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‣ Análise da aplicação de resíduo de borracha de pneus em piso tátil intertravado de concreto; Analysis of tire rubber waste application in concrete tactile paving block

Fabiana Maria da Silva
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/12/2014 Português
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O reaproveitamento de resíduos na construção civil tem sido uma alternativa viável para diminuir o consumo de materiais naturais e a disposição inadequada dos resíduos no meio ambiente. Neste trabalho avaliou-se o reaproveitamento de resíduo de borracha de pneus, proveniente do processo de recauchutagem, em substituição parcial do agregado miúdo natural, para a produção de pisos táteis intertravados de concreto. O piso tátil de concreto é uma peça utilizada na pavimentação, que permite a percepção do ambiente ou rotas acessíveis, proporcionando mais segurança e autonomia para as pessoas com deficiência visual. A substituição foi feita em relação à massa da areia nas proporções de 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% e 50%. As seguintes propriedades do concreto foram investigadas: consistência no estado fresco, resistência à compressão, resistência à tração na flexão, absorção de água, índice de vazios, massa específica do concreto endurecido, resistência à abrasão, resistência ao impacto e análise de microestrutura. Embora a grande limitação do uso da borracha de pneus como agregado no concreto seja a redução das resistências mecânicas, os traços com até 50% de substituição atingiram ótimos valores de resistência à compressão e resistência à tração na flexão e apresentaram melhores resultados de resistência à abrasão. A utilização do resíduo de borracha de pneus...

‣ Valorização e interpretação geológica de percursos no Geoparque Terras de Cavaleiros

Miranda, Óscar Joel Martins
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Dissertação de mestrado em Património Geológico e Geoconservação; A geoconservação, ou seja, a conservação da natureza numa vertente geológica, deve constituir uma oportunidade de valorização dos recursos que a Terra nos oferece. O crescente interesse do turista pela realização de atividades ao ar livre conciliado com as recentes plataformas de informação foram as chaves para este projeto que assenta na valorização do património geológico do novo Geoparque Terras de Cavaleiros. Para a realização dos percursos e rotas foi utilizada uma metodologia de campo, a fim de definir quais os Locais de Interesse Geológico que possuem maior potencial turístico. Por outro lado houve o cuidado de escolher pontos de fácil acesso para o turista comum e um percurso relativamente simplificado. Para cada percurso pedestre e rota é proposto um folheto que incorpora um mapa onde estão assinalados todos os pontos de paragem e ainda uma descrição/ interpretação simples do recurso geológico que é possível observar. A acompanhar o folheto existe também um guião interpretativo, com informação mais extensa e cientifica a pensar num turista mais curioso. Atualmente, cresce a necessidade de preservar, valorizar e promover uma cultura geológica...

‣ Turismo e acessibilidade para os deficientes visuais : proposta de percursos no Centro Histórico do Porto, Portugal

Machado, Ivna Carolinne Bezerra
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Dissertação de mestrado em Geografia (área de especialização em Planeamento e Gestão do Território); Dentro daquilo que consideramos prioritário em termos de gestão e planeamento do território, o presente estudo enquadra-se numa perspetiva de analisar e apresentar propostas de intervenções em vias públicas de forma a promover a inclusão social de pessoas com deficiência visual. Num contexto mais específico e com o propósito de propôr dois percursos no Centro Histórico do Porto, esta dissertação contribui para as pessoas com deficiência visual, através de experiências turísticas que valorizam a interação entre os diferentes sentidos do corpo e os locais visitados. Desta forma, debruçamo-nos em três temas centrais: as pessoas com deficiência visual, o turismo como atividade inclusiva e o planeamento nas cidades. A partir dos referidos temas, verificamos à escala global, nacional e local, a dimensão e importância do número de pessoas com deficiência visual, os programas voltados para a promoção do turismo inclusivo e o papel dos planos de ordenamento nas cidades. Com o desdobramento desta investigação, realizou-se um estudo de caso, em que trabalhamos com um grupo de deficientes visuais da Associação dos Cegos e Amblíopes de Portugal – ACAPO...

