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‣ Central American Regional Programmatic Study for the Energy Sector : General Issues and Options - Sector Overview

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
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The six Central American countries of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama share a long tradition of regional integration, including a common market, substantial intraregional trade, as well as coordinated commercial policies, such as the Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) with the US. The most significant example of regional integration in the energy subsector consists of the Sistema de Interconexion Electrica para America Central (SIEPAC), an interconnection line that is expected to link the six countries in mid-2010. The creation of the interconnection has been a long-term effort, starting in the early 1990s and culminating in 2010. This report provides an overview of the energy sector in Central America, with a focus on the power subsector, and highlights the key challenges and options for meeting future energy and development goals. One of the main objectives of the study is to identify paths for collective action whereby individual countries, and the region as a whole...

‣ Energy Demand Models for Policy Formulation : A Comparative Study of Energy Demand Models

Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.; Timilsina, Govinda R.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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This paper critically reviews existing energy demand forecasting methodologies highlighting the methodological diversities and developments over the past four decades in order to investigate whether the existing energy demand models are appropriate for capturing the specific features of developing countries. The study finds that two types of approaches, econometric and end-use accounting, are used in the existing energy demand models. Although energy demand models have greatly evolved since the early 1970s, key issues such as the poor-rich and urban-rural divides, traditional energy resources, and differentiation between commercial and non-commercial energy commodities are often poorly reflected in these models. While the end-use energy accounting models with detailed sector representations produce more realistic projections compared with the econometric models, they still suffer from huge data deficiencies especially in developing countries. Development and maintenance of more detailed energy databases...

‣ Europe and Central Asia Balancing Act : Cutting Subsidies, Protecting Affordability, and Investing in the Energy Sector in Eastern Europe and Central Asia Region

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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The cost of energy in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, as elsewhere, is an important policy issue, as shown by the concerns for energy affordability during the past harsh winter. Governments try to moderate the burden of energy expenditures that is experienced by households through subsidies to the energy providers, so that households pay tariffs below the cost recovery level for the energy they use. These subsidies result in significant pressures on government budgets when international prices rise. They also provide perverse incentives for the overconsumption of energy as households do not pay the true cost of energy, and therefore, have fewer incentives to save or to invest in energy efficiency. Balancing competing claims-fiscal and environmental concerns which would push for raising energy tariffs on the one hand and affordability and political economy concerns which push for keeping tariffs artificially low on the other-is a task that policy makers in the region are increasingly unable to put off. Addressing this issue is all the more pressing as the ongoing crisis continues to add stress to government budgets...

‣ Balancing Act : Cutting Energy Subsidies While Protecting Affordability

Laderchi, Caterina Ruggeri; Olivier, Anne; Trimble, Chris
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
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The cost of energy in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, as elsewhere, is an important policy issue, as shown by the concerns for energy affordability during the past harsh winter. Governments try to moderate the burden of energy expenditures that is experienced by households through subsidies to the energy providers, so that households pay tariffs below the cost recovery level for the energy they use. These subsidies result in significant pressures on government budgets when international prices rise. They also provide perverse incentives for the overconsumption of energy as households do not pay the true cost of energy, and therefore, have fewer incentives to save or to invest in energy efficiency. Balancing competing claims-fiscal and environmental concerns which would push for raising energy tariffs on the one hand, and affordability and political economy concerns which push for keeping tariffs artificially low on the other-is a task that policy makers in the region are increasingly unable to put off. Addressing this issue is all the more pressing as the ongoing crisis continues to add stress to government budgets...

‣ Strengthening the Non-Conventional and Rural Energy Development Program in the Philippines : A Policy Framework and Action Plan

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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As articulated in the new energy plan for 1999-2008, the key sector objectives for the Philippines energy sector remain security of energy supply, affordable prices, and an energy infrastructure compatible with broader social and environmental objectives. Ths report is organized as follows: Chapter 1 briefly lays out the social, environmental, and economic justifications for developing non-renewable energy resources (NRE) against the backdrop of privatization and reform of the energy sector. It reviews the experience with NRE from the 1970s to the present, highlighting some important lessons learned from both successful and failed initiatives. Chapter 2 reviews the commercial status and current and expected costs internationally of NRE technologies of potential usefulness. It distinguishes between immediate and long-term potential, small- and large-scale systems, and rural and urban applications, as well as reviewing the status of several off-grid and grid-connected technologies. Chapter 3 examines how existing and impending policies...

‣ Energy and Development Report 2001 - Energy and the Environment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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This 2001 Energy and Development Report reflects on the progress made since July 1999, when the need to include environmental concerns in energy sector development was acknowledged. The review looks at the context in which the energy, and environment debate is now set, and examines the primary outcomes of the strategy in relative depth. The second part reviews ways to create the framework for energy and environment, by enhancing capacity building, the knowledge base, and dissemination practices, through case studies and perspectives on sustainable energy systems. Reducing air pollution is further explored in the context of facilitating the transition from traditional, to modern fuels, by improving access to modern energy, while protecting the health of - mainly - urban residents from air pollution. In addition, through case studies on district heating, power distribution, and, initiatives regarding gas flaring reduction, the report focuses on the promotion of environmentally, sustainable development of energy resources...

