and adverse events after CABG. The predictive power of the distance walked for death in HF patients undergoing cardiac surgery was not found. It is not yet proved if the change in the six-minute walk distance is associated with prognosis. The predictive power of the six-minute walk distance for death in HF patients undergoing cardiac surgery remains unclear.

‣ Add-On Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine Bath to Phototherapy for Psoriasis Vulgaris: A Systematic Review

Yu, Jason Jingjie; Zhang, Claire Shuiqing; Zhang, Anthony Lin; May, Brian; Xue, Charlie Changli; Lu, Chuanjian
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Psoriasis vulgaris is the most common form of psoriasis. Phototherapy has been proven effective for psoriasis, but side effects have become a concern. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) bath combined with phototherapy has been used in clinical settings, but the additional benefit requires evaluation. This review aims to evaluate the additional benefit and safety of adding CHM bath to phototherapy for psoriasis vulgaris. Cochrane library, PubMed, Embase, CNKI, and CQVIP were searched from their inceptions to 6 August 2012. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing CHM bath plus phototherapy to phototherapy alone for psoriasis vulgaris were included. Data was analyzed using Review Manager 5.1.0. Thirteen RCTs were included in the review, and eight were included in the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis showed higher efficacy of CHM bath plus phototherapy when compared with phototherapy alone in terms of PASI 60 (RR 1.25; 95% CI: 1.18–1.32). Mild adverse events were reported in ten studies, but these could be alleviated by reducing UV dosage or applying emollient. In conclusion, CHM bath appears to be a beneficial and safe adjunctive therapy to phototherapy for psoriasis vulgaris. However, these results should be interpreted with caution due to the low methodological quality of the included studies.

‣ The Role of Neuropeptides in Suicidal Behavior: A Systematic Review

Serafini, Gianluca; Pompili, Maurizio; Lindqvist, Daniel; Dwivedi, Yogesh; Girardi, Paolo
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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There is a growing evidence that neuropeptides may be involved in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior. A critical review of the literature was conducted to investigate the association between neuropeptides and suicidal behavior. Only articles from peer-reviewed journals were selected for the inclusion in the present review. Twenty-six articles were assessed for eligibility but only 22 studies were included. Most studies have documented an association between suicidality and some neuropeptides such as corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), VGF, cholecystokinin, substance P, and neuropeptide Y (NPY), which have been demonstrated to act as key neuromodulators of emotional processing. Significant differences in neuropeptides levels have been found in those who have attempted or completed suicide compared with healthy controls or those dying from other causes. Despite cross-sectional associations between neuropeptides levels and suicidal behavior, causality may not be inferred. The implications of the mentioned studies were discussed in this review paper.

‣ Complementary and Alternative Medicines Use during Pregnancy: A Systematic Review of Pregnant Women and Healthcare Professional Views and Experiences

Pallivalappila, Abdul Rouf; Stewart, Derek; Shetty, Ashalatha; Pande, Binita; McLay, James S.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Aims. To undertake a systematic review of the recent (2008–2013) primary literature, describing views and experiences of CAM use during pregnancy by women and healthcare professionals. Method. Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Database of Systematic Review Library and Allied, and Complementary Medicine Database were searched. Studies reporting systemic CAM products (homeopathic preparations, herbal medicines, Vitamins and minerals, homeopathy, and special diets) alone or in combination with other nonsystemic CAM modalities (e.g., acupuncture) were included. Results. Database searches retrieved 2,549 citations. Removal of duplicates followed by review of titles and abstracts yielded 32 relevant studies. Twenty-two reported the perspectives of women and their CAM use during pregnancy, while 10 focused on healthcare professionals. The majority of studies had significant flaws in study design and reporting, including a lack of appropriate definitions of CAM and associated modalities, absence of detailed checklists provided to participants, the use of convenience sampling, and a general lack of scientific robustness in terms of data validity and reliability. Conclusion. To permit generalisability of study findings...

