Página 9 dos resultados de 1719 itens digitais encontrados em 0.048 segundos

‣ Corporate involvement in disaster response and recovery : an analysis of the Gujarat Earthquake

Sayegh, Tracy, 1976-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 114 p.; 5050838 bytes; 5050647 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Disaster vulnerability is a serious issue in developing countries where globalization, development patterns, poverty and environmental degradation are placing more people at risk to natural disasters. Recent appeals for greater multi-sectoral collaboration to tackle complex disaster situations have raised the need for private sector participation in disaster management. The private sector is already beginning to play more engaged roles in disaster response and recovery on a voluntary basis, yet limited understanding currently exists about their activities in this area. Given the problem of rising vulnerability to natural disasters and the emergence of increased private sector involvement in disaster activities, this thesis seeks to understand: 1) why firms become involved in disaster response and recovery on voluntary (i.e. philanthropic) terms; and 2) the nature and implementation of corporate initiatives in this context. To illustrate private sector motivations and roles in the disaster response and recovery, the study focused on corporate responses to the Gujarat Earthquake in India in 2001. The research was informed by concepts of corporate social responsibility (CSR). The analysis produced three sets of findings, based on in-depth interviews with national and multinational companies which responded to the Gujarat Earthquake. The research indicates that corporations are motivated to become involved in disaster response and recovery based on six organizational factors: social values...

‣ Management of enterprise-wide Geographic Information Systems implementation : exploration of five case studies; Management of enterprise-wide GIS implementation

Azad, Bizhan
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 323 leaves; 37711857 bytes; 37711614 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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by Bizhan Azad.; Thesis (Ph.D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, February 1999.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 310-323).

‣ Outsourcing, offshoring and the US office market; Outsourcing, offshoring and the United States office market

Topolewski, Tanya M., 1969-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 77 leaves; 227693 bytes; 227486 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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There is intense debate among industry analysts and scholars over potential job losses caused by offshoring. The real estate industry has been grappling to understanding the implications of these numbers, as some have speculated that the projected job losses seem to translate into significantly lower demand for US office space. Professional service firms are major users of office space and these firms are increasingly dependent on IT in nearly every aspect of their business. Due to its technical nature and expense, these industries routinely outsource and/or offshore both major categories of IT work: application services (AO) and business process (BPO). To explore how IT outsourcing and offshoring is affecting the US office market, this work examined three professional services industries: high-tech manufacturing/service and financial services, aggressive adopters of IT, and legal services, a non-aggressive adopter of IT. Through a review of relevant research and structured interviews with eighteen companies, this thesis examined IT outsourcing and offshoring activities with respect to three areas: labor force access, company portfolios and workspace utilization/design. Industry analysts observe that most firms do not yet have global outsourcing strategies in place...

‣ Farm-level bureaucrats in action (and inaction) : the distribution of veterinary services in Laos and Cambodia; Distribution of veterinary services in Laos and Cambodia

Ballard, Brett M
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 142 leaves; 10432615 bytes; 10440389 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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In this study, I analyze several dimensions of the institutional environment that govern contractual exchange between veterinary service providers and farmers in Laos and Cambodia. I hypothesize that the negotiation, implementation, and enforcement of informal service contracts entail economic and social transaction costs that can distort provider incentives, thereby affecting the quantity, quality, and financial sustainability of services over time. I have employed qualitative field research methods to interview service providers, government officials, and farmers about their role in and perceptions of veterinary service delivery. I focus my analytical attention on the community-based service providers as they are the key institutional link between the supply of and demand for veterinary services at the local level. In Laos, I analyze the relationship between the mode of agricultural production within a particular agro- ecological setting and the incentives that motivate Village Veterinary Workers (VVWs) to provide services. I identify five different service-provider types, including citizen vaccinators, barefoot entrepreneurs, special agents, warrior vaccinators, and dormant providers. In Cambodia, I analyze how exchange relationships between government technicians and farmers...

