O início do processo de projeto de arquitetura no caso de residências unifamiliares é frequentemente subestimado pelos projetistas. Nem por isso o projeto é menos complexo. Quando a situação de projeto envolve uma reforma residencial, especialmente uma em que os moradores passam por período de adaptação a uma nova condição física de algum dos membros, como casos de deficiências adquiridas, as variáveis desse projeto aumentam consideravelmente inserir exemplos. Deve-se prever, além da acessibilidade plena dos moradores, também a recuperação de seus laços afetivos com a casa. O objetivo deste estudo foi, utilizando-se de uma metodologia de estudo de caso, discutir os desafios vividos pelo usuário e pelo arquiteto no período inicial do projeto. Pretende-se iluminar princípios, do ponto de vista do sujeito que passa a viver a situação da falta de acesso aos espaços de sua própria casa, que possam subsidiar o desenvolvimento de metodologias de trabalho para projetistas. Este trabalho faz uma breve contextualização histórica acerca dos movimentos de lutas e conquistas dos direitos das pessoas com deficiência no Brasil e no mundo. Apresenta um paralelo entre as legislações brasileira e internacional para a acessibilidade no ambiente construído...
The method of tritium planigraphy, which provides comprehensive information on the accessible surface of macromolecules, allows an attempt at reconstructing the three-dimensional structure of a protein from the experimental data on residue accessibility for labeling. The semiempirical algorithm proposed for globular proteins involves (i) predicting theoretically the secondary structure elements (SSEs), (ii) experimentally determining the residue-accessibility profile by bombarding the whole protein with a beam of hot tritium atoms, (iii) generating the residue-accessibility profiles for isolated SSEs by computer simulation, (iv) locating the contacts between SSEs by collating the experimental and simulated accessibility profiles, and (v) assembling the SSEs into a compact model via these contact regions in accordance with certain rules. For sperm whale myoglobin, carp and pike parvalbumins, the λ cro repressor, and hen egg lysozyme, this algorithm yields the most realistic models when SSEs are assembled sequentially from the amino to the carboxyl end of the protein chain.
The Internet has created new opportunities for librarians to develop information systems that are readily accessible at the point of care. This paper describes the multiyear process used to justify, fund, design, develop, promote, and evaluate a rehabilitation prototype of a point-of-care, team-based information system (PoinTIS) and train health care providers to use this prototype for their spinal cord injury and traumatic brain injury patient care and education activities. PoinTIS is a successful model for librarians in the twenty-first century to serve as publishers of information created or used by their parent organizations and to respond to the opportunities for information dissemination provided by recent technological advances.
Semi-random libraries of DNA 6mers and RNase H digestion were applied to search for sites accessible to hybridization on the genomic and antigenomic HDV ribozymes and their 3′ truncated derivatives. An approach was proposed to correlate the cleavage sites and most likely sequences of oligomers, members of the oligonucleotide libraries, which were engaged in the formation of RNA–DNA hybrids. The predicted positions of oligomers hybridizing to the genomic ribozyme were compared with the fold of polynucleotide chain in the ribozyme crystal structure. The data exemplified the crucial role of target RNA structural features in the binding of antisense oligonucleotides. It turned out that cleavages were induced if the bound oligomer could adapt an ordered helical conformation even when it required partial penetration of an adjacent double-stranded region. The major features of RNA structure disfavoring hybridization and/or RNase H hydrolysis were sharp turns of the polynucleotide chain and breaks in stacking interactions of bases. Based on the predicted positions of oligomers hybridizing to the antigenomic ribozyme we chose and synthesized four antisense DNA 6mers which were shown to direct hydrolysis in the desired, earlier predicted regions of the molecule.
