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‣ More Fiscal Resources for Infrastructure? Evidence from East Africa

Briceño-Garmendia, Cecilia; Foster, Vivien
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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37.548938%
This paper evaluates the extent of fiscal resource availability for infrastructure in four East African countries and explores the main options for its expansion. A number of major channels will be examined. The first is the extent to which expenditure is well allocated across sectors, sub-sectors, expense categories, jurisdictions and geographic areas. The second is the extent to which there is scope for improving efficiency by enhancing the operational performance of state owned enterprises (SOEs), restoring adequate levels of maintenance, or improving the selection and implementation of investment projects. The third is the extent to which user charges are applied and set at levels consistent with cost recovery. The fourth is the extent to which private sector participation has been fully exploited as a vehicle for raising investment finance. While it is difficult to evaluate these things very precisely, a number of proxy indicators are used to shed light on the matter.

‣ Philippines : Meeting the Infrastructure Challenges

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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37.601072%
The Philippines enjoys tremendous endowments of natural, and human resources that provide great potential for economic development and poverty reduction. However, overall development outcomes over the last decades have fallen short of potential. The gap can be largely attributed to weak performance of public institutions in providing services to citizens, which leads to a vicious cycle of weak public services, lack of trust in the government, and unwillingness on the part of citizens to provide adequate resources to the government. The key development challenge, therefore, is to reverse the cycle to one of virtuous development where increased government revenue translates into improved service delivery and greater public trust in the government. Infrastructure plays an important role in this development process. Insufficient infrastructure has been a major constraint to economic growth and poverty reduction in the Philippines. Though the country has relatively high access levels to water, sanitation, and electricity, service levels have failed to keep up with rapid population growth and urbanization. Infrastructure development in the country is hampered by a poor business environment; weaknesses in planning, coordination, and financing; and a decrease in private sector involvement in infrastructure provision. The report presents a road map which will help spur the expansion...

‣ Public Infrastructure and Private Investment in the Middle East and North Africa

Agénor, Pierre-Richard; Nabli, Mustapha K.; Yousef, Tarik M.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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37.47074%
The authors examine the impact of public infrastructure on private capital formation in three countries of the Middle East and North Africa-Egypt, Jordan, and Tunisia. They highlight various channels through which public infrastructure may affect private investment. Then they describe their empirical framework, which is based on a vector autoregression (VAR) model that accounts for flows and (quality-adjusted) stocks of public infrastructure, private investment, as well as changes in output, private sector credit, and the real exchange rate. The authors propose two aggregate measures of the quality of public infrastructure and use principal components to derive a composite indicator. Their analysis suggests that public infrastructure has both "flow" and "stock" effects on private investment in Egypt, but only a "stock" effect in Jordan and Tunisia. But these effects are small and short-lived, reflecting the unfavorable environment for private investment in their sample of countries. Reducing unproductive public capital expenditure and improving quality must be accompanied by policy reforms aimed at limiting investment to infrastructure capital that crowds in the private sector and corrects for fundamental market failures. This will entail privatization and greater involvement of the private sector in infrastructure investment. While infrastructure (in the form of the provision of critical telecommunications...

‣ The African Project Preparation Gap : Africans Address a Critical Limiting Factor in Infrastructure Investment

Leigland, James; Roberts, Andrew
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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37.487405%
In Africa it is becoming clear that the reasons for the shortage of infrastructure investment go beyond the need for policy and governance reforms. But the key problem is not a lack of funding, as might be expected. Instead, it is the lack of packaged, bankable projects -- which in turn points to a need for more and better project preparation. But understanding this fact is only a beginning. African policy makers face special obstacles when it comes to adequate project preparation. Their work to resolve these problems is generating important lessons for other low-income regions.

‣ Reforming Infrastructure : Privatization, Regulation, and Competition

Kessides, Ioannis N.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank and Oxford University Press Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank and Oxford University Press
Português
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37.450806%
Infrastructure industries and services are crucial for generating economic growth, alleviating poverty, and increasing international competitiveness. Safe water is essential for life, and health. Reliable electricity saves businesses and consumers from having to invest in expensive backup systems, or more costly alternatives, and keeps rural women and children from having to spend long hours fetching firewood. Widely available and affordable telecommunications and transportation services can foster grassroots entrepreneurship, and thus are critical to generating employment, and advancing economic development. In most developing and transition economies, private participation in infrastructure, and restructuring have been driven by the high costs, and poor performance of state-owned network utilities. Under state ownership, services were usually under-priced, and making it difficult to expand services. The report indicates that although privatization, competitive restructuring, and regulatory reforms improve infrastructure performance, several issues must be considered and conditions met for these measures to achieve their public interest goals. First, reforms have significantly improved performance, leading to higher investment, productivity...