‣ The Impact of Sleeve Gastrectomy on Hyperlipidemia: A Systematic Review

Al Khalifa, Khalid; Al Ansari, Ahmed; Alsayed, Abdul Rahim; Violato, Claudio
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Background. Weight loss and reduction in comorbidities can be achieved by longitudinal sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). Existing evidence suggests that LSG resolves or improves hyperlipidemia in morbidly obese patients. The aim of this study was to systematically review the effect of LSG on hyperlipidemia. Methods. A systematic literature search was conducted from English-language studies published from 2000 to 2012 for the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PubMed, Clinical evidence, Scopus, Dara, Web of Sciences, TRIP, Health Technology Database, Cochrane library, and PsycINFO. Results. A total of 4,211 articles were identified in the initial search, and 4,185 articles were excluded based on the exclusion criteria. Twenty-six studies met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review, involving 3,591 patients. The mean preoperative body mass index (BMI) was 48 ± 7.0 kg/m2 (range 37.2–65.3). The mean postoperative BMI was 35 ± 5.9 kg/m2 (range 26.3–49). The mean percentage of excess weight loss (EWL) was 63.1% (range 37.7–84.5), with a mean followup of 19.1 months (range 6–60). The mean levels of pre and post operative cholesterol were 194.4 ± 12.3 mg/dL (range 178–213) and 181 ± 16.3 mg/dL (range 158–200)...

‣ A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis to Assess Patient-Reported Outcomes after Lung Cancer Surgery

Gazala, Sayf; Pelletier, Jean-Sébastien; Storie, Dale; Johnson, Jeffrey A.; Kutsogiannis, Demetrios J.; Bédard, Eric L. R.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/11/2013 Português
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The main objective of this review was to systematically review, assess, and report on the studies that have assessed health related quality of life (HRQOL) after VATS and thoracotomy for resection of lung cancer. We performed a systematic review of six databases. The Downs and Black tool was used to assess the risk of bias. Five studies were included. In general, patients undergoing VATS have a better HRQOL when compared to thoracotomy; however, there was a high risk of bias in the included studies. The consistent use of a lung cancer specific questionnaire for measuring HRQOL after surgery is encouraged.

‣ The retrospective chart review: important methodological considerations

Matt, Vassar; Matthew, Holzmann
Fonte: National Health Personnel Licensing Examination Board of the Republic of Korea Publicador: National Health Personnel Licensing Examination Board of the Republic of Korea
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/11/2013 Português
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In this paper, we review and discuss ten common methodological mistakes found in retrospective chart reviews. The retrospective chart review is a widely applicable research methodology that can be used by healthcare disciplines as a means to direct subsequent prospective investigations. In many cases in this review, we have also provided suggestions or accessible resources that researchers can apply as a “best practices” guide when planning, conducting, or reviewing this investigative method.

‣ A Systematic Review to Investigate Whether Angiotensin-(1-7) Is a Promising Therapeutic Target in Human Heart Failure

Lee, Vincent C. H.; Lloyd, Elizabeth N.; Dearden, Helena C.; Wong, Kenneth
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Context. Heart failure (HF) is a common condition causing much morbidity and mortality despite major advances in pharmacological and device therapies. Preclinical data suggest a cardioprotective role of Angiotensin-(1-7) in animal models of HF. Objective. Perform a systematic review on the effects of Angiotensin-(1-7) on humans, focusing on HF. Results. 39 studies were included in the review (4 in human HF and (35) in non-HF patients). There is only one intervention study on 8 patients with human HF, using Angiotensin-(1-7), with forearm blood flow (FBF) as the endpoint. Angiotensin-(1-7) caused no significant effect on FBF in this HF study but caused vasodilation in 3 out of 4 non-HF studies. In one other non-HF study, Angiotensin-(1-7) infusion led to a significant increase in blood pressure in normal men; however, effects were <0.03% that of angiotensin II. Cardioprotective effects seen in non-HF studies include for instance beneficial actions against atherosclerosis and myocardial fibrosis. Conclusions. The main finding of our systematic review is that Angiotensin-(1-7) plays an important cardioprotective role in HF in animals and in patients without heart failure. More research is required to test the hypothesis that Angiotensin-(1-7) benefits patients with heart failure.