Protein folding in the cell involves the action of different molecular chaperones and folding-facilitating enzymes. In the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the folding status of glycoproteins is stringently controlled by a glucosyltranferase enzyme (GT) that creates monoglucosylated structures recognized by ER resident lectins (calnexin/calreticulin, CNX/CRT). GT serves as a folding sensor because it only glucosylates misfolded or partly folded glycoproteins. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism behind this recognition process remains largely unknown. In this paper we explore the structural determinants for GT recognition by using a single domain model protein. For this purpose we used a family of chemically glycosylated proteins derived from chymotrypsin inhibitor-2 as GT substrates. Structural characterization of species showing higher glucose acceptor capacity suggests that GT recognizes solvent accessible hydrophobic patches in molten globule-like conformers mimicking intermediate folding stages of nascent glycoproteins. It was further confirmed that BiP (binding protein, a chaperone of the heat shock protein 70 family) preferentially recognized neoglycoproteins displaying extended conformations, thus providing a molecular rationale for the sequential BiP-CNX/CRT interaction with folding glycoproteins observed in vivo.
Antisense oligonucleotides can vary significantly and unpredictably in their ability to inhibit protein synthesis. Libraries of chimeric oligonucleotides and RNase H were used to cleave and thereby locate sites on human multidrug resistance-1 RNA transcripts that are relatively accessible to oligonucleotide hybridization. In cell culture, antisense sequences designed to target these sites were significantly more active than oligonucleotides selected at random. This methodology should be generally useful for identification of potent antisense sequences. Correlation between oligonucleotide activity in the cell culture assay and in an in vitro RNase H assay supports the proposed role of the enzyme in the mechanism of antisense suppression in the cell.
POPS (Parameter OPtimsed Surfaces) is a new method to calculate solvent accessible surface areas, which is based on an empirically parameterisable analytical formula and fast to compute. Atomic and residue areas (the latter represented by a single sphere centered on the Cα atom of amino acids and at the P atom of nucleotides) have been optimised versus accurate all-atom methods. The parameterisation has been derived from a selected dataset of proteins and nucleic acids of different sizes and topologies. The residue based approach POPS-R, has been devised as a useful tool for the analysis of large macromolecular assemblies like the ribosome and it is specially suited for the refinement of low resolution structures. POPS-R also allows for estimates of the loss of free energy of solvation upon complex formation, which should be particularly useful for the design of new protein–protein and protein–nucleic acid complexes. The program POPS is available at http://mathbio.nimr.mrc.ac.uk/~ffranca/POPS and at the mirror site http://www.cs.vu.nl/~ibivu/programs/popswww.
The ATP-hydrolyzing subunit MalK of the ATP-binding cassette transporter for maltose of Escherichia coli is demonstrated to be accessible to digestion by proteinase K in right-side-out membrane vesicles. This finding suggests a partial transmembrane orientation of the protein.
Tomato agar and soybean agar were found to be comparable to or in some cases better than the popular V8 vegetable juice agar in supporting linear growth of Phytophthora cactorum, Phytophthora capsici, Phytophthora parasitica, Pythium aphanidermatum, and Pythium splendens; sporangium production of P. capsici, P. palmivora, and Pythium splendens; and oospore formation of P. cactorum, P. parasitica, Pythium aphanidermatum and Pythium splendens. These two media with readily accessible ingredients can be used to substitute for V8 juice agar in pathological and physiological studies of these two important groups of fungi in countries where V8 vegetable juice is not available or difficult to obtain.
The accessibility of specific sequences in domain V of E. coli 23s rRNA in the 50S subunit to complementary oligodeoxyribonucleotides (cDNA) has been investigated. The apparent percentage of subunits engaged in complex formation was determined by incubation of radiolabeled cDNA probe with 50S subunits, followed by nitrocellulose membrane filtration of the reaction mixtures and measurement of the bound radiolabeled cDNA probes by liquid scintillation counting of the filters. The site(s) of hybridization were determined by digestion of the RNA in the RNA/DNA heteroduplex by RNase H. The results of this study indicated that single-stranded sequences, 2058-2062, 2448-2454, 2467-2483, and 2497-2505 were available for hybridization to cDNA probes. Bases 2489-2496, which have been postulated to be base paired with 2455-2461 were also accessible for hybridization.
