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‣ Temperature-dependent splicing of β-globin pre-mRNA

Gemignani, Federica; Sazani, Peter; Morcos, Paul; Kole, Ryszard
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/11/2002 Português
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A T→G mutation at nucleotide 705 of human β-globin intron 2 creates an aberrant 5′ splice site and activates a cryptic 3′ splice site upstream. In consequence, the pre-mRNA is spliced via aberrant splice sites, despite the presence of the still functional correct sites. Surprisingly, when IVS2-705 HeLa or K562 cells were cultured at temperatures below 30°C, aberrant splicing was inhibited and correct splicing was restored. Similar temperature effects were seen for another β-globin pre-mRNA, IVS2-745, and in a construct in which a β-globin intron was inserted into a coding sequence of EGFP. Temperature-induced alternative splicing was affected by the nature of the internal aberrant splice sites flanking the correct sites and by exonic sequences. The results indicate that in the context of thalassemic splicing mutations and possibly in other alternatively spliced pre-mRNAs, temperature is one of the parameters that affect splice site selection.

‣ Splicing mutations in DMD/BMD detected by RT-PCR/PTT: detection of a 19AA insertion in the cysteine rich domain of dystrophin compatible with BMD.

Roest, P A; Bout, M; van der Tuijn, A C; Ginjaar, I B; Bakker, E; Hogervorst, F B; van Ommen, G J; den Dunnen, J T
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1996 Português
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We have used an RNA based mutation detection method to screen the total coding region of the dystrophin gene of a Duchenne and a Becker muscular dystrophy patient in whom DNA based mutation detection methods have so far failed to detect mutations. By RT-PCR and the protein truncation test (PTT) we could identify point mutations in both cases. DMD patient DL184.3 has a T-->A mutation in intron 59 at position -9, creating a novel splice acceptor site for exon 60. As a result seven intronic bases are spliced into the mRNA, causing a frameshift and premature translation termination 20 codons downstream. Since this patient had died and only fibroblasts were available, we applied MyoD induced myodifferentiation of stored fibroblasts to enhance muscle specific gene expression. With the results of this mutation analysis, prenatal diagnosis could subsequently be performed in this family. BMD patient BL207.1 carries a G-->C mutation at position +5 of intron 64, disrupting the splice donor consensus sequence and activating a cryptic splice donor site 57bp downstream. The inclusion of these 57 intronic bases in the mRNA leaves the reading frame open and results in the insertion of 19 amino acids into the cysteine rich domain of dystrophin. Interestingly...

‣ Functional studies on the ATM intronic splicing processing element

Lewandowska, Marzena A.; Stuani, Cristiana; Parvizpur, Alireza; Baralle, Francisco E.; Pagani, Franco
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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In disease-associated genes, the understanding of the functional significance of deep intronic nucleotide variants may represent a difficult challenge. We have previously reported a new disease-causing mechanism that involves an intronic splicing processing element (ISPE) in ATM, composed of adjacent consensus 5′ and 3′ splice sites. A GTAA deletion within ISPE maintains potential adjacent splice sites, disrupts a non-canonical U1 snRNP interaction and activates an aberrant exon. In this paper, we demonstrate that binding of U1 snRNA through complementarity within a ∼40 nt window downstream of the ISPE prevents aberrant splicing. By selective mutagenesis at the adjacent consensus ISPE splice sites, we show that this effect is not due to a resplicing process occurring at the ISPE. Functional comparison of the ATM mouse counterpart and evaluation of the pre-mRNA splicing intermediates derived from affected cell lines and hybrid minigene assays indicate that U1 snRNP binding at the ISPE interferes with the cryptic acceptor site. Activation of this site results in a stringent 5′–3′ order of intron sequence removal around the cryptic exon. Artificial U1 snRNA loading by complementarity to heterologous exonic sequences represents a potential therapeutic method to prevent the usage of an aberrant CFTR cryptic exon. Our results suggest that ISPE-like intronic elements binding U1 snRNPs may regulate correct intron processing.

