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‣ Per capita versus adult-equivalent estimates of calorie availability in household budget surveys; Estimativa domiciliar da disponibilidade calórica per capita versus adulto-equivalente em pesquisa de orçamento familiar

CLARO, Rafael Moreira; LEVY, Renata Bertazzi; BANDONI, Daniel Henrique; MONDINI, Lenise
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.385825%
This study aims to estimate an adult-equivalent scale for calorie requirements and to determine the differences between adult-equivalent and per capita measurements of calorie availability in the Brazilian population. The study used data from the 2002-2003 Brazilian Household Budget Survey. The calorie requirement for a reference adult individual was based on the mean requirements for adult males and females (2,550kcal/day). The conversion factors were defined as the ratios between the calorie requirements for each age group and gender and that of the reference adult. The adult-equivalent calorie availability levels were higher than the per capita levels, with the largest differences in rural and low-income households. Differences in household calorie availability varied from 22kcal/day (households with adults and an adolescent) to 428kcal/day (households with elderly individuals), thus showing that per capital measurements can underestimate the real calorie availability, since they overlook differences in household composition.; Objetivou-se estimar uma escala adulto-equivalente de necessidade energética e determinar as diferenças entre medidas adulto-equivalente e per capita para disponibilidade energética da população brasileira. Utilizaram-se dados da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares de 2002/2003. A necessidade energética de um indivíduo adulto de referência baseou-se na média das necessidades de homens e mulheres adultos (2.550kcal/dia). Os fatores de conversão foram definidos como a razão entre a necessidade energética de cada grupo de idade e sexo e aquela do adulto de referência. Os valores de disponibilidade de energia adulto-equivalente foram superiores aos per capita...

‣ Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity of G6PD-deficient patients with A-(202G>A) mutation

Ondei, L. S.; Silveira, L. M.; Leite, A. A.; Souza, D. R S; Pinhel, M. A S; Percário, S.; Ricci, O.; Bonini-Domingos, C. R.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1345-1351
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.249756%
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an enzymopathy in which reduced NADPH concentrations are not maintained, resulting in oxidative damage. We evaluated G6PD activity, oxidative stress levels and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity in individuals with the A-(202G>A) mutation for G6PD deficiency. Five hundred and forty-four peripheral blood samples were screened for G6PD deficiency; we also analyzed lipid peroxidation products measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive species and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity. Men with the A-(202G>A) mutation had lower G6PD activity than women with the same mutation. Individuals with the A-(202G>A) mutation also differed in mean Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values but not for thiobarbituric acid reactive species values. We concluded that A-(202G>A) mutation is associated with reduced G6PD activity and increased Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity. ©FUNPEC-RP.

‣ Per capita versus adult-equivalent estimates of calorie availability in household budget surveys

Claro,Rafael Moreira; Levy,Renata Bertazzi; Bandoni,Daniel Henrique; Mondini,Lenise
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.385825%
This study aims to estimate an adult-equivalent scale for calorie requirements and to determine the differences between adult-equivalent and per capita measurements of calorie availability in the Brazilian population. The study used data from the 2002-2003 Brazilian Household Budget Survey. The calorie requirement for a reference adult individual was based on the mean requirements for adult males and females (2,550kcal/day). The conversion factors were defined as the ratios between the calorie requirements for each age group and gender and that of the reference adult. The adult-equivalent calorie availability levels were higher than the per capita levels, with the largest differences in rural and low-income households. Differences in household calorie availability varied from 22kcal/day (households with adults and an adolescent) to 428kcal/day (households with elderly individuals), thus showing that per capital measurements can underestimate the real calorie availability, since they overlook differences in household composition.

‣ Host plant pubescence: Effect on silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii, fourth instar and pharate adult dimensions and ecdysteroid titer fluctuations

Gelman, Dale B.; Gerling, Dan
Fonte: University of Arizona Library Publicador: University of Arizona Library
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/08/2003 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.950513%
The ability to generate physiologically synchronous groups of insects is vital to the performance of investigations designed to test insect responses to intrinsic and extrinsic stimuli. During a given instar, the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii, increase in depth but not in length or width. A staging system to identify physiologically synchronous 4th instar and pharate adult silverleaf whiteflies based on increasing body depth and the development of the adult eye has been described previously. This study determined the effect of host plant identity on ecdysteroid fluctuations during the 4th instar and pharate adult stages, and on the depth, length and width dimensions of 4th instar/pharate adult whiteflies. When grown on the pubescent-leafed green bean, tomato and poinsettia plants, these stages were significantly shorter and narrower, but attained greater depth than when grown on the glabrous-leafed cotton, collard and sweet potato plants. Thus, leaf pubescence is associated with reduced length and width dimensions, but increased depth dimensions in 4th instars and pharate adults. For all host plants, nymphal ecdysteroid titers peaked just prior to the initiation of adult development. However, when reared on pubescent-leafed plants...