Antibodies (Abs) against the V3 loop of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein were initially considered to mediate only type-specific neutralization of T-cell-line-adapted viruses. However, recent data show that cross-neutralizing V3 Abs also exist, and primary isolates can be efficiently neutralized with anti-V3 monoclonal Abs (MAbs). The neutralizing activities of anti-V3 polyclonal Abs and MAbs may, however, be limited due to antigenic variations of the V3 region, a lack of V3 exposure on the surface of intact virions, or Ab specificity. For clarification of this issue, a panel of 32 human anti-V3 MAbs were screened for neutralization of an SF162-pseudotyped virus in a luciferase assay. MAbs selected with a V3 fusion protein whose V3 region mimics the conformation of the native virus were significantly more potent than MAbs selected with V3 peptides. Seven MAbs were further tested for neutralizing activity against 13 clade B viruses in a single-round peripheral blood mononuclear cell assay. While there was a spectrum of virus sensitivities to the anti-V3 MAbs observed, 12 of the 13 viruses were neutralized by one or more of the anti-V3 MAbs. MAb binding to intact virions correlated significantly with binding to solubilized gp120s and with the potency of neutralization. These results demonstrate that the V3 loop is accessible on the native virus envelope...
Previous studies evaluating the mechanism of renal HCO-3 reabsorption have assumed equilibrium between systemic arterial blood and tubular fluid PCO2. We have recently reported that the PCO2 in proximal and distal tubular fluid as well as the stellate vessel significantly exceeded arterial PCO2 by 25.9 +/- 0.92 mm Hg. The purpose of this study was to determine directly, for the first time, pH, PCO1, and total CO2 concentration in the accessible structures of the rat renal cortex with both microelectrodes and microcalorimetry. In addition, the concentrations of chloride and total CO2 were compared in the stellate vessel. The data demonstrate that: (a) values for total [CO2] in both the proximal tubule and stellate vessel calculated from in situ determination of pH and PCO2 closely agree with the measured values for total [CO2]: (b) values for chloride concentration in the stellate vessel are significantly less than the corresponding values in systemic plasma (delta[Cl-] = 5.6 meq/liter); and (c) the rise in [HCO-3] from systemic to stellate vessel plasma closely approximates the observed reciprocal fall in [Cl-] in this structure.
The Onto-Tools suite is composed of an annotation database and five seamlessly integrated web-accessible data mining tools: Onto-Express (OE), Onto-Compare (OC), Onto-Design (OD), Onto-Translate (OT) and Onto-Miner (OM). OM is a new tool that provides a unified access point and an application programming interface for most annotations available. Our database has been enhanced with more than 120 new commercial microarrays and annotations for Rattus norvegicus, Drosophila melanogaster and Carnorhabditis elegans. The Onto-Tools have been redesigned to provide better biological insight, improved performance and user convenience. The new features implemented in OE include support for gene names, LocusLink IDs and Gene Ontology (GO) IDs, ability to specify fold changes for the input genes, links to the KEGG pathway database and detailed output files. OC allows comparisons of the functional bias of more than 170 commercial microarrays. The latest version of OD allows the user to specify keywords if the exact GO term is not known as well as providing more details than the previous version. OE, OC and OD now have an integrated GO browser that allows the user to customize the level of abstraction for each GO category. The Onto-Tools are available online at http://vortex.cs.wayne.edu/Projects.html.
We propose a freely accessible web-based pipeline, which processes raw microarray scan data to obtain experimentally consolidated gene expression values. The tool MADSCAN, which stands for MicroArray Data Suites of Computed ANalysis, makes a practical choice among the numerous methods available for filtering, normalizing and scaling of raw microarray expression data in a dynamic and automatic way. Different statistical methods have been adapted to extract reliable information from replicate gene spots as well as from replicate microarrays for each biological situation under study. A carefully constructed experimental design thus allows to detect outlying expression values and to identify statistically significant expression values, together with a list of quality controls with proposed threshold values. The integrated processing procedure described here, based on multiple measurements per gene, is decisive for reliably monitoring subtle gene expression changes typical for most biological events.