‣ From individual development accounts to community asset building : an exploration in bridging people-and place-based strategies; From IDAs to community asset building

Rice, Solana
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 104 p.; 6376858 bytes; 6382416 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Individual Development Accounts (IDAs) are matched saving accounts for low-income individuals to save for the purchase of an asset. As one of many national initiatives that encourage homeownership, this thesis explores how community-based organizations use this tool in concert with other community development efforts to not only help individuals purchase homes, but also help families maintain the asset. Unlike most research on IDAs, this thesis studies organizations, not individuals, as its unit of analysis because organizational capacity and decision-making greatly shapes the participant experience. Through the study of three community-based organizations that have IDAs as a component of their work, this thesis finds the ability to 1) quickly establish trust through developing relationships and reputation, 2) respond to local housing markets and participant demand, and 3) connect to resources and services puts these organizations at the forefront of using Individual Development Accounts as a versatile economic development tool that is part of a larger agenda of creating communities and neighborhoods that can sustain homeownership.; by Solana Rice.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning...

‣ Corporate adoption and implementation of innovative environmental policy measures in China

Chen, Xixi, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 91 p.
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Since the 1970s, the governments in many countries including China have begun to implement systematic environmental policies aimed at curtailing industrial pollution. During the past three decades, the traditional environmental policies have evolved from simple directives regarding emission limitations into comprehensive packages using various market-based economic instruments, such as taxes and emissions trading. However, with the environmental degradation becoming more and more serious, these traditional approaches have become inadequate. Several innovative measures, including voluntary action, collaborations between stakeholders, and dissemination of information regarding industry behavior, have emerged in recent years in many countries. This study explores how these three innovative measures have been implemented in China. The thesis focuses on how these measures have encouraged private corporations in China to improve their environmental practices. Three case studies are conducted to show how these three policies work to overcome the inefficiencies of the traditional policy approaches.; (cont.) This study also examines the limitations inherent in these measures. Corporate collaborations with environmental non-governmental organizations...

‣ Inner city shopping centers : national development trends and local community impacts

Deora, Amy (Amy Carter)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 104 p.
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Within the past ten years, there has been increasing interest in bringing retail back into inner-city neighborhoods as a commercial revitalization and economic development strategy. In this thesis, a large data set of all US shopping centers is analyzed to examine general trends in shopping center development, as well as trends in inner-city shopping center development over time. This research showed that inner-city centers are fairly similar to those in other parts of the MSA, although they are smaller, denser, and house a slightly different profile of retailers. During the 1980s, shopping center development in the inner city increased along with development in the rest of the metro area. As the overall market for shopping center development declined in the 1990s, inner-city development has declined even more sharply. And, while there is a major trend in the rest of the metropolitan area toward increasing renovation, expansion, and redevelopment of older centers, shopping centers in the inner city are not experiencing this surge of re-investment.; (cont.) This thesis also examines the case for economic development through shopping center development, and explores the local community impacts of shopping center development through brief case studies of three inner-city shopping center projects in Houston...

‣ The hotel as a complementary educational resource : evidence from the lives and careers of hotel employees

Lee, Olivia, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 139 p.
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The identification of alternative venues of learning that provide people with life and professional skills is valuable in societies where educational resources are constrained. To better understand paths of learning not found in the traditional educational system, and the incidental benefits that accrue from those types of learning, this thesis examines the lives and careers of five-star hotel employees. The high-class hotel industry was chosen as an appropriate place in which to locate personal and professional benefits due to the sophisticated training programs offered in the industry and the multi-faceted nature of hotel work, which could potentially provide employees opportunities to gain a diversity of skills. By presenting one case in the hotel industry of a learning process that may be taking place more widely in other industries, the thesis seeks to provide evidence that could help governments more effectively reallocate educational resources. Based on criteria that included hotel type, hotel location, existence of training programs, and cooperation level of hotel employees, two hotels in Seoul, South Korea were selected for the study. Interviews were conducted in both hotels with employees from various departments and levels.; (cont.) Surveys were also distributed to a larger set of employees in both hotels. The findings from the interview responses were categorized into thirteen themes...

‣ Cross-border transfer of climate change mitigation technologies : the case of wind energy from Denmark and Germany to India

Mizuno, Emi, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 434 p.
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This research investigated the causal factors and processes of international development and diffusion of wind energy technology by examining private sector cross-border technology transfer from Denmark and Germany to India between 1990 and 2005. The motivation stemmed from the lack of active private sector participation in transfer of climate change mitigation technologies. Special attentions were paid to the role and effects of: government policy and institutional settings; co-evolution of policy, market, industry, and technology; and industrial competitiveness management. The research found that the centrality of government policy, in particular market value creation/rewarding policy, in successful wind energy technology development and diffusion at the technology frontier of Denmark and Germany. Sources of technological change were complex, but it was the policy-induced substantial market size and performance-oriented demand characteristics that determined the speed and direction of technology development and diffusion. Yet, the change was only materialized by the successful establishment of co-evolving mechanism of policy, market, industry, and technology; again, policy was central in the creation and timely adjustment of such virtuous cycle.; (cont.) The research also found strong connections between technological characteristics/specificity and industrial competitiveness management...

