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‣ Caribbean Regional Electricity Supply Options : Toward Greater Security, Renewables and Resilience

Gerner, Franz; Hansen, Megan
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
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The Caribbean region continues to be plagued by high and volatile fuel prices, with limited economies of scale or diversity in electricity supply. Although several studies have examined alternative resource options for the region, they often only consider solutions for individual countries in isolation. When one looks at the Caribbean, however, it is apparent that the short distances between islands and market sizes present opportunities to benefit from regional solutions. Indeed, increasing interconnection in the Caribbean could pave the way for greater energy security, a larger use of renewable and enhanced climate resilience. The idea of regional interconnections is not new: gas pipelines are widely used to interconnect gas supply with gas demand, and electricity market interconnections have become the norm around the world. However, this option does not appear to have received the attention it merits in the specific context of the Caribbean. While this study analyzes a small subset of the imaginable regional energy options for the Caribbean...

‣ The Impact of Structural Gender Differences and its Consequences on Access to Energy in Rural Bangladesh

Fatema, Naureen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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This report studies the impact that gender differences in Bangladesh have on access to energy and energy services and the consequences of these impacts based on review of recent literature on the matter. The report concludes that the structural gender differences that arise from cultural and religious norms can lead to various impacts in access to energy services which in turn can have long term consequences on women and all these factors must be considered while designing rural energy- gender projects.

‣ Connection Charges and Electricity Access in Sub-Saharan Africa

Golumbeanu, Raluca; Barnes, Douglas
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Sub-Saharan Africa trails other regions in providing access to electricity for poor urban and rural residents. This poor performance can be linked to various factors, including political interference in utility policy, higher investment costs and lower profitability of extending service to rural areas. But a major obstacle to wider access is the high charges consumers must pay to connect to the electricity network. The connection charges in Sub-Saharan Africa are among the highest in the world, which has resulted in low rates of electrification in many countries. This paper reviews ways to improve electrification rates by addressing the issue of high connection charges. Essential to the success of such efforts is concurrent political commitment to identify, examine, and implement various low-cost electrification approaches and financing solutions as part of a broad plan to improve access. Electricity companies can lower their connection-related costs, and thus consumer charges, by using a variety of low-cost technologies and materials in distribution networks and household connections; making bulk purchases of materials; and adjusting technical standards to reflect the lower loads of households that use a minimum amount of electricity. Strategies for lowering connection charges may also include spreading charges over a reasonable period...

‣ International Experience with Open Access to Power Grids : Synthesis Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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Reliable and affordable supply of electricity is a key driver of economic growth. In recent decades, many developing and emerging economies have embarked on efforts to enhance the efficiency of their electricity markets. The quest for efficiency often involves structural reforms such as unbundling and other measures designed to support greater competition in the power sector. Open Access (OA) to Transmission and Distribution (T&D) grids by market participants is an essential element in this reform process. The study has proceeded on two tracks: one based on empirical findings from specific country cases, and a generic one synthesizing the emerging global issues in OA. Reports for the country studies have been prepared for Brazil, Peru, Turkey, India, and the Philippines. In addition, a global review of the experience in a broader group of countries, both developed and developing, has been undertaken. Overall, the study has taken a broad approach to defining OA - going well beyond the minimalist notion of simply guaranteeing legal access to the grid for generators and wholesale buyers.

‣ Improving Energy Access to the Urban Poor in Developing Countries

The Energy and Resources Institute
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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The case studies documented in this report aim to inform the energy access community (including practitioners, civil society groups, project planners, end users) about best practices of successful energy access initiatives targeted at slum dwellers. Eight case studies focusing on electrification and household energy were selected from India, Bangladesh, Colombia and Brazil, all countries that have had varying success in providing access to modern energy services for slum dwellers. The cases had to meet all or some of the following criteria: 1) limited to developing countries; 2) demonstrate innovative methods of improving energy access, including collaborative stakeholder engagement; 3) at least one example of small local energy service providers; 4) contributed to community development by promoting local skill development and income generation; and 5) representative of electricity and different sources of household energy. The case studies describe the existing conditions in the slum, type of energy service provided...