‣ A Review of Adult Obesity Prevalence, Trends, Risk Factors, and Epidemiologic Methods in Kuwait

Karageorgi, Stalo; Alsmadi, Osama; Behbehani, Kazem
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Objective. Kuwait is among the countries with the highest obesity rates worldwide; however, little is known about the state of obesity epidemiology research in Kuwait. In this paper, we therefore review the findings and methodology of studies on the prevalence, trends and risk factors of obesity in Kuwait. Methods. The PubMed database was searched using the keyword combination: obesity and adults and Kuwait. Out of 111 articles, 39 remained after abstract review, and 18 were selected after full-text review. Results. The studies were all cross-sectional and published in the last fifteen years (1997–2012). The sample size ranged from 177 to 38,611 individuals. Only 30% of studies used random sampling. The prevalence (BMI ≥ 30) in studies with a nationally representative sample ranged from 24% to 48% overall and in adults >50 years was greater than 52%. Rates were significantly higher in women than those in men. Studies that examined trends showed an increase in obesity prevalence between 1980 and 2009. Multiple risk factors including sociocultural factors were investigated in the studies; however, factors were only crudely assessed. Conclusion. There is a need for future studies, particularly surveillance surveys and prospective cohort studies utilizing advanced methods...

‣ Differential Effects of Aerobic Exercise, Resistance Training and Combined Exercise Modalities on Cholesterol and the Lipid Profile: Review, Synthesis and Recommendations

Mann, Steven; Beedie, Christopher; Jimenez, Alfonso
Fonte: Springer International Publishing Publicador: Springer International Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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There is a direct relationship between chronically elevated cholesterol levels (dyslipidaemia) and coronary heart disease. A reduction in total cholesterol is considered the gold standard in preventative cardiovascular medicine. Exercise has been shown to have positive impacts on the pathogenesis, symptomatology and physical fitness of individuals with dyslipidaemia, and to reduce cholesterol levels. The optimal mode, frequency, intensity and duration of exercise for improvement of cholesterol levels are, however, yet to be identified. This review assesses the evidence from 13 published investigations and two review articles that have addressed the effects of aerobic exercise, resistance training and combined aerobic and resistance training on cholesterol levels and the lipid profile. The data included in this review confirm the beneficial effects of regular activity on cholesterol levels and describe the impacts of differing volumes and intensities of exercise upon different types of cholesterol. Evidence-based exercise recommendations are presented, aimed at facilitating the prescription and delivery of interventions in order to optimize cholesterol levels.

‣ The timing of surgery in lumbar disc prolapse: A systematic review

Sabnis, Ashutosh B; Diwan, Ashish D
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 Português
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Herniation of nucleus pulposus leading to leg pain is the commonest indication for lumbar spine surgery. However, there is no consensus when to stop conservative treatment and when to consider for surgery. A systematic review of literature was done to find a consensus on the issue of when should surgery be performed for herniation of nucleus pulposus in lumbar spine was conducted. Electronic database searches of Medline, Embase and Pubmed Central were performed to find articles relating to optimum time to operate in patients with herniation of nucleus pulposus in lumbar spine, published between January 1975 and 10 December 2012. The studies were independently screened by two reviewers. Disagreements between reviewers were settled at a consensus meeting. A scoring system based on research design, number of patients at final followup, percentage of patients at final followup, duration of followup, journal impact factor and annual citation index was devised to give weightage to Categorize (A, B or C) each of the articles. Twenty one studies fulfilled the criteria. Six studies were of retrospective design, 13 studies were of Prospective design and two studies were randomized controlled trials. The studies were categorized as: Two articles in category A (highest level of evidence)...