‣ Sodium and chloride transport by the tracheal epithelium of fetal, new-born and adult sheep.

Olver, R E; Robinson, E J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1986 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.935889%
In vitro measurements were made of Na+ and Cl- isotopic fluxes across the tracheal epithelium of mature fetal lambs (130-143 days gestation), new-born lambs (up to 41 days of age) and adult sheep under conditions of continuous short circuiting. The effects of a variety of drugs were examined, but only in the case of amiloride and isoprenaline were observations made in all three groups. Experiments designed to elucidate the mechanism of basal Cl- secretion were performed in adult trachea only. Under resting conditions the net flux of Na+ from lumen to submucosa exceeds that of Cl- in the reverse direction in fetal and adult trachea. In the new-born the two fluxes are more or less equivalent in magnitude. In none of the three groups is the sum of ion fluxes significantly different from the short-circuit current (Isc). Removal of Na+ from, or addition of furosemide (10(-3) M) to, the solution bathing the submucosal surface of adult trachea has the effect of reducing Isc by an amount which approximates to the Cl- current (29%). At a concentration of 10(-4) M on the submucosal side of adult trachea, ouabain causes potential difference and Isc to fall to zero within 70 min of addition to the bathing solution. Nevertheless, there remains a significant net Na+ flux from submucosa to lumen. The addition of isoprenaline (10(-4) M) to the medium bathing the submucosal surface of both fetal and adult trachea causes an increase in the one-way flux of Cl- from submucosa to lumen with consequent increase in net Cl- flux towards the lumen. (The Na+ fluxes are unchanged.) However...

‣ Loss of suppressor T cells in adult NZB/NZW mice

Fonte: The Rockefeller University Press Publicador: The Rockefeller University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/09/1976 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.918088%
We have investigated suppressor T-cell activity in female NZB/NZW F1 mice using PWM-driven IgM biosynthesis in vitro as an indicator system. In initial we studied we observed that spleen cells from normal mice (BALB/c, C57BL/6), as well as from young (4 wk) and adult (18 wk) NZB/NZW mice, cultured in the presence of PWM synthesize 860 +/- 120 ng IgM/10(6) cells/7 days. However, when Con A (at 2 mug/ml) was added directly to the cultures (along with PWM), cells obtained from adult normal mice and young NZB/NZW mice showed a 94% suppression of IgM synthesis, whereas cells obtained from adult NZB/NZW mice were suppressed significantly less. To analyze these findings we studied the effect of Con A-induced suppressor cells (cells cultured with Con A for 24 h and washed free of Con A) on PWM-driven IgM biosynthesis. Spleen cells obtained from normal mice cultured in the presence of Con A- pulsed cells obtained from normal mice and young NZB/NZW mice showed an 83-88% suppression of PWM-driven IgM synthesis. Similarly, supernates obtained from Con A-pulsed cells of normal mice or of young NZB/NZW mice suppressed PWM-driven IgM synthesis. This suppression by Con A- pulsed cells and their supernates required T cells since T-cell fractions but not B-cell fractions eluted from anti-Fab Sephadex columns mediated suppression of co-cultured normal cells; in addition...

‣ Development of the airway intraepithelial dendritic cell network in the rat from class II major histocompatibility (Ia)-negative precursors: differential regulation of Ia expression at different levels of the respiratory tract

Fonte: The Rockefeller University Press Publicador: The Rockefeller University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/01/1994 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.04377%
The relative inefficiency of respiratory mucosal immune function during infancy is generally attributed to the immaturity of the neonatal T cell system. However, immune competence in the adult lung has recently been shown to be closely linked to the functional capacity of local networks of intraepithelial dendritic cells (DC). This study examines the density and distribution of these DC throughout the neonatal respiratory tract in rats, focusing particularly on microenvironmental regulation of their class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) (Ia) expression. In animals housed under dust-controlled conditions, airway epithelial and alveolar Ia+ DC detectable by immunostaining with the monoclonal antibody (mAb) Ox6 are usually not seen until day 2-3 after birth, and adult-equivalent staining patterns are not observed until after weaning. In contrast, the mAb Ox62 detects large numbers of DC in fetal, infant, and adult rat airway epithelium. Costaining of these Ox62+ DC with Ox6 is rare in the neonate and increases progressively throughout infancy, and by weaning Ia+ DC comprised, on average, 65% of the overall intraepithelial DC population. In infant rats, Ia+ DC are observed first at the base of the nasal turbinates, sites of maximum exposure to inhaled particulates...