‣ Scaling Up Access to Electricity : The Case of Lighting Africa

Murphy, Daniel; Sharma, Arsh
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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This knowledge note is the first of three case studies that concerns scaling up access to electricity in Africa, Bangladesh, and Rwanda. Lighting Africa, a joint IFC and World Bank program launched in 2007, was the first private-sector-oriented effort to leverage new LED lighting technologies to build sustainable markets that provide safe, affordable, and modern off-grid lighting to communities in Africa that lack access to electricity. By 2030 the program aims to enable the private sector to reach 250 million people who now depend on fuel-based lighting. The case study for Africa is important, because the continent faces a huge rural electricity deficit. Global electrification in 2010 was estimated to be about 83 percent. The deficit of 17 percent encompasses some 1.2 billion people. Achieving universal access to modern energy services is one of the three complementary objectives of the Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) initiative. Lighting Africa succeeded as a catalyst for the off-grid lighting market in Sub-Saharan Africa. Another success is apparent in the spectacular trajectory of solar lantern sales in Kenya. On the climate front...

‣ Planning for Electricity Access

Chattopadhyay, Debabrata; Kitchlu, Rahul; Jordan, Rhonda L.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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This brief examines planning for access to electricity. That electricity for all campaigns around the globe often fall short of their targets is partly a failure of planning. In the area of generation and transmission, technical changes could improve the handling of key constraints, such as fuel availability, funding, and the rate of building. Planning for distribution networks could be improved by gathering data on end-use demand and deploying geospatial tools. Most important of all, the entire planning process from generation to distribution must be better coordinated if access plans are to be successful.

‣ Scaling Up Access to Electricity : Pay-as-You-Go Plans in Off-Grid Energy Services

Moreno, Alejandro; Bareisaite, Asta
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Although the payment models offered by off-grid energy companies are less flexible than those implemented with great success by mobile telephone companies, they may still have an important role to play in scaling up off-grid energy services for billions of people who lack access to electricity. More research is needed to assess the importance of flexible payments in attracting reliable low-income customers.

‣ A Quarter Century Effort Yet to Come of Age

Jamasb, Tooraj; Nepal, Rabindra; Timilsina, Govinda R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
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It has been more than two decades since the widespread initiation of global power sector reforms and restructuring. However, empirical evidence on the intended microeconomic, macroeconomic, and quality-related impacts of reforms across developing countries is lacking. This paper comprehensively reviews the empirical and theoretical literature on the linkages between power sector reforms, economic and technical efficiency, and poverty reduction. The review finds that the extent of power sector reforms has varied across developing countries in terms of changes in market structures, the role of the state, and the regulation of the sector. Overall, the reforms have improved the efficiency and productivity in the sector among many reforming countries. However, the efficiency gains have not always reached the end consumers because of the inability of sector regulators and inadequate regulatory frameworks. Reforms alleviate poverty and promote the welfare of the poor only when the poor have access to electricity. From a policy-making perspective...

‣ World Bank Group Support to Electricity Access, FY2000-2014; An Independent Evaluation

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
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The World Bank Group has committed to achieving universal access to electricity by 2030 under the Sustainable Energy for All (SE4All) initiative. This is a daunting challenge: more than 1 billion people do not have access, and another 1 billion have chronically inadequate or unreliable service. Most of those without access are poor, and the largest share is in Sub-Saharan Africa. Achieving universal access within 15 years for the low-access countries (those with under 50 percent coverage) requires a quantum leap from their present pace of 1.6 million connections per year to 14.6 million per year until 2030. The investment needed would be about $37 billion per year, including erasing generation deficits and meeting demand from economic growth. By comparison, in recent years, low-access countries received an average of $3.6 billion per year for their electricity sectors from public and private sources, including $1.5 billion per year from the World Bank Group. Development outcomes of the Bank Group’s assistance were generally favorable compared with other infrastructure sectors. However...

‣ Scaling Up Access to Electricity : The Case of Rwanda

Baringanire, Paul; Malik, Kabir; Ghosh Banerjee, Sudeshna
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
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This knowledge note is the third of three case studies that concerns scaling up access to electricity in Africa, Bangladesh, and Rwanda. Rwanda s rapid achievements in expanding access to electricity after 2009 were made possible by one of the first applications of a sector-wide approach (SWAp) in the electricity sector. The World Bank played a pivotal role in the operationalization of the SWAp, first by assisting in the formulation of an investment prospectus that laid the groundwork for technical, financial, and implementation planning. The Rwandan experience is instructive for countries considering the adoption of a similar approach, particularly those starting from a low base. Rwanda's experience with electrification is an interesting case of how access to electricity can be quickly scaled up despite deficits in infrastructure and institutional capacity. In all, the SWAp in Rwanda delivered tremendous improvements in electricity access over a relatively short period of time. Although challenges remain...