‣ Splicing defects in the ataxia-telangiectasia gene, ATM: underlying mutations and consequences.

Teraoka, S N; Telatar, M; Becker-Catania, S; Liang, T; Onengüt, S; Tolun, A; Chessa, L; Sanal, O; Bernatowska, E; Gatti, R A; Concannon, P
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1999 Português
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Mutations resulting in defective splicing constitute a significant proportion (30/62 [48%]) of a new series of mutations in the ATM gene in patients with ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) that were detected by the protein-truncation assay followed by sequence analysis of genomic DNA. Fewer than half of the splicing mutations involved the canonical AG splice-acceptor site or GT splice-donor site. A higher percentage of mutations occurred at less stringently conserved sites, including silent mutations of the last nucleotide of exons, mutations in nucleotides other than the conserved AG and GT in the consensus splice sites, and creation of splice-acceptor or splice-donor sites in either introns or exons. These splicing mutations led to a variety of consequences, including exon skipping and, to a lesser degree, intron retention, activation of cryptic splice sites, or creation of new splice sites. In addition, 5 of 12 nonsense mutations and 1 missense mutation were associated with deletion in the cDNA of the exons in which the mutations occurred. No ATM protein was detected by western blotting in any AT cell line in which splicing mutations were identified. Several cases of exon skipping in both normal controls and patients for whom no underlying defect could be found in genomic DNA were also observed...

‣ Cap-independent translation through the p27 5′-UTR

Jiang, Hong; Coleman, Jennifer; Miskimins, Robin; Srinivasan, Rekha; Miskimins, W. Keith
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Several recent publications have explored cap-independent translation through an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) in the 5′-UTR of the mRNA encoding the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27. The major experimental tool used in these reports was the use of bicistronic reporter constructs in which the 5′-UTR was inserted between the upstream and downstream cistrons. None of these reports has completely ruled out the possibility that the 5′-UTR has either cryptic promoter activity or a cryptic splice acceptor site. Either of these possibilities could result in expression of a monocistronic mRNA encoding the downstream cistron and false identification of an IRES. Indeed, Liu et al. recently published data suggesting that the p27 5′-UTR harbors cryptic promoter activity which accounts for its putative IRES activity. In this report, we have explored this potential problem further using promoterless bicistronic constructs coupled with RNase protection assays, siRNA knockdown of individual cistrons, RT-PCR to detect mRNA encoded by the bicistronic reporter with high sensitivity, direct transfection of bicistronic mRNAs, and insertion of an iron response element into the bicistronic reporter. The results do not support the conclusion that the p27 5′-UTR has significant functional promoter activity or cryptic splice sites...

‣ Alternative splicing attenuates transgenic expression directed by the apolipoprotein E promoter-enhancer based expression vector pLIV11[S]

Cheng, Dongmei; MacArthur, Philip S.; Rong, Shunxing; Parks, John S.; Shelness, Gregory S.
Fonte: The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2010 Português
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The plasmid vector pLIV11 is used commonly to achieve liver-specific expression of genes of interest in transgenic mice and rabbits. Expression is driven by the human apolipoprotein (apo)E 5′ proximal promoter, which includes 5 kb of upstream sequence, exon 1, intron 1, and 5 bp of exon 2. A 3.8 kb 3′ hepatic control region, derived from a region ∼18 kb downstream of the apoE gene, enhances liver-specific expression. Here, we report that cDNA sequences inserted into the multiple cloning site (MCS) of pLIV11, which is positioned just downstream of truncated exon 2, can cause exon 2 skipping. Hence, splicing is displaced to downstream cryptic 3′ splice acceptor sites causing deletion of cloned 5′ untranslated mRNA sequences and, in some cases, deletion of the 5′ end of an open reading frame. To prevent use of cryptic splice sites, the pLIV11 vector was modified with an engineered 3′ splice acceptor site inserted immediately downstream of truncated apoE exon 2. Presence of this sequence fully shifted splicing of exon 1 from the native intron 1–exon 2 splice acceptor site to the engineered site. This finding confirmed that sequences inserted into the MCS of the vector pLIV11 can affect exon 2 recognition and provides a strategy to protect cloned sequences from alternative splicing and possible attenuation of transgenic expression.