‣ Chemotaxis can take plant-parasitic nematodes to the source of a chemo-attractant via the shortest possible routes

Reynolds, Andy M.; Dutta, Tushar K.; Curtis, Rosane H. C.; Powers, Stephen J.; Gaur, Hari S.; Kerry, Brian R.
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.45153%
It has long been recognized that chemotaxis is the primary means by which nematodes locate host plants. Nonetheless, chemotaxis has received scant attention. We show that chemotaxis is predicted to take nematodes to a source of a chemo-attractant via the shortest possible routes through the labyrinth of air-filled or water-filled channels within a soil through which the attractant diffuses. There are just two provisos: (i) all of the channels through which the attractant diffuses are accessible to the nematodes and (ii) nematodes can resolve all chemical gradients no matter how small. Previously, this remarkable consequence of chemotaxis had gone unnoticed. The predictions are supported by experimental studies of the movement patterns of the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne graminicola in modified Y-chamber olfactometers filled with Pluronic gel. By providing two routes to a source of the attractant, one long and one short, our experiments, the first to demonstrate the routes taken by nematodes to plant roots, serve to test our predictions. Our data show that nematodes take the most direct route to their preferred hosts (as predicted) but often take the longest route towards poor hosts. We hypothesize that a complex of repellent and attractant chemicals influences the interaction between nematodes and their hosts.

‣ Personalized Alert Notifications and Evacuation Routes in Indoor Environments

Aedo, Ignacio; Yu, Shuxin; Díaz, Paloma; Acuña, Pablo; Onorati, Teresa
Fonte: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI) Publicador: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/06/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The preparedness phase is crucial in the emergency management process for reaching an adequate level of readiness to react to potential threats and hazards. During this phase, emergency plans are developed to establish, among other procedures, evacuation and emergency escape routes. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) can support and improve these procedures providing appropriate, updated and accessible information to all people in the affected zone. Current emergency management and evacuation systems do not adapt information to the context and the profile of each person, so messages received in the emergency might be useless. In this paper, we propose a set of criteria that ICT-based systems could achieve in order to avoid this problem adapting emergency alerts and evacuation routes to different situations and people. Moreover, in order to prove the applicability of such criteria, we define a mechanism that can be used as a complement of traditional evacuation systems to provide personalized alerts and evacuation routes to all kinds of people during emergency situations in working places. This mechanism is composed by three main components: CAP-ONES for notifying emergency alerts, NERES for defining emergency plans and generating personalized evacuation routes...

‣ Environmental correlates of adiposity in 9-10 year old children: considering home and school neighbourhoods and routes to school

Harrison, Flo; Jones, Andrew P; van Sluijs, Esther MF; Cassidy, Aedín; Bentham, Graham; Griffin, Simon J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The rapid speed of the recent rise in obesity rates suggest environmental causes. There is therefore a need to determine which components of the environment may be contributing to this increase. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the associations between adiposity and the characteristics of areas around homes, schools and routes to school among 1995 well-characterised 9-10 year old boys and girls in Norfolk, UK. The relationships between Fat Mass Index (FMI, calculated as fat mass (kg)/height(m)2) and objectively computed environmental indicators describing access to food outlets and physical activity facilities, the safety and connectivity of the road network, and the mix of land uses present were investigated. Multivariable hierarchical regression models were fitted with log-transformed FMI as the outcome, and stratification by gender and mode of travel to school. Among girls, better access to healthy food outlets (supermarkets and greengrocers) in the home environment was associated with lower FMI while better access to unhealthy outlets (takeaways and convenience stores) around homes and schools was associated with higher FMI. Also in girls, a higher proportion of accessible open land and a lower mix of land uses around the school were associated with higher FMI. Among boys the presence of major roads in the home neighbourhood was associated with higher FMI among non-active travellers...

‣ Extensive Recombination-Induced Disruption of Genetic Interactions Is Highly Deleterious but Can Be Partially Reversed by Small Numbers of Secondary Recombination Events

Monjane, Adérito L.; Martin, Darren P.; Lakay, Francisco; Muhire, Brejnev M.; Pande, Daniel; Varsani, Arvind; Harkins, Gordon; Shepherd, Dionne N.; Rybicki, Edward P.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Although homologous recombination can potentially provide viruses with vastly more evolutionary options than are available through mutation alone, there are considerable limits on the adaptive potential of this important evolutionary process. Primary among these is the disruption of favorable coevolved genetic interactions that can occur following the transfer of foreign genetic material into a genome. Although the fitness costs of such disruptions can be severe, in some cases they can be rapidly recouped by either compensatory mutations or secondary recombination events. Here, we used a maize streak virus (MSV) experimental model to explore both the extremes of recombination-induced genetic disruption and the capacity of secondary recombination to adaptively reverse almost lethal recombination events. Starting with two naturally occurring parental viruses, we synthesized two of the most extreme conceivable MSV chimeras, each effectively carrying 182 recombination breakpoints and containing thorough reciprocal mixtures of parental polymorphisms. Although both chimeras were severely defective and apparently noninfectious, neither had individual movement-, encapsidation-, or replication-associated genome regions that were on their own “lethally recombinant.” Surprisingly...