‣ Kenya : Rural Electrification Access Expansion Study

de Gouvello, Christophe
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
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The Government of Kenya adopted in 2004 an Economic Recovery Strategy for Wealth and Employment Creation (ERSWEC), which recognizes three main pillars for economy recovery namely: (i) strengthening economic growth; (ii) enhancing equity and reducing poverty; and (iii) improving governance. The ERSWEC reiterates that the achievement of the three pillars is dependent on adequate and reliable access to least-cost energy. Since agriculture continues to be the mainstay of Kenya's economy, ensuring adequate access to electricity in rural areas is an important component to achieving the objectives of the ERSWEC. This is confirmed by investigations made by this study regarding specific energy needs for the different sectors of productive and social activities in the rural areas, for agriculture, livestock, fishery, tea and coffee cooperatives, telecommunications, water pumping and health and education services.The Government of Kenya has adopted a National Energy formulated in the Sessional Paper No 4 of 2004 consistent with the ERSWEC...

‣ A New Slant on Slopes : Measuring the Benefits of Increased Electricity Access in Developing Countries

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study
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The objective of this paper is to shed some light on the benefits of improved access to electricity supply, specifically the benefits referred to as, 'consumer's surplus', which is the difference between what customers are willing to pay for the utilities associated with electricity access and the price that they actually pay. The paper leads to several important policy messages for the preparation of investments aiming to increase energy access in developing countries: consumer surplus as the measure for estimating benefits of enlarged access by households to public electricity supply needs to be used with caution; make sure that benefits of increased access to electricity are measured both in terms of gains in consumer surplus and gains in real income from electrification; plan electricity access expansion taking into account that reinforced electricity access may increase consumption of electricity modestly; plan electrification along with accompanying measures to ease access to electricity consuming appliances; and strengthen public data on energy consumption. The paper leads to specific conclusions relative to: the methodology to calculate benefits of increased electricity access; demand patterns for lighting purposes; demand patterns for entertainment and information purposes...

‣ Rwanda - Extending Access to Energy : Lessons from a Sector-Wide Approach

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
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Rwanda is one of the first countries to use a Sector Wide-Approach (SWAp) in the energy sector to increase access to electricity. The SWAp emerged in the 1990s as an alternative to traditional development aid. The SWAp-based on a country-led, results-focused framework-encourages engagement across all sector stakeholders to ensure that investments work together to contribute to desired outcomes. With the assistance of energy sector management assistance program's Africa Renewable Energy Access (AFREA) program. This report provides a number of key lessons realized from the Rwanda energy SWAp for development partners and governments considering using such an approach. Country and government ownership and leadership is essential for efficient program planning and implementation, as is an alignment with national priorities and policies. In 2009, Rwanda initiated a SWAp in the energy sector to help achieve its target of increasing access to electricity from 6 percent of the population to 16 percent over a five-year period...

‣ Introducing Competition into the Electricity Supply Industry in Developing Countries : Lessons from Bolivia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
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This report summarizes the Bolivian power sector reform experience from 1993 until the end of 1999. The reform of Bolivia's electric sector is considered one of the most successful to date. Bolivia opted for both vertical and horizontal separation. Large power company generations units were capitalized; transmission grid and distribution were privatized. Since the capitalization or privatization, there has been a dramatic expansion in generation capacity, and distribution networks are also growing well. However, access to electricity remains limited. The main issues in the sector are now a) privatizing the smaller systems, and b) expanding access in the under-served rural areas. A review will be essential after a few years of implementation. The effect of power sector reform on poverty alleviation will need to be assessed at that point.

‣ Nigeria : Expanding Access to Rural Infrastructure Issues and Options for Rural Electrification, Water Supply and Telecommunications

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
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Over two thirds of Nigeria's population resides in rural areas. Increasingly, poverty in the country is wearing a rural face. From 28.3 percent in 1980, poverty among the rural population grew to 51.4 percent in 1985, has since risen to 69.8 percent in 1996. Poverty tends to affect men and women differently. Women are generally less educated, more vulnerable, deprived and powerless than their male counterparts. 1.2 Poor people experience insecurity and vulnerability (drought, desertification, flooding, deforestation, diseases, volatile commodity markets etc.); lack of empowerment to influence public policies according to their priorities; and lack of opportunities for income generation and benefits from markets. Access to education, safe water supply, sanitation, health, modern energy, telecommunications and roads are important in reducing vulnerability and increasing prosperity.