‣ Comparative In Vitro and In Silico Analyses of Variants in Splicing Regions of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Genes and Characterization of Novel Pathogenic Mutations

Colombo, Mara; De Vecchi, Giovanna; Caleca, Laura; Foglia, Claudia; Ripamonti, Carla B.; Ficarazzi, Filomena; Barile, Monica; Varesco, Liliana; Peissel, Bernard; Manoukian, Siranoush; Radice, Paolo
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/02/2013 Português
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Several unclassified variants (UVs) have been identified in splicing regions of disease-associated genes and their characterization as pathogenic mutations or benign polymorphisms is crucial for the understanding of their role in disease development. In this study, 24 UVs located at BRCA1 and BRCA2 splice sites were characterized by transcripts analysis. These results were used to evaluate the ability of nine bioinformatics programs in predicting genetic variants causing aberrant splicing (spliceogenic variants) and the nature of aberrant transcripts. Eleven variants in BRCA1 and 8 in BRCA2, including 8 not previously characterized at transcript level, were ascertained to affect mRNA splicing. Of these, 16 led to the synthesis of aberrant transcripts containing premature termination codons (PTCs), 2 to the up-regulation of naturally occurring alternative transcripts containing PTCs, and one to an in-frame deletion within the region coding for the DNA binding domain of BRCA2, causing the loss of the ability to bind the partner protein DSS1 and ssDNA. For each computational program, we evaluated the rate of non-informative analyses, i.e. those that did not recognize the natural splice sites in the wild-type sequence, and the rate of false positive predictions...

‣ Unexpected CEP290 mRNA Splicing in a Humanized Knock-In Mouse Model for Leber Congenital Amaurosis

Garanto, Alejandro; van Beersum, Sylvia E. C.; Peters, Theo A.; Roepman, Ronald; Cremers, Frans P. M.; Collin, Rob W. J.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/11/2013 Português
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Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is the most severe form of retinal dystrophy with an onset in the first year of life. The most frequent genetic cause of LCA, accounting for up to 15% of all LCA cases in Europe and North-America, is a mutation (c.2991+1655AG) in intron 26 of CEP290. This mutation generates a cryptic splice donor site resulting in the insertion of an aberrant exon (exon X) containing a premature stop codon to CEP290 mRNA. In order to study the pathophysiology of the intronic CEP290 mutation, we generated two humanized knock-in mouse models each carrying ~6.3 kb of the human CEP290 gene, either with or without the intronic mutation. Transcriptional characterization of these mouse models revealed an unexpected splice pattern of CEP290 mRNA, especially in the retina. In both models, a new cryptic exon (coined exon Y) was identified in ~5 to 12% of all Cep290 transcripts. This exon Y was expressed in all murine tissues analyzed but not detected in human retina or fibroblasts of LCA patients. In addition, exon x that is characteristic of LCA in humans, was expressed at only very low levels in the retina of the LCA mouse model. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses did not reveal any differences between the two transgenic models and wild-type mice. Together...

‣ Homologous SV40 RNA trans-splicing: A new mechanism for diversification of viral sequences and phenotypes