‣ Assessment of organ specific neutron equivalent doses in proton therapy using computational whole-body age-dependent voxel phantoms

Jarlskog, Christina Zacharatou; Lee, Choonik; Bolch, Wesley E.; Xu, X. George; Paganetti, Harald
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.285247%
Proton beams used for radiotherapy will produce neutrons when interacting with matter. The purpose of this study was to quantify the equivalent dose to tissue due to secondary neutrons in pediatric and adult patients treated by proton therapy for brain lesions. Assessment of the equivalent dose to organs away from the target requires whole-body geometrical information. Furthermore, because patient geometry depends on age at exposure, age-dependent representations are also needed. We implemented age-dependent phantoms into our proton Monte Carlo dose calculation environment. We considered 8 typical radiation fields, 2 of which had been previously used to treat pediatric patients. The other 6 fields were additionally considered to allow a systematic study of equivalent doses as a function of field parameters. For all phantoms and all fields, we simulated organ specific equivalent neutron doses and analyzed for each organ (1) the equivalent dose due to neutrons as a function of distance to the target; (2) the equivalent dose due to neutrons as a function of patient age; (3) the equivalent dose due to neutrons as a function of field parameters; and (4) the ratio of contributions to secondary dose from the treatment head versus the contribution from the patient’s body tissues. This work reports organ specific equivalent neutron doses for up to 48 organs in a patient. We demonstrate quantitatively how organ equivalent doses for adult and pediatric patients vary as a function of patient’s age...

‣ Adult testosterone treatment but not surgical disruption of vomeronasal function augments male-typical sexual behavior in female mice

Martel, Kristine L.; Baum, Michael J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/06/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.967283%
It was recently reported that female mice lacking a functional vomeronasal organ (VNO) displayed male-typical sexual behavior indiscriminately towards female and male conspecifics. These results have been cited as showing that a circuit controlling male-typical sex behavior exists in both sexes, with its activation in females being tonically inhibited by VNO signaling, independent of adult sex hormones. We further assessed this hypothesis while controlling the endocrine status of female mice in which VNO function was surgically disrupted. In Experiment 1 VNO lesioned (VNOx) female mice showed no more mounting or pelvic thrusting behavior toward an estrous female or a castrated, urine-swabbed male (presented simultaneously) than sham-operated (VNOi) females. This was true when subjects were either ovary-intact or ovariectomized and treated with estradiol, estradiol + progesterone, or testosterone. In Experiment 2 female mice given accessory olfactory bulb lesions or a sham lesion displayed equivalent frequencies of male sex behaviors when given testosterone following ovariectomy. In Experiment 3 VNOx and VNOi females displayed equivalent frequencies of male sex behaviors towards an estrous female or a castrated male (presented in separate tests)...

‣ CD41+ c-myb+ precursors colonize the zebrafish pronephros by a novel migration route to initiate adult hematopoiesis

Bertrand, Julien Y; Kim, Albert D; Teng, Shutian; Traver, David
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.967283%
Development of the vertebrate blood lineages is complex, with multiple waves of hematopoietic precursors arising in different embryonic locations. Monopotent, or primitive, precursors first give rise to embryonic macrophages or erythrocytes. Multipotent, or definitive, precursors are subsequently generated to produce the adult hematopoietic lineages. In both the zebrafish and the mouse, the first definitive precursors are committed erythromyeloid progenitors (EMPs) that lack lymphoid differentiation potential. We previously showed that zebrafish EMPs arise in the posterior blood island independently from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). In this report, we demonstrate that a fourth wave of hematopoietic precursors arise slightly later in the zebrafish aorta/gonad/mesonephros (AGM) equivalent. We have identified and prospectively isolated these cells by CD41 and c-myb expression. Unlike EMPs, CD41+ AGM cells colonize the thymus to generate rag-2+ T lymphocyte precursors. Timelapse imaging and lineage tracing analyses demonstrate that AGM-derived precursors utilize a previously undescribed migration pathway along the pronephric tubules to initiate adult hematopoiesis in the developing kidney, the teleostean equivalent of mammalian bone marrow. Finally...