‣ Regional, economic, and environmental effects of traditional and biotechnologically enhanced ethanol production processes in Brazil

Guerrero Compeán, Roberto
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 147 leaves
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Climate change, food security, and energy efficiency have become universal challenges for global economic development and environmental conservation that demand in-depth multidisciplinary research. Biofuels have emerged as a decisive factor in the fight against global warming and air pollution from fossil fuel use, and they can play an important role in the development of poor as well as rich regions. In this work, I investigate the implications of biofuels for regional development in Brazil given its historic experience as an ethanol producer. I compare the environmental and economic impacts of the two predominant ethanol production techniques, in order to understand their effects on output, employment and income and also their potential to reduce the intensity of fossil fuel use and emissions of greenhouse gases. As I focus on a developing country, I also examine the distributional impacts of ethanol technology deployment, in terms of its potential contributions to poverty alleviation and the reduction of regional income inequalities. The production technologies currently used to produce ethanol differ spatially in Brazil, with a biotechnologically enhanced (capital-intensive) technology being used in the Southern regions of the country...

‣ Low-income communities : technological strategies for nurturing community, empowerment and self-sufficiency at a low-income housing development

O'Bryant, Richard Louis, 1964-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 300 p.; 17985606 bytes; 18025592 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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There are a number of historically familiar and unfamiliar forces at work in low-income communities in the United States. Recurrent forces include rapidly changing economic and demographic trends, Welfare Reform, and the increasing demand for affordable housing and a living wage. This thesis, through research-based exploration and observations of a particular information technology transfer project, considers a relatively contemporary concern known as the Digital Divide (U.S. Department of Commerce, 1995, 1997, 1999 & 2000) and examines the impacts that IT may have on low-income residents' ability to address their own challenges. This thesis uses data collected from a two-year longitudinal study, which we called the Camfield Estates-MIT Creating Community Connections Project, in order to address the following question(s): Can personal computing and high-speed Internet access support community building efforts; and can this access to technology empower low-income community residents to do more themselves? We gain insight into the likelihood that residents who have a personal computer and Internet access in their homes will feel a sense of community, will experience an increase in their social contact with others, and will strengthen their social ties. This research also explores whether outcomes gained through in-home computing can promote an increased sense of empowerment and the capacity to independently access relevant information related to a resident's needs...

‣ Towards a global consensus on matters of science : how process and membership can generate valid and sustainable science advice in multilateral environmental treaty negotiations

Kohler, Pia M. (Pia Marili)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 177 p.; 11604933 bytes; 11604696 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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In most multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs), science advisory bodies (SABs) are tasked with producing guidance on scientific aspects of the problem. SABs are a necessary infrastructure of global environmental management because they provide a forum where experts come together to negotiate a consensus on matters of science relevant to a given MEA. This consensus, much more than merely an assessment of available information, creates new knowledge that feeds into decision-making. I propose, that to contribute effectively to implementation, this consensus must be both valid (scientifically accurate) and sustainable (acceptable to stakeholders and not requiring frequent renegotiation). This thesis identifies two institutional design features of an SAB that are crucial for obtaining a valid and sustainable outcome: representative membership, and a transparent and flexible organization of work. A three-tier SAB design is recommended based on these findings, and its theoretical application to the provision of science in the Biodiversity regime is explored. Representative membership describes the individual experts chosen to contribute to an SAB's work. To maximize validity and sustainability, I identify several kinds of diversity which can enhance the validity and sustainability of the SAB outcome...

