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‣ Options to Increase Access to Telecommunications Services in Rural and Low-Income Areas

Muente-Kunigami, Arturo; Navas-Sabater, Juan
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
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Recent evidence suggests that increasing overall service coverage and promoting access to telecommunications services have a high economic benefit. Overall, it is estimated that a ten percent increase in mobile telephony penetration could increase economic growth by 0.81 percent in developing countries, whereas a ten percent increase in broadband penetration could increase economic growth by 1.4 percent. In rural and low-income areas in particular, not only do basic telephony services and broadband access allow population to connect with relatives and friends, but they have also introduced a dramatic increase in productivity and in many cases have become the only way for small and medium enterprises in rural areas to access national and, in some cases, global markets. Moreover, the impact of access to telecommunications in rural areas on health, education, disaster management, and local governments has allowed better and more rapid responses, improved coordination, and more effective public management. It is therefore worthwhile to take a second look at all possible policy options...

‣ The Impact of Structural Gender Differences and its Consequences on Access to Energy in Rural Bangladesh

Fatema, Naureen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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This report studies the impact that gender differences in Bangladesh have on access to energy and energy services and the consequences of these impacts based on review of recent literature on the matter. The report concludes that the structural gender differences that arise from cultural and religious norms can lead to various impacts in access to energy services which in turn can have long term consequences on women and all these factors must be considered while designing rural energy- gender projects.

‣ Sustainable Energy for All 2013-2014 : Global Tracking Framework

World Bank; International Energy Agency
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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In declaring 2012 the international year of sustainable energy for all, the United Nations (UN) general assembly (2011) established at the personal initiative of the UN secretary general- three global objectives to be accomplished by 2030. Those goals are to ensure universal access to modern energy services (including electricity and clean, modern cooking solutions), to double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency, and to double the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix. Some 70 countries have formally embraced the Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) initiative, while numerous corporations and agencies have pledged tens of billions of dollars to achieve its objectives. As 2012 drew to a close, the UN general assembly announced a decade of sustainable energy for all stretching from 2014 to 2024. Sustaining momentum for the achievement of the SE4ALL objectives will require a means of charting global progress over the years leading to 2030. Construction of the necessary framework has been coordinated by the World Bank and Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) and the International Energy Agency (IEA)...

‣ Decentralized Energy Services to Fight Poverty : Outcome Driven Engagement of Small and Medium-size Enterprises in the Provision of Energy Services in IDA Countries

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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The Department for International Development (DFID)-Funded Energy Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) Program was created to support SMEs by helping countries unblock the factors that prevent their potential in the delivery of energy services. With thirteen energy projects in twelve countries and one regional program in Africa, the implementation of the program started considerably slower than expected but has demonstrated potential to make an impact in a relatively neglected area of delivering energy services to the poor. Lack of access to sufficient and sustainable supplies of energy affects as much as 90 percent of the population of many developing countries. Some 2 billion people are without electricity; a similar number remain dependent on fuels such as animal dung, crop residues, wood, and charcoal to cook their daily meals. Widespread inefficient production and use of traditional energy sources, such as fuel-wood and agricultural residues, pose economic, environmental, and health threats. Uneven distribution and use of modern energy sources, such as electricity, petroleum products, and liquefied or compressed natural gas, pose important issues of economics, equity, and quality of life. The Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) Energy SME program focused on off-grid electrification and biomass use as many communities and households that have yet to be electrified are relatively isolated...

‣ Meeting the Energy Needs of the Urban Poor : Lessons from Electrification Practitioners

Rojas, Juan Manuel; Lallement, Dominique
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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The present report was prepared on the basis of the findings of an international workshop held from September 12-14, 2005, in Salvador da Bahia, and was attended by delegations of three to five practitioners from 12 cities in Latin America, Africa and Asia. It had two main objectives: (a) to share experiences on innovative solutions to provide electricity services in poor peri-urban and urban areas; and (b) to develop a body of knowledge to be disseminated and used by a wide array of practitioners involved in the provision of energy services in those areas. One of the most important conclusions of the Bahia workshop was that excluding part of the population from access to energy on account of their poverty, marginalization and the informality of the settlements has enormous long-term social, economic and financial costs. The root cause of the contemporary difficulty in providing electricity and other infrastructure services through public or private utilities is decades of such social exclusion, poverty and marginalization which have led to total distrust between formal structures and consumers...