‣ Enhanced Deficits in Long-Term Potentiation in the Adult Dentate Gyrus with 2nd Trimester Ethanol Consumption

Helfer, Jennifer L.; White, Emily R.; Christie, Brian R.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/12/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.981987%
Ethanol exposure during pregnancy can cause structural and functional changes in the brain that can impair cognitive capacity. The hippocampal formation, an area of the brain strongly linked with learning and memory, is particularly vulnerable to the teratogenic effects of ethanol. In the present experiments we sought to determine if the functional effects of developmental ethanol exposure could be linked to ethanol exposure during any single trimester-equivalent. Ethanol exposure during the 1st or 3rd trimester-equivalent produced only minor changes in synaptic plasticity in adult offspring. In contrast, ethanol exposure during the 2nd trimester equivalent resulted in a pronounced decrease in long-term potentiation, indicating that the timing of exposure influences the severity of the deficit. Together, the results from these experiments demonstrate long-lasting alterations in synaptic plasticity as the result of developmental ethanol exposure and dependent on the timing of exposure. Furthermore, these results allude to neural circuit malfunction within the hippocampal formation, perhaps relating to the learning and memory deficits observed in individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

‣ Prescribing Amplification for Children: Adult-Equivalent Hearing Loss, Real-Ear Aided Gain, and NAL-NL1

Ching, Teresa YC; Dillon, Harvey
Fonte: SAGE Publications Publicador: SAGE Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2003 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.842993%
This paper focuses on how the acoustical differences between the ear canals of adults and children affect amplification requirements and describes efficient strategies to allow for these differences when prescribing and verifying amplification. We will first summarize the problem for hearing assessment and then describe how adult-equivalent hearing loss can be calculated to circumvent this problem. Example cases demonstrate manual calculation and automatic derivation by using the NAL-NL1 software. The advantage of using real-ear aided gain prescriptions rather than real-ear insertion gain prescriptions for young children is explained. The practical benefit of deriving coupler gain targets to achieve the required real-ear aided gain by using individually measured real-ear-to-coupler differences is emphasized, together with a discussion on the practical issues relating to calibration and probe tube placement in measuring real-ear-to-coupler differences. Finally, an illustrative case exemplifies the derivation of individualized coupler gain targets by using the NAL-NL1 software system to achieve the required real-ear aided gain for a young child.

‣ Sorghum midge adult nonpreference.

WAQUIL, J. M.; TEETES, G. L.; PETERSON, G. C .
Fonte: Sorghum Newsletter, Tucson, v. 28, p. 72, 1985. Publicador: Sorghum Newsletter, Tucson, v. 28, p. 72, 1985.
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE)
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.83023%
Nonpreference by the sorghum midge Contarinia sorghicola (Coquillett),has been reported in the literature as an important mechanism of resistance of sorghum in many different resistance sources. This mechanism, in the case of sorghum and sorghum midge interactions, can be approached in two different steps: monpreference for adult visitation and nonpreference for adult visitation and monpreference for oviposition. Assuming equivalent number of flowers per panicle to be compared, nonpreference for visitation in related to the number of oviposition females present per panicle. On the other hand, nonpreference for oviposition is related to the number of eggs laid between the spikelets glumes under even infestation levels of adults. Using resistant(ATx2755 x RTx2767) and susceptible (ATx2752 x RTx430) sorghum hybrids, the sorghum midge adult nonpreference for visitation and nonpreference for oviposition were assessed at College Station, Texas, under field conditions during the summer of 1983 and 1984. The mean number of oviposition females trapped per flowering panicle of both hybrids was recorded in 5 trials in 1983 and 2 trials in 1984. During late morning, about ten panicles per hybrid in each trial were bagged with four-liter plastic bag...