‣ Technological learning and the evolution of the Indian pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical sectors

Srinivas, Smita
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 227 p.; 12782862 bytes; 12782670 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The Indian pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical sectors have been characterised by three features considered analogous to technological stagnation: low R&D investments, "copying" on-patent drugs (legal in India if a novel process is found) and manufacturing off-patent, generic drugs. Yet, some firms are innovating in drug discovery and development and the total number of firms is among the most numerous and export-oriented in the developing world. This dissertation looks at patterns of technological capabilities using sector-wide indicators and firm-level cases in synthetic and biological pharmaceuticals. Common explanations for the sectoral capabilities are the country's process patent regime. However, a more detailed analysis shows this cannot be the sole cause. Although the patent regime was critical in helping firms develop skills early on, their process capabilities were honed by a variety of selection environments, of which the patent regime was one type. There were at least three distinct selection environments and at least three broad types of associated learning. The findings of external environmental influence and selection do not weaken the importance of national policy, far from it. However, studies that assign explanatory power for the sectors' advance entirely to national patent policies or rational firms miss the significance of the Indian story to date. The research also shows that there is scope for broadening debates on public health medicines to address technological learning opportunities in developing countries.; by Smita Srinivas.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

‣ Empowering communities through comprehensive community-based energy advocacy : assessing energy programs and advocacy in California and New Mexico

Figueroa Aguilar, Roxanne de Lourdes, 1973-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 77 p.; 4679448 bytes; 4679254 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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While energy permeates virtually all facets of our lives, from our pocketbooks to our health, issues regarding energy fail to garner widespread attention until price surges or blackouts impede everyday activities. With higher energy burdens and higher incidences of power plants in their neighborhoods, however, low-income and Latino/communities of color confront significant economic and environmental energy-related challenges on a daily basis. Energy policies not only impact the prices and provision of energy, but also affect the environmental, economic and physical well-being of communities. Sustainable energy policies that embrace renewable energy sources, energy-efficiency and conservation, and low-income energy programs, in conjunction with reliability and affordability issues, can significantly mitigate the environmental and economic energy burdens confronting low-income and communities of color, as well as the community at-large. Yet, community advocates concerned with issues such as sustainable development, housing, health, environmental justice, and economic development, to name but a few, often leave energy policy to the 'experts,' including utilities and regulators, which tend to overlook these issues, particularly with respect to low-income and communities of color.; (cont.) As a result...

‣ Trading zones : cooperating for water resource and ecosystem management when stakeholders have apparently irreconcilable differences

Fuller, Boyd
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2 v. (370 leaves)
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Disputes over the management of water resources in the United States often seem irreconcilable because stakeholders' differences in values, beliefs, and identities are so hard to resolve. Yet, while many efforts to resolve such disputes fail to generate agreement, some do. Looking at these fundamental disagreements about how to manage water, this dissertation attempts to understand why stakeholders in some consensus building processes were able to generate and agree on specific solutions while in other they were not. Two extended disputes about how to manage regional water resources in California and Florida are the focus of this inquiry. In each case, decision-makers convened both collaborative efforts that reached agreement as well as efforts that failed. The findings from this study show that consensus building theory provides some useful explanations for why stakeholders were able to reach agreement in the face of their entrenched value-based differences. The experiences in the two case studies described here show that trading zone theory offers some needed insights that complement consensus building theory's focus on process structure, facilitation, and interest-based problem solving. In the processes that reached agreement in both cases...

‣ The pros and cons of corruption of firm performance : a micro-level study of businesses in Indonesia

Murdaya, Karuna
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 122 p.; 6303834 bytes; 6311164 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Over the past 10 years, different international organization and NGO's have given birth to a whole host of different anti corruption programs in response to the recent "endemic" of corruption which is seen to plague developing countries in the world today. Behind the formation of these new programs is a clear international consensus that corruption, though not a new phenomenon, is one of the main reasons for economic stagnation in much of the developing world. The reasons for this "sudden" realization among the development community are both empirical and political. Empirically, new quantitative studies on corruption have shown that corruption is negatively correlated with GDP growth, foreign direct investment, human development, and the list goes on. Conversely, more corruption, according to some anti corruption actors, kills babies. In light of the main stream literature, this paper seeks to examines the connection between corruption and firm performance in Indonesia, a country which by most accounts is historically one of the most corrupt in Asia, yet has sustained one of highest long term GDP growth rates in the world for almost 30 years. This paper assumes that, rather than being what the World Bank calls a "cancer on development"...