‣ Improving Energy Access to the Urban Poor in Developing Countries

The Energy and Resources Institute
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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The case studies documented in this report aim to inform the energy access community (including practitioners, civil society groups, project planners, end users) about best practices of successful energy access initiatives targeted at slum dwellers. Eight case studies focusing on electrification and household energy were selected from India, Bangladesh, Colombia and Brazil, all countries that have had varying success in providing access to modern energy services for slum dwellers. The cases had to meet all or some of the following criteria: 1) limited to developing countries; 2) demonstrate innovative methods of improving energy access, including collaborative stakeholder engagement; 3) at least one example of small local energy service providers; 4) contributed to community development by promoting local skill development and income generation; and 5) representative of electricity and different sources of household energy. The case studies describe the existing conditions in the slum, type of energy service provided...

‣ Scaling Up Access to Electricity : The Case of Lighting Africa

Murphy, Daniel; Sharma, Arsh
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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78.1623%
This knowledge note is the first of three case studies that concerns scaling up access to electricity in Africa, Bangladesh, and Rwanda. Lighting Africa, a joint IFC and World Bank program launched in 2007, was the first private-sector-oriented effort to leverage new LED lighting technologies to build sustainable markets that provide safe, affordable, and modern off-grid lighting to communities in Africa that lack access to electricity. By 2030 the program aims to enable the private sector to reach 250 million people who now depend on fuel-based lighting. The case study for Africa is important, because the continent faces a huge rural electricity deficit. Global electrification in 2010 was estimated to be about 83 percent. The deficit of 17 percent encompasses some 1.2 billion people. Achieving universal access to modern energy services is one of the three complementary objectives of the Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) initiative. Lighting Africa succeeded as a catalyst for the off-grid lighting market in Sub-Saharan Africa. Another success is apparent in the spectacular trajectory of solar lantern sales in Kenya. On the climate front...

‣ Tracking Progress Toward Sustainable Energy for All in South Asia

Portale, Elisa; de Wit, Joeri
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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In declaring 2012 the International Year of Sustainable Energy for All, the UN General Assembly established three global objectives to be accomplished by 2030: to ensure universal access to modern energy services,1 to double the 2010 share of renewable energy in the global energy mix, and to double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency relative to the period 1990 2010 (SE4ALL 2012). To sustain momentum for the achievement of the SE4ALL objectives, a means of charting global progress to 2030 is needed. The World Bank and the International Energy Agency led a consor¬tium of 15 international agencies to establish the SE4ALL Global Tracking Framework (GTF), which provides a system for regular global reporting, based on rigorous, yet practical, given available databases, technical measures. This note is based on that frame¬work (World Bank 2014). SE4ALL will publish an updated version of the GTF in 2015.

‣ Energy and poverty: A proposal to harness international law to advance universal access to modern energy services

Bradbrook, A.; Gardam, J.
Fonte: T.M.C. Asser Press Publicador: T.M.C. Asser Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 Português
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Although the Millennium Development Goals, declared by the General Assembly in the Millennium Declaration in 2000, do not refer specifically to energy, in reality none of the goals can be attained without universal access to modern energy services. Recent reports from the United Nations have drawn attention to the link between energy and poverty, and have shown that the access to modern energy services is essential for lifting peoples out of poverty and fundamentally improving their quality of life on an everyday basis.This article examines the nature and magnitude of the situation in less developed states lacking universal access to modern energy services and considers the current, limited national and international law in this area. The article then argues that it is international law that must play the major role in ensuring that universal access to energy services is realized. It considers what type of international instrument might best serve the purpose of achieving progress in improving modern energy services for those in poverty. Finally, the article provides a draft of such an instrument, together with an explanatory commentary, as a prototype of the steps that could be taken by the international community to achieve progress in this area if there is sufficient political will.; Adrian J. Bradbrook and Judith G. Gardam

‣ World Bank Group Support to Electricity Access, FY2000-2014; An Independent Evaluation

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
Português
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The World Bank Group has committed to achieving universal access to electricity by 2030 under the Sustainable Energy for All (SE4All) initiative. This is a daunting challenge: more than 1 billion people do not have access, and another 1 billion have chronically inadequate or unreliable service. Most of those without access are poor, and the largest share is in Sub-Saharan Africa. Achieving universal access within 15 years for the low-access countries (those with under 50 percent coverage) requires a quantum leap from their present pace of 1.6 million connections per year to 14.6 million per year until 2030. The investment needed would be about $37 billion per year, including erasing generation deficits and meeting demand from economic growth. By comparison, in recent years, low-access countries received an average of $3.6 billion per year for their electricity sectors from public and private sources, including $1.5 billion per year from the World Bank Group. Development outcomes of the Bank Group’s assistance were generally favorable compared with other infrastructure sectors. However...