‣ Infrastructure, Growth, and Inequality : An Overview

Calderon, Cesar; Serven, Luis
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Português
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Academics and policy makers have long considered an adequate supply of infrastructure services to be essential for economic development. This paper reviews recent theoretical and empirical literature on the effects of infrastructure development on growth and income distribution. The theoretical literature has employed a variety of analytical settings regarding the drivers of income growth, the degree to which infrastructure represents a public or a private good, and the extent of market distortions, notably in capital markets. In turn, the empirical literature has used various econometric methodologies on time-series and cross-section macro and microeconomic data to test for the effects of infrastructure development. However, these empirical tests face challenging issues of measurement, identification, and heterogeneity. Overall, the literature finds positive effects of infrastructure development on income growth and, more tentatively, on distributive equity. Still, the precise mechanisms through which these effects accrue...

‣ Brazil - Improving the Appraisal Framework for Road Transport Infrastructure Investments : Elements for Consideration; Brasil - Aprimoramento do marco de avaliacao de investimentos em infra-estrutura de transportes rodoviarios : elementos a serem considerados

Véron, Adrien
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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The main purpose of an appraisal framework for transport infrastructure projects and programs is to provide an objective and transparent basis for decision-makers to ascertain the feasibility and levels of priority of major transport projects and policies. An appraisal framework also serves a second, more general, purpose: to contribute to upgrading internal management processes aimed at improving the quality of expenditure. An adequate appraisal framework needs to: 1) strike a balance between an objective economic evaluation and a broader multi-criteria evaluation; and 2) provide clear methodologies and norms to guide appraisers, and ensure comparability among project appraisals, when time comes to prioritize the projects. To ensure that an appraisal framework can deliver on the two above-mentioned purposes, it is important to raise public awareness as to the basic principles and objectives of appraisals, and to structure public sector capacity to undertake or lead, as well as review appraisals, to ensure that they are reliable and of adequate quality. Appraisal frameworks are at different stages of development in different countries...

‣ Infrastructure : Doing More with Less

Woetzel, Jonathan; Pohl, Herbert
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.84661%
Adequate urban infrastructure can be expensive, but the costs of not delivering housing, transportation, water, sewage, public facilities, and other necessities are also high. Inadequate infrastructure slows and even reverses economic growth, driving unemployment, crime, and urban decay. It can fuel urban tensions by widening divisions among ethnic or income groups or between long-time residents and recent immigrants. And it can foster a general malaise that drains a city's vitality and spirit. One study in Africa showed that the return on investment for infrastructure was about 50 percent, based on contributions to gross domestic product (GDP), and that if investments were optimized, the return will be closer to 150 percent. This value is delivered through increased productivity and job creation, among other channels. Social benefits from improved public services and living standards are also substantial. In emerging markets, inadequate infrastructure can be a substantial barrier to growth. Adequate infrastructure reduces costs...

‣ Mali's Infrastructure : A Continental Perspective

Briceno-Garmendia, Cecilia M.; Dominguez, Carolina; Pushak, Nataliya
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.513694%
Despite external shocks, Mali's economy grew by 5.3 percent per year between 2003 and 2006, driven primarily by the telecommunications sector. But Mali's landlocked condition, together with the uneven distribution of population and economic activities between the arid north and the much richer south, defy the country's ability to sustain this pace of growth. Mali depends heavily on regional infrastructure and transport corridors. A strategic focus on regional integration has paid off, and critical institutional decisions are bringing many positive developments. But Mali still faces infrastructure challenges, the starkest of which lies in the power sector. The cost of producing power in Mali is among the highest in the region, with the result that only around 17 percent of the population has access to electricity, much lower than in other low-income African countries. The water and sanitation sectors also represent a challenge, as the nation works to separate the power and water-and-sanitation functions of EDM...

‣ Private Solutions for Infrastructure in Rwanda : A Country Framework Report

Private-Public Infrastructure Advisory Facility
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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This report aims to provide an objective assessment of the condition of Rwanda's infrastructure sectors and of the institutional and policy frameworks that are associated with them. It also provides a clear route map for infrastructure sector reform, as well as highlighting both the opportunities that exist for the private sector and the role that the donor community can play in assisting the Government with establishing priorities in infrastructure.