Eul, Joachim; Patzel, Volker
Fonte: Landes Bioscience Publicador: Landes Bioscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Simian Virus 40 (SV40) is a polyomavirus found in both monkeys and humans, which causes cancer in some animal models. In humans, SV40 has been reported to be associated with cancers but causality has not been proven yet. The transforming activity of SV40 is mainly due to its 94-kD large T antigen, which binds to the retinoblastoma (pRb) and p53 tumor suppressor proteins, and thereby perturbs their functions. Here we describe a 100 kD super T antigen harboring a duplication of the pRB binding domain that was associated with unusual high cell transformation activity and that was generated by a novel mechanism involving homologous RNA trans-splicing of SV40 early transcripts in transformed rodent cells. Enhanced trans-splice activity was observed in clones carrying a single point mutation in the large T antigen 5′ donor splice site (ss). This mutation impaired cis-splicing in favor of an alternative trans-splice reaction via a cryptic 5′ss within a second cis-spliced SV40 pre-mRNA molecule and enabled detectable gene expression. Next to the cryptic 5′ss we identified additional trans-splice helper functions, including putative dimerization domains and a splice enhancer sequence. Our findings suggest RNA trans-splicing as a SV40-intrinsic mechanism that supports the diversification of viral RNA and phenotypes.

‣ Functional Studies of p.R132C, p.R149C, p.M283V, p.E431K, and a Novel c.652-2A>G Mutations of the CYP21A2 Gene

Taboas, Melisa; Gómez Acuña, Luciana; Scaia, María Florencia; Bruque, Carlos D.; Buzzalino, Noemí; Stivel, Mirta; Ceballos, Nora R.; Dain, Liliana
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/03/2014 Português
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Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is the most frequent inborn error of metabolism and accounts for 90–95% of CAH cases. In the present work, we analyzed the functional consequence of four novel previously reported point CYP21A2 mutations -p.R132C, p.R149C, p.M283V, p.E431K- found in Argentinean 21-hydroxylase deficient patients. In addition, we report an acceptor splice site novel point mutation, c.652-2A>G, found in a classical patient in compound heterozygosity with the rare p.R483Q mutation. We performed bioinformatic and functional assays to evaluate the biological implication of the novel mutation. Our analyses revealed that the residual enzymatic activity of the isolated mutants coding for CYP21A2 aminoacidic substitutions was reduced to a lesser than 50% of the wild type with both progesterone and 17-OH progesterone as substrates. Accordingly, all the variants would predict mild non-classical alleles. In one non-classical patient, the p.E431K mutation was found in cis with the p.D322G one. The highest decrease in enzyme activity was obtained when both mutations were assayed in the same construction, with a residual activity most likely related to the simple virilizing form of the disease. For the c.652-2A>G mutation...

‣ Consortium for Osteogenesis Imperfecta Mutations in the Helical Domain of Type I Collagen: Regions Rich in Lethal Mutations Align With Collagen Binding Sites for Integrins and Proteoglycans

Marini, Joan C.; Forlino, Antonella; Cabral, Wayne A.; Barnes, Aileen M.; San Antonio, James D.; Milgrom, Sarah; Hyland, James C.; Körkkö, Jarmo; Prockop, Darwin J.; De Paepe, Anne; Coucke, Paul; Symoens, Sofie; Glorieux, Francis H.; Roughley, Peter J.;
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2007 Português
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Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a generalized disorder of connective tissue characterized by fragile bones and easy susceptibility to fracture. Most cases of OI are caused by mutations in type I collagen. We have identified and assembled structural mutations in type I collagen genes (COL1A1 and COL1A2, encoding the proα1(I) and proα2(I) chains, respectively) that result in OI. Quantitative defects causing type I OI were not included. Of these 832 independent mutations, 682 result in substitution for glycine residues in the triple helical domain of the encoded protein and 150 alter splice sites. Distinct genotype–phenotype relationships emerge for each chain. One-third of the mutations that result in glycine substitutions in α1(I) are lethal, especially when the substituting residues are charged or have a branched side chain. Substitutions in the first 200 residues are nonlethal and have variable outcome thereafter, unrelated to folding or helix stability domains. Two exclusively lethal regions (helix positions 691–823 and 910–964) align with major ligand binding regions (MLBRs), suggesting crucial interactions of collagen monomers or fibrils with integrins, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), fibronectin, and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP). Mutations in COL1A2 are predominantly nonlethal (80%). Lethal substitutions are located in eight regularly spaced clusters along the chain...