‣ Placing access to energy services within a human rights framework

Bradbrook, A.; Gardam, J.
Fonte: Johns Hopkins Univ Press Publicador: Johns Hopkins Univ Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 Português
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The relevance of energy to resolving environmental degradation and poverty has only recently been recognized by the world community. While energy is a multifaceted issue, the issue that has attracted the most attention has been the need to provide universal access to modern energy services. Without access to energy services, people are destined to live in poverty. The provision of such services is a key ingredient to providing a sustainable way of living for all the world's population. This article first outlines the significance of access to energy services in the poverty debate. Secondly, this article considers what strategies have so far been adopted by states to confront this issue and the difficulties that such initiatives have encountered. Against this background, the final section makes the case for access to energy services as a human right and commences the task of providing a content for such a right.; Adrian J. Bradbrook & Judith G. Gardam

‣ Africa Energy Poverty : G8 Energy Ministers Meeting 2009

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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Worldwide, about 1.6 billion people lack access to electricity services. There are also large populations without access in the poorer countries of Asia and Latin America, as well as in the rural and peri-urban areas of middle income countries. However large-scale electrification programs that is currently underway in middle income countries and the poor countries of Asia will increase household electricity access more rapidly than in sub-Saharan Africa. Africa has the lowest electrification rate of all the regions at 26 percent of households, meaning that as many as 547 million people are without access to electricity. On current trends less than half of African countries will reach universal access to electricity even by 2050. Without access to electricity services, the poor are deprived of opportunities to improve their living standards and the delivery of health and education services is compromised when electricity is not available in clinics, in schools and in the households of students and teachers. The total financing needs for Africa to resolve the power supply crisis are of the order of approximately US$40 billion per annum or 6.4 percent of region's Gross Domestic Product (GDP). In response to the power crisis...

‣ Tracking Progress Toward Sustainable Energy for All in Sub-Saharan Africa

Portale, Elisa; de Wit, Joeri
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
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78.12965%
In declaring 2012 the 'International Year of Sustainable Energy for All,' the UN General Assembly established three global objectives to be accomplished by 2030: to ensure universal access to modern energy services, to double the 2010 share of renewable energy in the global energy mix, and to double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency relative to the period 1990-2010 (SE4ALL 2012). The SE4ALL objectives are global, with individual countries setting their own national targets in a way that is consistent with the overall spirit of the initiative. Because countries differ greatly in their ability to pursue the three objectives, some will make more rapid progress in one area while others will excel elsewhere, depending on their respective starting points and comparative advantages as well as on the resources and support that they are able to marshal. To sustain momentum for the achievement of the SE4ALL objectives, a means of charting global progress to 2030 is needed. The World Bank and the International energy agency led a consor¬tium of 15 international agencies to establish the SE4ALL Global Tracking Framework (GTF)...

‣ Rwanda - Extending Access to Energy : Lessons from a Sector-Wide Approach

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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Rwanda is one of the first countries to use a Sector Wide-Approach (SWAp) in the energy sector to increase access to electricity. The SWAp emerged in the 1990s as an alternative to traditional development aid. The SWAp-based on a country-led, results-focused framework-encourages engagement across all sector stakeholders to ensure that investments work together to contribute to desired outcomes. With the assistance of energy sector management assistance program's Africa Renewable Energy Access (AFREA) program. This report provides a number of key lessons realized from the Rwanda energy SWAp for development partners and governments considering using such an approach. Country and government ownership and leadership is essential for efficient program planning and implementation, as is an alignment with national priorities and policies. In 2009, Rwanda initiated a SWAp in the energy sector to help achieve its target of increasing access to electricity from 6 percent of the population to 16 percent over a five-year period...

‣ Solar-diesel Hybrid Options for the Peruvian Amazon : Lessons Learned from Padre Cocha

Wang, Xianodong; Vallvé, Xavier
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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Seven million Peruvians - 23 percent of the country's population - lack access to modern energy services. Most of these residents are located in the Peruvian Amazon, where 95 percent of people have no electricity supply. In the sparsely populated department of Loreto, Peru's vast northernmost region, more than one-third of residents lack access to energy services which could generate income and foster economic activity.