‣ Private Solutions for Infrastructure in Honduras : A Country Framework Report

Public–Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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47.575903%
This document is designed to promote the development of infrastructure services in Honduras, with the aim of improving the country's competitiveness and contributing to poverty reduction. Its central argument is that Honduras needs a significant increase in private investment in infrastructure services, which should take place in a more competitive environment, and be subject to an adequate legal and regulatory framework. The study details the progress to date in Honduran infrastructure sectors, identifying the principal problems that exist and outlining a strategy for their solution. It proposes a general set of principles that should guide the provision of infrastructure services. In addition, it recommends specific policies for each sector. The document's scope includes the following services: transportation, water and sanitation, electricity, and telecommunications. Part 1 presents an overview of general themes related to the development of infrastructure services and to private participation in all the sub-sectors. Part 2 presents an analysis of the current situation of the four infrastructure services covered in this study. One of the major recommendations is the need to establish participative and transparent planning...

‣ Africa's Water and Sanitation Infrastructure : Access, Affordability, and Alternatives

Banerjee, Sudeshna Ghosh; Morella, Elvira
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The Africa Infrastructure Country Diagnostic (AICD) has produced continent-wide analysis of many aspects of Africa's infrastructure challenge. The main findings were synthesized in a flagship report titled Africa's Infrastructure: a time for transformation, published in November 2009. Meant for policy makers, that report necessarily focused on the high-level conclusions. It attracted widespread media coverage feeding directly into discussions at the 2009 African Union Commission Heads of State Summit on Infrastructure. Although the flagship report served a valuable role in highlighting the main findings of the project, it could not do full justice to the richness of the data collected and technical analysis undertaken. There was clearly a need to make this more detailed material available to a wider audience of infrastructure practitioners. Hence the idea of producing four technical monographs, such as this one, to provide detailed results on each of the major infrastructure sectors, information and communication technologies (ICT)...

‣ Zimbabwe’s Infrastructure : A Continental Perspective

Pushak, Nataliya; Briceno-Garmendia, Cecilia M.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.53349%
Despite general economic decline and power-supply deficiencies, infrastructure made a modest net contribution of just less than half a percentage point to Zimbabwe's improved per capita growth performance in recent years. Raising the country's infrastructure endowment to that of the region's middle-income countries could boost annual growth by about 2.4 percentage points. Zimbabwe made significant progress in infrastructure in its early period as an independent state, building a national electricity network with regional interconnections, an extensive and internationally connected road network, and a water and sewer system. But the country has been unable to maintain its existing infrastructure since it became immersed in economic and political turmoil in the late 1990s. Zimbabwe now faces a number of important infrastructure challenges, the most pressing of which lie in the power and water sectors, where deteriorating conditions pose risks to the economy and public health. Zimbabwe currently spends about $0.8 billion per year on infrastructure...

‣ Uganda’s Infrastructure : A Continental Perspective

Ranganathan, Rupa; Foster, Vivien
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.541665%
Uganda has made substantial progress on its infrastructure agenda in recent years. The early and successful ICT reform detonated a huge expansion in mobile coverage and penetration resulting in a highly competitive market. Power sector restructuring has paved the way for a rapid doubling of power generation capacity. Uganda is doing well on the water and sanitation MDGs, and has made effective use of performance contracting to improve utility performance. However, a number of important challenges remain. Despite reforms, the power sector continues to hemorrhage resources due to under-pricing and high distribution losses, while electrification rates are still very low. Providing adequate resources for road maintenance remains a challenge, and further investment is needed to increase rural connectivity and improve road safety. Addressing Uganda's infrastructure challenges will require sustained expenditure of around $1.4 billion per year over the next decade, strongly skewed towards capital expenditure. Uganda already spends approximately $1 billion per year on infrastructure...

‣ How to Revitalize Infrastructure Investments in Brazil : Public Policies for Better Private Participation, Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: PSD, Privatization and Industrial Policy; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.555454%
Amid a shifting policymaking environment from private to public, volume one of this report discusses how public policies could attract more and better private investments. In attracting back private capital, this report argues that Brazil must do three things. First, it must eliminate remaining regulatory bottlenecks and policy uncertainties in selected sectors. Secondly, design infrastructure concessions to avoid "excessive" renegotiations while simultaneously guaranteeing an adequate rate of return for investors and protecting consumers' welfare. And finally, strengthen the quality of the regulators for technically sound and coherent decision-making processes. Volume two is the background report and looks at infrastructure statistics in Brazil and international benchmarks, regulatory policy issues, contract negotiations, and gives conclusions and policy implications on these topics.