‣ Characterization of products derived from self-splicing of intron aI5 alpha which is located in the mitochondrial COX I gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Winter, A J; van der Horst, G; Tabak, H F
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/05/1988 Português
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We have characterized the in vitro self-splicing of intron aI5 alpha containing precursor RNA from the yeast mitochondrial gene coding for cytochrome oxidase subunit I. This intron follows the rules for group I self-splicing introns and all the characteristic products have been identified. In addition we have detected abnormal RNA products with features that indicate that the self-splicing behaviour of this intron is more complex. Two intron circles are formed by use of a major and minor intron-internal site for circle closure. A cryptic 5'-splice site located in the 3' exon results in guanosine nucleotide mediated opening at a position 30 nt downstream of the normal 3' splice site. The reactions can all be explained on the basis of the "splice guide" model proposed by Davies et al (1982 Nature 300 719-724). Although the sequence motifs at cyclization and splice sites occur more often in this intron, only some of them are allowed to interact with the internal guide sequence, suggesting that both primary structure and spatial folding of the RNA are involved in formation of productive reaction sites.

‣ Molecular basis of hereditary C3 deficiency.

Botto, M; Fong, K Y; So, A K; Rudge, A; Walport, M J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1990 Português
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Hereditary deficiency of complement component C3 in a 10-yr-old boy was studied. C3 could not be detected by RIA of serum from the patient. Segregation of C3 S and C3 F allotypes within the family confirmed the presence of a null gene for C3, for which the patient was homozygous. 30 exons have been characterized, spanning the entire beta chain of C3 and the alpha chain as far as the C3d region. Sequence analysis of the exons derived from the C3 null gene showed no abnormalities in the coding sequences. A GT-AT mutation at the 5' donor splice site of the intervening sequence 18 was found in the C3 null gene. Exons 17-21 were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from first-strand cDNA synthesized from mRNA obtained from peripheral blood monocytes stimulated with LPS. This revealed a 61-bp deletion in exon 18, resulting from splicing of a cryptic 5' donor splice site in exon 18 with the normal 3' splice site in exon 19. This deletion leads to a disturbance of the reading frame of the mRNA with a stop codon 17 bp downstream from the abnormal splice in exon 18. His parents had both the normal and abnormal C3 mRNA and were shown to be heterozygous for this mutation by sequence analysis of genomic DNA amplified by PCR. Similar splice mutants have previously been reported in the beta-globin...

‣ The clinical features of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VIIB resulting from a base substitution at the splice acceptor site of intron 5 of the COL1A2 gene.

Carr, A J; Chiodo, A A; Hilton, J M; Chow, C W; Hockey, A; Cole, W G
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1994 Português
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The features of a 32 year old woman with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VIIB and affected members of her family, resulting from a mutation in one COL1A2 allele, were studied. Her dermal type I collagen contained alpha 2(I) chains and mutant pN-alpha 2(I) chains in which the amino-terminal propeptide remained attached to the alpha 2(I) chain. She was heterozygous for an AG-->AC mutation at the splice acceptor site of intron 5 of the COL1A2 gene. The mutation activated a cryptic AG splice acceptor site corresponding to positions +14 and +15 of exon 6 of the COL1A2 gene. In contrast to previous reports only five, rather than all 18, amino acids encoded by exon 6 were deleted in the proband. The deleted peptide removed the amino-proteinase cleavage site, but not the nearby lysine cross linking site in the amino-telopeptide of the alpha 2(I) chain. She was born with bilateral hip dislocations, knee subluxations, and generalised joint hypermobility. Bilateral inguinal herniae and an umbilical hernia were present at birth. Facial features included a depressed nasal bridge with prominent paranasal folds. The skin was soft, moderately hyperelastic, and sagged over the face. Skin fragility and easy bruising were apparent from childhood. Skin wounds healed slowly and with broad...

‣ Comparison of Rous sarcoma virus RNA processing in chicken and mouse fibroblasts: evidence for double-spliced RNA in nonpermissive mouse cells.