‣ Parent Safety Perceptions of Child Walking Routes

Evers, Cody; Boles, Shawn; Johnson-Shelton, Deb; Schlossberg, Marc; Richey, David
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Walking rates to school remain low for U.S. children in large part due to parent concern for child safety. Little research has investigated the specific features of streets and intersection networks that parents associate with safe walking networks for children. To investigate which aspects of the child walking environment lead to parental concern, parent volunteers conducted an audit of streets leading to seven elementary schools in a suburban school district. Parents were most likely to feel concern about streets that lacked sidewalks or had sidewalks with obstructions. Wheelchair-accessible routes were seen as appropriate for walking children. Parents expressed concern over safety at intersections, particularly those involving large streets; traffic controls did not mollify their concern.

‣ Bus Rapid Transit Accessibility Guidelines

Rickert, Tom
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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In recent years helpful guides have appeared in both English and Spanish to assist planners and officials to construct accessible buildings and pedestrian infrastructure which are usable by seniors, persons with disabilities, and all others who especially benefit from universal design. Less has been written about access to public transport systems. Very little guidance is available concerning specific issues which confront those planning Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) systems, mass transit systems which incorporate a spectrum of design and operational features on integrated trunk and feeder routes and which were initiated in Latin America and are now spreading throughout the region and beyond. The guidelines focus on the BRT environment and assume that interested parties can take advantage of existing guidelines to clarify general issues of access to public space, buildings, and pedestrian infrastructure. The guidelines generally follow the travel path of a passenger using a full-featured Bus Rapid Transit system. The accessible travel chain begins with sidewalks and pedestrian crossings and continues into a typical mid-island station served by buses with left-side doors (in countries where traffic drives on the right side). Buses pull up to an enclosed station with a ramped platform the height of the bus floor. The guidelines then focus on station features...

‣ Disaster Risk Management in the Transport Sector

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
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Natural hazards regularly impact the performance of transport systems and their ability to provide safe, reliable, efficient, and accessible means of transport for all citizens, especially in emergency situations. Despite the frequency of natural hazards, and the threat of more extreme and variable weather as a result of climate change, there is still no systematic approach to addressing natural disasters in the transport sector and there is little knowledge that has been disseminated on this topic. This report offers a framework for understanding the principles of resilience in transport. It provides practical examples, gathered from an extensive secondary literature review and interviews, of the measures that transport professional can implement in transport projects.

‣ SEMA4A : a knowledge base for accessible evacuation and alert notifications in emergencies

Onorati, Teresa
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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When an emergency occurs or is going to occur, the aim of organizations and agencies involved in the response phase is to restore quickly a safe situation and reduce the number of victims and damages. The notification of information about the kind of emergency, its characteristics, the location of safe places and available procedures for reaching them has a crucial role in order to facilitate the evacuation of citizens. Several organizations and agencies have been promoting the development of Information Technology (IT) tools, called Emergency Response Information Systems (ERIS) for the management of the activities performed in response to the emergencies. In particular, these systems provide modules for collecting, updating and notifying information about imminent disasters to potential affected people. Such notifications can be communicated through different channels, like websites, emails, text or voice messages. But to effectively inform people about an emergency, the notifications should be adapted automatically to each user’s profile (e.g. functional or contextual disabilities, elderly, children), the kind of emergency (e.g. typhoon, earthquake, tornado), the communication channel (e.g. PDAs, smartphones, pagers) and any other exceptional circumstances (e.g. interrupted roads...