‣ Anisometropia in an adult population in rural Myanmar: The Meiktlla eye study

Wu, H.; Casson, R.; Newland, H.; Muecke, J.; Selva-Nayagam, D.; Aung, T.
Fonte: Informa Healthcare Publicador: Informa Healthcare
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.778418%
PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence and risk factors for anisometropia in a rural adult population in central Myanmar. METHODS: A population-based ophthalmic survey was conducted in rural villages in central Myanmar. Ansiometropia was assessed in subjects with phakic eyes. The severity of anisometropia was defined as the absolute difference of the spherical equivalent between the two eyes. RESULTS: Prevalence of anisometropia (> or =1.0 D) in all participants was 35.3% (95% CI 32.7-37.9%); severe anisometropia (> or =2.0 D) was present in 18.9 % (95% CI 16.8-21.0%). There was no significant gender difference in anisometropia prevalence or severity. Prevalence and severity of anisometropia were significantly associated with age. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that cataract, myopia, but not age, were associated with anisometropia. The between-eye differences in axial length (r = 0.15, p < 0.001) and corneal curvature (r = 0.19, p < 0.001) were significantly correlated with the severity of anisometropia. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of anisometropia is relatively high in this rural adult population in Myanmar. Myopia and cataract, but not increasing age, are the potential risk factors of anisometropia in this population.; H. M. Wu...

‣ Pre-experimental familiarization increases hippocampal activity for both targets and lures in recognition memory: An fMRI study

de Zubicaray, G.; McMahon, K.; Hayward, L.; Dunn, J.
Fonte: M I T Press Publicador: M I T Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.981987%
In the present study, items pre-exposed in a familiarization series were included in a list discrimination task to manipulate memory strength. At test, participants were required to discriminate strong targets and strong lures from weak targets and new lures. This resulted in a concordant pattern of increased “old” responses to strong targets and lures. Model estimates attributed this pattern to either equivalent increases in memory strength across the two types of items (unequal variance signal detection model) or equivalent increases in both familiarity and recollection (dual process signal detection [DPSD] model). Hippocampal activity associated with strong targets and lures showed equivalent increases compared with missed items. This remained the case when analyses were restricted to high-confidence responses considered by the DPSD model to reflect predominantly recollection. A similar pattern of activity was observed in parahippocampal cortex for high-confidence responses. The present results are incompatible with “noncriterial” or “false” recollection being reflected solely in inflated DPSD familiarity estimates and support a positive correlation between hippocampal activity and memory strength irrespective of the accuracy of list discrimination...

‣ Equivalence of outcomes for rural and metropolitan patients with metastatic colorectal cancer in South Australia

Hocking, C.; Broadbridge, V.T.; Karapetis, C.; Beeke, C.; Padbury, R.; Maddern, G.J.; Roder, D.M.; Price, T.J.
Fonte: MJA Group Australia Publicador: MJA Group Australia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.981987%
OBJECTIVE: To compare the management and outcome of rural and metropolitan patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) in South Australia. DESIGN, SETTING AND PATIENTS: Retrospective cohort study of patients with mCRC submitted to the South Australian mCRC registry between 2 February 2006 and a cut-off date of 28 May 2012. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Differences in oncological and surgical management and overall survival (calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method) between city and rural patients. RESULTS: Of 2289 patients, 624 (27.3%) were rural. There was a higher proportion of male patients in the rural cohort, but other patient characteristics did not significantly differ between the cohorts. Equivalent rates of chemotherapy administration between city and rural patients were observed across each line of treatment (first line: 56.0% v 58.3%, P = 0.32; second line: 23.3% v 22.5%, P = 0.78; and third line: 10.1% v 9.3%, P = 0.69). A higher proportion of city patients received combination chemotherapy in the first-line setting (67.4% v 59.9%; P = 0.01). When an oxaliplatin combination was prescribed, oral capecitabine was used more frequently in rural patients (22.9% v 8.4%; P < 0.001). No significant difference was seen in rates of hepatic resection or other non-chemotherapy treatments between cohorts. Median overall survival was equivalent between city and rural patients (14.6 v 14.9 months...

‣ Childhood energy intake and adult mortality from cancer: the Boyd Orr Cohort Study.

Frankel, S.; Gunnell, D. J.; Peters, T. J.; Maynard, M.; Davey Smith, G.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/02/1998 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.70193%
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between energy intake in childhood and adult mortality from cancer. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: 16 rural and urban centres in England and Scotland. SUBJECTS: 3834 people who took part in Lord Boyd Orr's Carnegie survey of family diet and health in prewar Britain between 1937 and 1939 who were followed up with the NHS, central register. Standardised methods were used to measure household dietary intake during a one week period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cancer mortality. RESULTS: Significant associations between childhood energy intake and cancer mortality were seen when the confounding effects of social variables were taken into account in proportional hazards models (relative hazard for all cancer mortality 1.15 (95% confidence interval 1.06 to 1.24), P = 0.001, for every MJ increase in adult equivalent daily intake in fully adjusted models). This effect was essentially limited to cancers not related to smoking (relative hazard 1.20; 1.07 to 1.34; P = 0.001), with similar effects seen in men and women. CONCLUSION: This positive association between childhood energy intake and later cancer is consistent with animal evidence linking energy restriction with reduced incidence of cancer and the association between height and human cancer...