Berberich, S L; Macias, M; Zhang, L; Turek, L P; Stoltzfus, C M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1990 Português
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Rous sarcoma virus, an avian retrovirus, transforms but does not replicate in mammalian cells. To determine to what extent differences in RNA splicing might contribute to this lack of productive infection, cloned proviral DNA derived from the Prague A strain of Rous sarcoma virus was transfected into mouse NIH 3T3 cells, and the viral RNA was compared by RNase protection with viral RNA from transfected chicken embryo fibroblasts by using a tandem antisense riboprobe spanning the three major splice sites. The levels of viral RNA in NIH 3T3 cells compared with those in chicken embryo fibroblasts were lower, but the RNA was spliced at increased efficiency. The difference in the ratio of unspliced to spliced RNA levels was not due to the increased lability of unspliced RNA in NIH 3T3 cells. Although chicken embryo fibroblasts contained equal levels of src and env mRNAs, spliced viral mRNAs in NIH 3T3 cells were almost exclusively src. In NIH 3T3 cells the env mRNA was further processed by using a cryptic 5' splice site located within the env coding sequences and the normal src 3' splice site to form a double-spliced mRNA. This mRNA was identical to the src mRNA, except that a 159-nucleotide sequence from the 5' end of the env gene was inserted at the src splice junction. Smaller amounts of single-spliced RNA were also present in which only the region between the cryptic 5' and src 3' splice sites was spliced out. The aberrant processing of the viral env mRNA in NIH 3T3 cells may in part explain the nonpermissiveness of these cells to productive Rous sarcoma virus infection.

‣ Molecular characterization of the 5' end of the rudimentary gene in Drosophila and analysis of three P element insertions.

Zerges, W; Udvardy, A; Schedl, P
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/09/1992 Português
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A detailed analysis of the 5' end of the rudimentary gene of Drosophila melanogaster is presented. Rudimentary transcripts are heterogeneous at their 5' ends indicating that transcription is initiated at multiple sites within a region of approximately 50 bp. These transcription initiation sites are within a region that is preferentially susceptible to nuclease cleavage in isolated nuclei. Additional nuclease hypersensitive regions were found within the first exon and the first intron. Within these internal nuclease hypersensitive regions are the insertion sites for previously identified P element transposons which disrupt rudimentary expression. One of these P element insertions, located in the first intron, is removed from the rudimentary transcript with the splicing of this intron. Another P element insertion, within the first exon, is removed from the rudimentary transcript by novel first intron splicing involving a cryptic splice donor site, located 5' to the insertion, and either the normal acceptor site or a cryptic splice acceptor site within the second exon.

‣ Deep-intronic ATM mutation detected by genomic resequencing and corrected in vitro by antisense morpholino oligonucleotide (AMO)

Cavalieri, Simona; Pozzi, Elisa; Gatti, Richard A; Brusco, Alfredo
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Recent development of next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS) techniques is changing the approach to search for mutations in human genetic diseases. We applied NGS to study an A-T patient in which one of the two expected mutations was not found after DHPLC, cDNA sequencing and MLPA screening. The 160-kb ATM genomic region was divided into 31 partially overlapping fragments of 4–6 kb and amplified by long-range PCR in the patient and mother, who carried the same mutation by segregation. We identified six intronic variants that were shared by the two genomes and not reported in the dbSNP(132) database. Among these, c.1236-405C>T located in IVS11 was predicted to be pathogenic because it affected splicing. This mutation creates a cryptic novel donor (5′) splice site (score 1.00) 405 bp upstream of the exon 12 acceptor (3′) splice site. cDNA analysis showed the inclusion of a 212-bp non-coding ‘pseudoexon' with a premature stop codon. We validated the functional effect of the splicing mutation using a minigene assay. Using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides, designed to mask the cryptic donor splice-site created by the c.1236-405C>T mutation, we abrogated the aberrant splicing product to a wild-type ATM transcript, and in vitro reverted the functional ATM kinase impairment of the patients' lymphoblasts. Resequencing is an effective strategy for identifying rare splicing mutations in patients for whom other mutation analyses have failed (DHPLC...