‣ Togo Energy Sector Policy Review : Review of the Electricity Sub-Sector; Togo - Apercu du sous-secteur de l'electricite

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
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The main objective of this sector work (ESW) is to provide the World Bank and the Government of Togo with a sound basis and proposals for decision-making about the main electricity sub-sector issues facing the country. The ESW therefore assesses the key challenges facing the sub-sector and provides information, analysis and recommendations regarding: 1) the overall energy policy and strategy framework; 2) the institutional and regulatory framework including the necessary reforms within the context of Togo's regional undertakings; 3) the electricity demand and supply balance including access to electricity services; 4) electricity tariffing; 5) the investment program and the financing requirements; and 6) the utility's financial situation and the sub-sector financial outlook. The review also summarizes recommendations addressing the key issues facing Togo's electricity sub-sector. Togo will need to confront several constraints to promote economic recovery and reduce poverty. Weak public sector capacity has become the Government's most pressing challenge and is hampering the country's ability to manage the rapidly expanding portfolio of projects funded by the donors...

‣ One Goal, Two Paths : Achieving Universal Access to Modern Energy in East Asia and the Pacific

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
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The purpose of the current flagship report is to address energy access and related developmental issues in East Asia Pacific (EAP) that so far have received less attention compared to the macro energy issues of climate change and reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. EAP countries have two steep paths to climb to achieve universal access to modern energy: electricity and modern cooking solutions. Approximately 170 million people, or 34 million households, in EAP countries do not have electricity connections in their homes. This number is equivalent to approximately 9 percent of the Region's total population, and 30 percent of the Region's population excluding China. Moreover, approximately 6 times that number, or over 1 billion people, still lack access to modern cooking solutions. In addition, EAP is exceeded by only Sub Saharan Africa and South Asia in the number of people who lack access to electricity. However, access to both electricity and modern cooking solutions is essential to address the enduring impacts of poverty and to move the poor onto a rising development trajectory. The link between access to modern energy and development is most clearly defined by the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). The MDGs were formulated to reduce global poverty while increasing education...

‣ Output-Based Aid in the Philippines : Improving Electricity Supply on Remote Islands

Grewal, Sanjay; Venkataraman, Shobana; Bayking, Julie; Guzman, Alfonso; O'Connor, Seini
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
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The Philippines has introduced an output-based aid (OBA) subsidy scheme to improve electricity supply on remote islands as a way to enhance living standards in the poor communities there. The subsidy, to come from a national fund financed by a surcharge on all electricity users, will be paid to private generators selected through competitive bidding, and disbursed on the basis of the energy they supply. These generators will take over from the government provider, entering into a supply agreement with the cooperatively owned distribution utility on each island. The competitive bidding process should ensure that the costs of supply, and thus the required subsidy, will be lower. That will allow subsidy funds to be used more efficiently, benefiting more communities. The quality of electricity service should also improve. The International Finance Corporation worked with the government to establish a framework ensuring delivery of electricity supply and transparency in subsidy payments. The first transaction...

‣ Scaling Up Access to Electricity; Emerging Best Practices for Mini-Grid Regulation

Greacen, Chris; Nsom, Stephanie; Rysankova, Dana
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
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This brief will focus on enabling regulations for mini-grids, providing an overview of key issues, options, and good practices. While appropriate regulations are not all that is needed to spur mini-grid development, is usually one of the first obstacles that potential developers face and therefore the most urgent issue for governments. The authors draw on a case study of Tanzania, a pioneer in setting an enabling and light-handed regulatory framework for mini-grids. Given the urgency of leveraging private sector investments for reaching the universal access targets of the international sustainable energy for all projects, the authors also focus on regulatory issues relevant to private sector entrepreneurs and investors. Mini-grid entrepreneurs need to know that their investment of time and money will have a reasonable chance not just of being repaid but also of returning a profit. A clear and credible regulatory framework that makes and enforces fair and efficient decisions in a timely manner helps entrepreneurs make informed investment decisions. The key characteristics of such a framework...