‣ Latin America and the Caribbean Region Energy Sector : Retrospective Review and Challenges

Byer, Trevor; Crousillat, Enrique; Dussan, Manuel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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78.216064%
During the 90s, most countries in Latin America and the Caribbean Region (LCR) supported by the World Bank, implemented a market-oriented reform in the energy sector to promote competition, economic regulation and greater private sector participation, as the main instruments to improve the quality, reliability and efficiency of energy services, and improve the government's fiscal position and increase affordable access to modern energy services for the poor. This report comprises an assessment of the energy sector reform in the region: its achievements, difficulties, lessons learnt and current status; an assessment of the future needs of the energy sector investment and financing requirements, constraints, and challenges; and a review of the role of development agencies in supporting the region's energy needs. The study is not a systematic analysis of the reform experience and needs of individual countries, which is not deemed necessary to define an energy strategy for the region, but rather an analysis of the main themes that are common to most countries...

‣ Fighting Poverty through Decentralized Renewable Energy : Energy SME Conference, Phnom Penh, Cambodia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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Decentralized energy services remain at the forefront in the fight against poverty. Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) are driving this effort to provide an alternative to state-owned utilities and other large energy providers in poor and developing countries. SMEs allow entrepreneurs to provide alternative energy supply in remote and rural areas while also providing jobs, lowering energy costs, and reducing carbon and other greenhouse gas emissions. The document provided a forum to discuss the specific role of SMEs in the energy sectors of Cambodia and Lao people's democratic Republic and establish a blueprint for SME involvement in alternative energy products and services in other countries.

‣ Energy Access and Productive Uses for the Urban Poor : Final Report on Ghana Scoping Study

The Energy and Resources Institute
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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The aim of the scoping study was to gain an understanding of the productive activities slum dwellers engage in that rely on energy services and the potentials and challenges of slums in Ghana regarding access to modern energy services and income generation from productive activities. The objective of the ESMED-EAfUP (Energy Sector Management Assistance Program - ESMAP/SME Development - Energy Access for the Urban Poor) programme is 'to create and sustain a network of energy practitioners to support development of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) as users and providers of modern energy services for slum upgrading programs.'. Using ability to adopt safer and modern energy forms as a criterion in assessing the effective deployment of safer and modern energy forms, the study concluded that the high propensity to save is an opportunity for their deployment if they can be sensitized about the benefits of using modern energy forms, which many of the slum dwellers are not aware of. Most enterprise owners could also capitalize on the credit policies of the financial institutions they saved with to adopt the modern energy forms. Lack of education and limited awareness about the benefits of using clean...

‣ Household Energy Access for Cooking and Heating : Lessons Learned and the Way Forward

Ekouevi, Koffi; Tuntivate, Voravate
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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78.221567%
Half of humanity about 3 billion people are still relying on solid fuels for cooking and heating. Of that, about 2.5 billion people depend on traditional biomass fuels (wood, charcoal, agricultural waste, and animal dung), while about 400 million people use coal as their primary cooking and heating fuel (UNDP and WHO 2009). The majority of the population relying on solid fuels lives in Sub-Saharan Africa and in South Asia. In some countries in Central America and in East Asia and the Pacific, the use of solid fuels is also significant. The inefficient and unsustainable production and use of these fuels result in a significant public health hazard, as well as negative environmental impacts that keep people in poverty. Strategies to improve energy access to the poor have focused mainly on electricity access. They have often neglected non electricity household energy access. It is, however, estimated that about 2.8 billion people will still depend on fuel wood for cooking and heating in 2030 in a business-as-usual modus operandi (IEA 2010). The need for urgent interventions at the household level to provide alternative energy services to help improve livelihoods is becoming more and more accepted. This report's main objective is to conduct a review of the World Bank's financed operations and selected interventions by other institutions on household energy access in an attempt to examine success and failure factors to inform the new generation of upcoming interventions. First...

‣ Liberalization and Universal Access to Basic Services : Telecommunications, Water and Sanitation, Financial Services, and Electricity

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; World Bank
Fonte: OECD and the World Bank, Paris Publicador: OECD and the World Bank, Paris
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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Access to basic services plays an important role in both individual well-being and a country's economic development. For this reason, general availability of these services to citizens, regardless of income level and geographical location, has generally been viewed as an important public policy goal. However, the precise definition of this goal and the means of attaining it have provoked controversy. This volume explores whether liberalization can contribute to achieving universal service goals and, if so, how, and looks at the types of complementary policies that may be required. It focuses on experience in four sectors: telecommunications, financial, water and sanitation, and energy services. For each sector, an overview paper and one or two case studies from developing countries examine the experience of governments in harnessing liberalization to meet social goals. It is hoped that this cross-sector view will yield general insights which a focus on a single sector may not, and help each sector to generate ideas by drawing upon experience in other sectors. A horizontal assessment also helps to determine how far the services negotiations at the World Trade Organization (WTO)...