‣ Comparison of cytotoxic properties of neonatal and adult neutrophils and monocytes and enhancement by cytokines.

Stiehm, E R; Roberts, R L; Ank, B J; Plaeger-Marshall, S; Salman, N; Shen, L; Fanger, M W
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1994 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.340234%
We studied cytotoxic capabilities of newborn polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and monocytes and their enhancement by cytokines and antibodies. Umbilical cord PMNs were assessed for their ability to kill various target cells spontaneously, after activation with phorbol myristate acetate, in the presence of antiserum (antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity), and in the presence of dually specific antibody (heteroantibody-mediated cytotoxicity). Target cells included the K562 cell line (natural killer cell target), chicken erythrocytes (CRBCs), and herpes simplex virus-infected CEM cell lines. Newborn PMNs were equivalent to adult PMNs in their cytotoxic capacity in several cytotoxicity assays. Neither adult nor newborn PMNs lyse tumor cell targets (i.e., K562 cells) spontaneously, but both lyse K562 cells following activation with phorbol myristate acetate. Both adult and newborn PMNs lyse CRBCs and herpes simplex virus-infected CEM cells in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity assays, and this lysis could be enhanced by the cytokines granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and gamma interferon. PMN heteroantibody-mediated cytotoxicity, resulting from the use of an antibody with dual specificity to CRBCs and immunoglobulin G FcRII...

‣ Atividade física e fatores associados em adultos de área rural em Minas Gerais, Brasil; Actividad física y factores asociados en adultos de área rural en Minas Gerais, Sureste de Brasil; Adult physical activity levels and associated factors in rural communities of Minas Gerais State, Brazil

Bicalho, Paula Gonçalves; Hallal, Pedro Curi; Gazzinelli, Andréa; Knuth, Alan Goularte; Velásquez-Meléndez, Gustavo
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/10/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.577642%
OBJETIVO: Estimar os níveis de atividade física e sua associação com fatores sociodemográficos em moradores de áreas rurais. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, de base populacional, incluindo 567 adultos de duas comunidades rurais do Vale do Jequitinhonha, MG, entre os anos de 2008 e 2009. Os níveis de atividade física foram coletados por meio do Questionário Internacional de Atividade Física, versão longa adaptada. Utilizou-se o ponto de corte de 150 minutos de atividade física semanal entre os domínios: trabalho, domicílio, lazer e deslocamento. Os fatores sociodemográficos pesquisados foram sexo, cor da pele, idade, estado marital, escolaridade e autopercepção de saúde. Foram realizadas análise bivariada (qui-quadrado, p< 0,05) e análise múltipla de regressão logística. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de indivíduos que praticaram 150 minutos ou mais de atividade física no trabalho foi de 82,9% (IC 95%: 77,8;88,0) entre os que trabalham atualmente. Essa proporção para os outros domínios foram: domicílio 63,5% (IC 95%: 59,6;67,4); lazer 10,1% (IC 95%: 7,6;12,6); e no deslocamento 32,0% (IC 95%: 28,2;35,8). Os homens foram mais ativos que as mulheres no lazer, deslocamentos e trabalho, enquanto as mulheres foram mais ativas no ambiente doméstico. A atividade física de lazer foi mais prevalente em indivíduos de maior escolaridade...

‣ Per capita versus adult-equivalent estimates of calorie availability in household budget surveys

Claro,Rafael Moreira; Levy,Renata Bertazzi; Bandoni,Daniel Henrique; Mondini,Lenise
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.385825%
This study aims to estimate an adult-equivalent scale for calorie requirements and to determine the differences between adult-equivalent and per capita measurements of calorie availability in the Brazilian population. The study used data from the 2002-2003 Brazilian Household Budget Survey. The calorie requirement for a reference adult individual was based on the mean requirements for adult males and females (2,550kcal/day). The conversion factors were defined as the ratios between the calorie requirements for each age group and gender and that of the reference adult. The adult-equivalent calorie availability levels were higher than the per capita levels, with the largest differences in rural and low-income households. Differences in household calorie availability varied from 22kcal/day (households with adults and an adolescent) to 428kcal/day (households with elderly individuals), thus showing that per capital measurements can underestimate the real calorie availability, since they overlook differences in household composition.