‣ How to Revitalize Infrastructure Investments in Brazil : Public Policies for Better Private Participation, Volume 2. Background Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: PSD, Privatization and Industrial Policy; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.47074%
Amid a shifting policymaking environment from private to public, volume one of this report discusses how public policies could attract more and better private investments. In attracting back private capital, this report argues that Brazil must do three things. First, it must eliminate remaining regulatory bottlenecks and policy uncertainties in selected sectors. Secondly, design infrastructure concessions to avoid "excessive" renegotiations while simultaneously guaranteeing an adequate rate of return for investors and protecting consumers' welfare. And finally, strengthen the quality of the regulators for technically sound and coherent decision-making processes. Volume two is the background report and looks at infrastructure statistics in Brazil and international benchmarks, regulatory policy issues, contract negotiations, and gives conclusions and policy implications on these topics.

‣ Financing Infrastructure and Monitoring Fiscal Risks at the Subnational Level

Liu, Lili; Pradelli, Juan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.648938%
This paper explores the building blocks of an institutional framework to govern borrowing by subnational entities to finance infrastructure investment. The framework should help in achieving sustainable financing of development needs and sound management of fiscal risks. Based on international experience, the authors suggest a minimum set of indicators for monitoring fiscal and debt developments. Recognizing the different nature and operations of the subnational entities, they propose specific indicators for special purpose vehicles and the government's general budget. The paper outlines an analytical framework to inform policy decisions concerning subnational debt limits, which are country-specific and should not be mechanically applied. Basic notions underpinning medium-term macro-fiscal frameworks and debt sustainability analyses provide effective guidance for identifying prudent levels of subnational debt. The authors argue that developing fiscal and debt indicators and setting borrowing limits should be part of a broader strategy to put in place an adequate fiscal architecture to coordinate and monitor the budgetary and borrowing policies conducted by individual subnational governments. Consistent with this general principle, they explore several areas of subnational public finance and management that need to be addressed with adequate governance structures and policy choices.

‣ Infrastructure in Latin America

Calderón, César; Servén, Luis
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.590337%
An adequate supply of infrastructure services has long been viewed by both academics and policy makers as a key ingredient for economic development. Over the past quarter-century, the retrenchment of Latin America's public sector from its dominant position in the provision of infrastructure, and the opening up of these industries to private participation, have renewed the debate on the role of infrastructure in the region's development. The focus of this paper is three-fold. First, it documents, in a comparative cross-regional perspective, the trends in Latin America's infrastructure development, as reflected in the quantity and quality of infrastructure services and the universality of their access. Overall, this suggests the emergence of an infrastructure gap vis-a-vis other industrial and developing regions. Second, it provides an empirical assessment of the contribution of infrastructure development to growth across Latin America. Third, it examines the trends in the financing of infrastructure investment -- documenting the changing roles of the public and private sectors -- and analyzes how they have been shaped by macroeconomic policy constraints.

‣ Infrastructure : Doing More with Less

Woetzel, Jonathan; Pohl, Herbert
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.84661%
Adequate urban infrastructure can be expensive, but the costs of not delivering housing, transportation, water, sewage, public facilities, and other necessities are also high. Inadequate infrastructure slows and even reverses economic growth, driving unemployment, crime, and urban decay. It can fuel urban tensions by widening divisions among ethnic or income groups or between long-time residents and recent immigrants. And it can foster a general malaise that drains a city's vitality and spirit. One study in Africa showed that the return on investment for infrastructure was about 50 percent, based on contributions to gross domestic product (GDP), and that if investments were optimized, the return will be closer to 150 percent. This value is delivered through increased productivity and job creation, among other channels. Social benefits from improved public services and living standards are also substantial. In emerging markets, inadequate infrastructure can be a substantial barrier to growth. Adequate infrastructure reduces costs...

‣ Infrastructure and Economic Development in Sub-Saharan Africa

Calderón, César; Servén, Luis
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.590337%
An adequate supply of infrastructure services has long been viewed by both academics and policy makers as a key ingredient for economic development. Sub-Saharan Africa ranks consistently at the bottom of all developing regions in terms of infrastructure performance, and an increasing number of observers point to deficient infrastructure as a major obstacle for growth and poverty reduction across the region. This paper offers an empirical assessment of the impact of infrastructure development on growth and inequality, with a focus on Sub-Saharan Africa. The paper uses a comparative cross-regional perspective to place Africa's experience in the international context. Drawing from an updated data set of infrastructure quantity and quality indicators covering more than 100 countries and spanning the years 1960-2005, the paper estimates empirical growth and inequality equations including a standard set of control variables augmented by infrastructure quantity and quality measures, and controlling for the potential endogeneity of the latter. The estimates illustrate the potential contribution of infrastructure development to growth and equity across Africa.