‣ Personalized Alert Notifications and Evacuation Routes in Indoor Environments

Aedo, Ignacio; Shuxin, Yu; Díaz Pérez, Paloma; Acuña, Pablo; Onorati, Teresa
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Publicado em 01/06/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.62646%
The preparedness phase is crucial in the emergency management process for reaching an adequate level of readiness to react to potential threats and hazards. During this phase, emergency plans are developed to establish, among other procedures, evacuation and emergency escape routes. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) can support and improve these procedures providing appropriate, updated and accessible information to all people in the affected zone. Current emergency management and evacuation systems do not adapt information to the context and the profile of each person, so messages received in the emergency might be useless. In this paper, we propose a set of criteria that ICT-based systems could achieve in order to avoid this problem adapting emergency alerts and evacuation routes to different situations and people. Moreover, in order to prove the applicability of such criteria, we define a mechanism that can be used as a complement of traditional evacuation systems to provide personalized alerts and evacuation routes to all kinds of people during emergency situations in working places. This mechanism is composed by three main components: CAP-ONES for notifying emergency alerts, NERES for defining emergency plans and generating personalized evacuation routes...

‣ Planning, Connecting, and Financing Cities--Now : Priorities for City Leaders

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This report provides Mayors and other policymakers with a policy framework and diagnostic tools to anticipate and implement strategies that can avoid their cities from locking into irreversible physical and social structures. At the core of the policy framework are the three main dimensions of urban development. · Planning— where the focus is on making land transactions easier, and making land use regulations more responsive to emerging needs especially to coordinate land use planning with infrastructure, natural resource management, and risks from hazards; · Connecting—where the focus is on making a city’s markets (for labor, goods, and services) more accessible to neighborhoods in the city and to other cities. Here the focus is also on investing in public transport, and pricing private transport fully; and · Financing— where the focus is on how a city can leverage its own assets to finance new assets for example, through land value capture, establishing creditworthiness for local governments and utilities to access domestic debt and bond markets and how to set clear and consistent rules to attract private investors to create jobs in cities. This report also distills lessons from prototypes urbanization diagnostics which have been piloted to reflect challenges for countries at nascent (Uganda...

‣ Growth without Borders : A Regional Growth Pole Diagnostic for Southern Africa

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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Several countries in Southern Africa have enormous potential to expand trade and mutually benefit from regional integration, and thus truly achieve 'growth without borders'. At the same time, several African countries are adopting growth pole strategies in order to deepen the economic linkages around the development of their natural resources and improve their competitiveness and connectivity to domestic and international markets. This report stems from economic sector work whose purpose was to identify potential growth poles across Angola, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, and Zimbabwe in three industries, agribusiness, mining, and tourism, that might benefit from improved regional integration. This report used geographic information systems (GIS) to identify potential growth poles based on the spatial distribution of foreign direct investment (FDI), market connectivity, revenue sources, and other input factors and then selected from that list those areas which might benefit from regional cooperation. This report provides background information...

‣ Mali : Transport Support to Sustainable Economic Growth

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.12118%
This Economic and Sector Work (ESW) is consistent with the objectives laid out for the transport sector in the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP), and the Country Assistance Strategy (CAS), with its two primary objectives focused on strengthening existing reforms, and, helping define a forthcoming reform program. The proposed transport sector strategy relies on three pillars to: 1) promote sustainable development of transport infrastructure, ensuring adequate allocation of financial, and human resources to infrastructure maintenance; 2) increase transport sector efficiency, through sound market, and fiscal policies that support the rapid modernization of Mali's transport companies; and, 3) support cross sectoral initiatives, primarily in the areas of economic competitiveness, road safety, rural poverty alleviation, and in addition, to support HIV/AIDS prevention, and health services accessibility. Since transport costs represent a significant share of the imported costs of intermediary goods used in building up Mali's export capacity...

‣ Bhutan : Transport Sector Note

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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Landlocked Bhutan faces unique challenges, and opportunities as it pursues the development of its transport sector into the 21st century. Bhutan's population growth rate is high, rural-urban migration is accelerating, and, fueled by sustained economic growth, the country is urbanizing rapidly, giving rise to an expanding urban middle class, with rising expectations of well-paid employment, accessible services, and consumption potential. However, accessibility to a large measure depends on availability of reliable, and affordable transportation. Poor rural access is synonymous with rural isolation, and poverty, while high external and domestic transport costs constrain the country's economic and social development. Transportation poses a considerable cost disadvantage to business and commercial undertakings; road transport is slow and regularly disrupted by landslides and flooding; air transport is costly and erratic. Costly transport is a major factor constraining the development of tourism, horticultural exports...