‣ Case studies on Route 1 : how the perceived identity of local commercial strips affects zoning

Pollans, Lily Baum
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 83 p.; 5621625 bytes; 5625291 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Designers, planners, and new urbanists have often argued that highway strips, replete with big box retail and countless strip malls, are essentially placeless. It has also been argued that generic local zoning is largely to blame for existence and persistence of strips. While there may be some truth to these claims, every strip exists within a city, or town, or municipality, and has a unique relationship with that place. This thesis explores Route 1 through Dedham, Saugus and Peabody, MA to highlight that far from being interchangeable landscapes, the Route 1 strip varies from town to town, bearing distinctive marks of each town's approach to controlling it. These cases illustrate that a key variable in how heavily towns will rely on zoning to shape and control strip development is whether or not they view their strip as part of the town rather than as an outside entity. This thesis argues that, while it is true that variation between strip landscapes stems from zoning, the strip formula is not that simple: the way in which the towns write and implement their code derives from the perceived identity of each Route 1 strip, ultimately affecting the appearance of that strip.; by Lily Baum Pollans.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

‣ A rights-based approach to accountability : an exploration of the RBA theory as a mechanism of downward accountability in development and humanitarian NGOs

Bradley Amber S. (Amber Shannon)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 141 p.
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This thesis explores the link between theories of accountability and the rights-based approach in nongovernmental humanitarian and development organizations. It suggests that the rights-based approach (RBA) necessitates a commitment to accountability to the beneficiaries of NGO work. It suggests how the RBA might best incorporate a duty to strengthen accountability to beneficiaries, referred to as "downward accountability." It investigates Oxfam America as a case study and assesses whether Oxfam's RBA meets criteria for strengthening downward accountability and whether this theoretical link is feasible. Overall, this research reveals that Oxfam America literature and staff do not consistently cite a duty to downward accountability as a component of the Oxfam RBA. However, in some cases a duty to downward accountability is implicitly linked to the RBA. Unanticipated findings included that (1) the RBA is vague in terms of how it is operationalized; (2) situational constraints influence the degree to which a project can adopt a rights-based approach; (3) staff expressed confusion about how to implement the RBA; (5) staff seemed motivated to describe projects as being in line with the rights-based approach, even when connection to the RBA was tenuous.; (cont.) I suggest that identified RBA impacts be reframed as guiding questions in order to direct the development...

‣ The development and function of an affordable housing production ecosystem : Harlem, Hew York in the late 1990s and early 2000s

Dookchitra, Ben
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 116 p.
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In late 1990s and early 2000s Harlem, an affordable housing production "ecosystem" comprised of elected officials, city planners, civic advocates, builders, and financial institutions at the local, state, and national level supported a reliable, systematic pipeline of new affordable housing construction. The output of this pipeline included Harlem's first midrise affordable housing construction in thirty years in the late 1990s and, by the early 2000s, over 15,000 units of affordable housing construction starts per year. This thesis seeks to describe the creation and operation of this affordable housing production ecosystem within a framework of "push," "pull," and "safety net" factors influencing the allocation of capital and resources. "Push" factors consisted of the Community Reinvestment Act and Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, the evolution of which led private investment into low-income and minority communities such as Harlem. "Pull" factors included the deeply-experienced, closely-knit network of affordable housing professionals working in Harlem that had the skills and influence to execute projects; and a long-term, comprehensive community development framework, spearheaded by the public sector, that organized affordable housing efforts across the public...

‣ Industrial structure and employment growth in the 1990s in Appalachian counties

Tan, Zhijun (Zhijun Jeanne)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 90 leaves; 5838088 bytes; 5841797 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Employment growth in the 1990s and its relationship with the initial industrial structure in 1990 are examined in the case of Appalachian counties, after controlling for labor-market conditions and other factors, such as labor mobility, natural amenities, and market size. Spatial exploratory data analysis of the competitive employment growth (CEG) in Appalachian region shows that strong spillover effect of CEG exists among 410 counties. Counties with higher employment growth rates are concentrated in the north side of Atlanta Metropolitan area around Interstate highway 1-75. Counties with lower growth rates concentrated in Central Appalachia, along the convergent border of three states, Kentucky, Virginia, and West Virginia. Another low growth rate concentration is in Northeast Pennsylvania. The existence of spatial autocorrelation affects my empirical model's explanatory power, the significance levels, and the values of coefficients of independent variables. There is no specific theoretical base for the county-interacting mechanism of this empirical model, whereas, the magnitude of each independent variable's impact on employment growth depends on the spatial-weight matrixes. To find a better match, I compare the parameters of the model by using two different weight matrixes...