‣ Identification and characterization by antisense oligonucleotides of exon and intron sequences required for splicing.

Dominski, Z; Kole, R
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1994 Português
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Certain thalassemic human beta-globin pre-mRNAs carry mutations that generate aberrant splice sites and/or activate cryptic splice sites, providing a convenient and clinically relevant system to study splice site selection. Antisense 2'-O-methyl oligoribonucleotides were used to block a number of sequences in these pre-mRNAs and were tested for their ability to inhibit splicing in vitro or to affect the ratio between aberrantly and correctly spliced products. By this approach, it was found that (i) up to 19 nucleotides upstream from the branch point adenosine are involved in proper recognition and functioning of the branch point sequence; (ii) whereas at least 25 nucleotides of exon sequences at both 3' and 5' ends are required for splicing, this requirement does not extend past the 5' splice site sequence of the intron; and (iii) improving the 5' splice site of the internal exon to match the consensus sequence strongly decreases the accessibility of the upstream 3' splice site to antisense 2'-O-methyl oligoribonucleotides. This result most likely reflects changes in the strength of interactions near the 3' splice site in response to improvement of the 5' splice site and further supports the existence of communication between these sites across the exon.

‣ Two modes of c-myb activation in virus-induced mouse myeloid tumors.

Shen-Ong, G L; Morse, H C; Potter, M; Mushinski, J F
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1986 Português
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Two modes of disruption of the protooncogene c-myb by viral insertional mutagenesis in mouse myeloid tumor cells are described. The first mode was found in six tumors in which a Moloney murine leukemia virus component had inserted in the same transcriptional orientation upstream of the 5'-most exon with v-myb homology (vE1). cDNA sequence data indicate the presence of a truncated c-myb mRNA that is initiated in the upstream 5' long terminal repeat of the integrated provirus and processed via a cryptic splice donor sequence in the gag region to the splice acceptor site in vE1 of the c-myb gene, thus removing the remaining downstream viral and myb intronic sequences. Unlike most gag-onc transcripts, the gag and myb sequences in the hybrid transcript were not in the same reading frame. It is presumed that the gag sequence provides a cryptic translation initiation site for the novel amino-truncated c-myb protein. The second mode of disruption was by downstream virus insertion at the 3' side of the c-myb, which results in the synthesis of a small (approximately 2 kilobase) myb transcript. The 5' long terminal repeat of the inserted provirus provides a TGA termination codon that results in the elimination of 240 normal c-myb amino acid residues from the carboxyl terminus of the tumor-specific myb protein. These results suggest that truncated myb proteins play a role in neoplastic transformation of myeloid cells.

‣ Multiple requirements for nematode spliced leader RNP function in trans-splicing.

Denker, J A; Maroney, P A; Yu, Y T; Kanost, R A; Nilsen, T W
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1996 Português
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The 5' exon donor in nematode trans-splicing, the SL RNA, is a small (approximately 100 nt) RNA that resembles cis-spliceosomal U snRNAs. Extensive analyses of the RNA sequence requirements for SL RNA function have revealed four essential elements, the core Sm binding site, three nucleotides immediately downstream of this site, a region of Stem-loop II, and a 5' splice site. Although these elements are necessary and sufficient for SL RNA function in vitro, their respective roles in promoting SL RNA activity have not been elucidated. Furthermore, although it has been shown that assembly of the SL RNA into an Sm RNP is a prerequisite for function, the protein composition of the SL RNP has not been determined. Here, we have used oligoribonucleotide affinity to purify the SL RNP and find that it contains core Sm proteins as well as four specific proteins (175, 40, 30, and 28 kDa). Using in vitro assembly assays; we show that association of the 175- and 30-kDa SL-specific proteins correlates with SL RNP function in trans-splicing. Binding of these proteins depends upon the sequence of the core Sm binding site; SL RNAs containing the U1 snRNA Sm binding site assemble into Sm RNPs that contain core, but not SL-specific proteins. Furthermore...