Peroxisomes were purified from liver homogenates from rats, treated with the peroxisome proliferator clofibrate, by a combination of differential centrifugation and isopycnic centrifugation in iso-osmotic self-generating Percoll gradients. Structural integrity of the peroxisomes appeared to be preserved as evidenced by a high degree of catalase latency, the absence of catalase release during purification and the exclusion of inulin (mol.wt. +/- 5000). Spaces for water and solutes were measured after incubation of the peroxisomes in iso-osmotic sucrose with radioactive water or solutes and separation of the organelles from their media by centrifugation through an organic layer. Extraperoxisomal water was corrected for by the use of radioactive dextran or inulin. The sucrose, glucose, urea, methanol and acetate-accessible spaces were identical, suggesting that these spaces represent the volume in which molecules that can cross the membrane distribute. This volume equalled 50-65% of the water space. Urate and NAD+, a cofactor of peroxisomal beta-oxidation of fatty acids, also distributed in this volume, but were also partly bound. Urate and NAD+ binding was not abolished by sonication, which released the bulk of matrix catalase activity...
Most chromatin in interphase nuclei is part of condensed chromatin
domains. Previous work has indicated that transcription takes place
predominantly at the surface of chromatin domains, that is, in the
perichromatin region. It is possible that genes inside chromatin domains are
silenced due to inaccessibility to macromolecular components of the
transcription machinery. We have tested the accessibility of chromatin domains
in nuclei of living cells with proteins and dextrans of different molecular
sizes. Our results show that chromatin domains are readily accessible to large
macromolecules, including proteins with a molecular weight of several hundred
kilodaltons. Therefore, the silencing of genes that are incorporated into such
domains is not due to the physical inaccessibility of condensed chromatin
domains to transcription factors.
In the range of pH examined (5.2-10), variations of internal pH from high to low values result in a reversible decrease of the conductance of the open K channels, without significantly affecting the kinetics parameters. A linear plot of the conductance versus internal pH suggests the existence of a titratable group that has an apparent pKa of about 6.9, and that is accessible to protons only from the intracellular side of the membrane.
The Protein pKa Database (PPD) v1.0 provides a compendium of protein residue-specific ionization equilibria (pKa values), as collated from the primary literature, in the form of a web-accessible postgreSQL relational database. Ionizable residues play key roles in the molecular mechanisms that underlie many biological phenomena, including protein folding and enzyme catalysis. The PPD serves as a general protein pKa archive and as a source of data that allows for the development and improvement of pKa prediction systems. The database is accessed through an HTML interface, which offers two fast, efficient search methods: an amino acid-based query and a Basic Local Alignment Search Tool search. Entries also give details of experimental techniques and links to other key databases, such as National Center for Biotechnology Information and the Protein Data Bank, providing the user with considerable background information. The database can be found at the following URL: .
AffinDB is a database of affinity data for structurally resolved protein–ligand complexes from the Protein Data Bank (PDB). It is freely accessible at . Affinity data are collected from the scientific literature, both from primary sources describing the original experimental work of affinity determination and from secondary references which report affinity values determined by others. AffinDB currently contains over 730 affinity entries covering more than 450 different protein–ligand complexes. Besides the affinity value, PDB summary information and additional data are provided, including the experimental conditions of the affinity measurement (if available in the corresponding reference); 2D drawing, SMILES code and molecular weight of the ligand; links to other databases, and bibliographic information. AffinDB can be queried by PDB code or by any combination of affinity range, temperature and pH value of the measurement, ligand molecular weight, and publication data (author, journal and year). Search results can be saved as tabular reports in text files. The database is supposed to be a valuable resource for researchers interested in biomolecular recognition and the development of tools for correlating structural data with affinities...