‣ Analyse du comportement hétérogène des usagers dans un réseau

Klok, Zacharie-Francis
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.74131%
Le nombre important de véhicules sur le réseau routier peut entraîner des problèmes d'encombrement et de sécurité. Les usagers des réseaux routiers qui nous intéressent sont les camionneurs qui transportent des marchandises, pouvant rouler avec des véhicules non conformes ou emprunter des routes interdites pour gagner du temps. Le transport de matières dangereuses est réglementé et certains lieux, surtout les ponts et les tunnels, leur sont interdits d'accès. Pour aider à faire appliquer les lois en vigueur, il existe un système de contrôles routiers composé de structures fixes et de patrouilles mobiles. Le déploiement stratégique de ces ressources de contrôle mise sur la connaissance du comportement des camionneurs que nous allons étudier à travers l'analyse de leurs choix de routes. Un problème de choix de routes peut se modéliser en utilisant la théorie des choix discrets, elle-même fondée sur la théorie de l'utilité aléatoire. Traiter ce type de problème avec cette théorie est complexe. Les modèles que nous utiliserons sont tels, que nous serons amenés à faire face à des problèmes de corrélation, puisque plusieurs routes partagent probablement des arcs. De plus, puisque nous travaillons sur le réseau routier du Québec...

‣ À travers le pare-brise : la création des territoires touristiques à l’ère de l’automobile (Québec et Ontario, 1920-1967)

Lambert, Maude-Emmanuelle
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.152695%
Cette thèse fait la lumière sur les différentes manières dont, historiquement, a été perçu, conçu et vécu le territoire, à travers l’expérience et l’essor de la mobilité. Cette étude montre le rôle crucial de l’automobilité dans le développement touristique du Québec et de l’Ontario et les manières dont elle a façonné certains de leurs territoires. La thèse reconstitue ces processus en examinant les différentes mesures adoptées pour mettre en tourisme ces territoires et les transformer sur le plan matériel comme symbolique, entre 1920 et 1967. Elle répond à la question suivante : en quoi et comment la mobilité associée à l’automobile transforme et crée les territoires touristiques? La période étudiée s’ouvre au moment où débute l’intervention gouvernementale en matière de tourisme et s’amorce l’aménagement d’infrastructures favorisant une plus grande automobilité. Elle se clôt sur les célébrations entourant le Centenaire du Canada et la tenue de l’Expo 1967 à Montréal, qui donnent lieu à un aménagement intense du territoire afin d’accommoder un nombre sans précédent de touristes motorisés en provenance des autres provinces canadiennes et des États-Unis. La thèse reconstitue d’abord le processus de mise en tourisme des territoires par la conception...

‣ Capacity Based Evacuation with Dynamic Exit Signs

Desmet, Antoine; Gelenbe, Erol
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/12/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Exit paths in buildings are designed to minimise evacuation time when the building is at full capacity. We present an evacuation support system which does this regardless of the number of evacuees. The core concept is to even-out congestion in the building by diverting evacuees to less-congested paths in order to make maximal usage of all accessible routes throughout the entire evacuation process. The system issues a set of flow-optimal routes using a capacity-constrained routing algorithm which anticipates evolutions in path metrics using the concept of "future capacity reservation". In order to direct evacuees in an intuitive manner whilst implementing the routing algorithm's scheme, we use dynamic exit signs, i.e. whose pointing direction can be controlled. To make this system practical and minimise reliance on sensors during the evacuation, we use an evacuee mobility model and make several assumptions on the characteristics of the evacuee flow. We validate this concept using simulations, and show how the underpinning assumptions may limit the system's performance, especially in low-headcount evacuations.

‣ PROPOSAL OF A SIDEWALK ACCESSIBILITY INDEX (doi: 10.4090/juee.2007.v1n1.001009)

Ferreira, Marcos Antonio Garcia; Sanches, Suely da Penha
Fonte: JUEE Press Publicador: JUEE Press
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/09/2008 Português
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This paper describes an indicator to evaluate the performance of the infrastructure of sidewalks and public spaces, based on the expectations and perceived needs of wheelchair users, aiming to define accessible routes along urban road networks. The indicator considers variables that describe aspects of comfort and safety for disabled wheelchair users, weighted according to the perception of such users. The application of the indicator in the evaluation of the downtown area of a medium-sized Brazilian city confirmed the hypothesis that there are no accessible routes and helped identify locations where interventions or modifications of already implemented improvements are required to enable the wheelchair user to circulate easily through the city.