‣ Energy Sector Reform and the Pattern of the Poor : Energy Use and Supply, A Four Country Study - Botswana, Ghana, Honduras and Senegal

Prasad, Gisela
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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This project had the following objectives: to undertake a detailed assessment for four countries of the steps taken to reform the energy sector and their impact (or not) on various groups of poor households; to identify patterns of energy use by poor households in various situations; to identify patterns of supply of energy to poor households; and to identify links between the supply and the use of energy by poor households, which are capable of being directly impacted by sector reform. Such links include: the actual use of various sources of energy (e.g. electricity); the form in which the source is used (e.g. battery or grid connection); its associated cost (capital costs and fuel costs); and the nature of the delivery form (state utility or local off-grid company, retailer of batteries or of LPG). The design of a template for future assessment of the impact of sector reform on the poor in other countries. Through the use of local consultants, wherever possible, the engagement in capacity building for economic and policy analysis of the energy sector.

‣ Capturing the Multi-Dimensionality of Energy Access

Bhatia, Mikul; Angelou, Nicolina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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There are two initial challenges in defining and measuring energy access: the absence of a universal definition of energy access and the difficulty of measuring any definition in an accurate manner. The multi-tier approach to measuring energy access proposed in the Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) Global Tracking Framework of 2013 introduces a five-tier measurement methodology based on various energy attributes, such as quantity, quality, affordability, and duration of supply. The approach makes it possible to compute a weighted index of access to energy for a given geographical area. Separate notes focus on multi-tier measurement of energy access for households, productive enterprises, and community institutions. The type of data required for a multi-tiered assessment of energy access in a given area can be obtained through surveys of actual energy availability and use among a scientific sample of all users in a given category (households, enterprises, community institutions). Survey questionnaires elicit information about each energy attribute...

‣ Tools to Understand Social Issues in Energy Tariff and Subsidy Reforms in Europe and Central Asia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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This toolkit aims to help World Bank task teams working on energy subsidy and tariff reforms to develop qualitative analysis tools. The tools that are described in this document can help task teams to better understand and address social and political challenges related to these reforms, including impacts of reforms and political economy constraints. This toolkit shares lessons and research tools developed during analyses of energy tariff and subsidy reforms in ECA. In FY13-FY14 alone, the World Bank has been involved in providing guidance to over fourteen countries in the Europe and Central Asia (ECA) region on these reforms. World Bank assistance to ECA countries ranges from advice on the design of energy sector policies to understanding and mitigating poverty and social impacts. This toolkit presents a practical guide to applying the two sets of tools described above. Chapter two presents a brief overview of the types of social and political challenges in energy tariff reforms that motivate the use of qualitative and stakeholder or political economy assessments. Chapter three provides a step-by-step guide to conducting qualitative assessments and stakeholder analyses of energy tariff reforms based on the ECA experience. Annex one contains Terms of Reference (TORs) for all analytical tools described in the Toolkit. Annex two provides a reference table to case studies of PEAs of energy subsidy and tariff reforms conducted by the World Bank.

‣ Africa Energy Poverty : G8 Energy Ministers Meeting 2009

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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Worldwide, about 1.6 billion people lack access to electricity services. There are also large populations without access in the poorer countries of Asia and Latin America, as well as in the rural and peri-urban areas of middle income countries. However large-scale electrification programs that is currently underway in middle income countries and the poor countries of Asia will increase household electricity access more rapidly than in sub-Saharan Africa. Africa has the lowest electrification rate of all the regions at 26 percent of households, meaning that as many as 547 million people are without access to electricity. On current trends less than half of African countries will reach universal access to electricity even by 2050. Without access to electricity services, the poor are deprived of opportunities to improve their living standards and the delivery of health and education services is compromised when electricity is not available in clinics, in schools and in the households of students and teachers. The total financing needs for Africa to resolve the power supply crisis are of the order of approximately US$40 billion per annum or 6.4 percent of region's Gross Domestic Product (GDP). In response to the power crisis...

‣ FYR Macedonia Energy Policy Paper

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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This Report provides an overview of the investment, and policy choices in the Macedonian energy sector. On the investment side, the Report highlights the criteria under which potential investments in a new Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plant, and a new coal mine, should proceed. The Report focuses on reforms that would be required to support the CHP project, namely ratification by Macedonia of the Kyoto Protocol, and resolution of ownership issues related to the gas pipeline linking Skopje to Bulgaria. The Report recommends development of a Skopje gasification project, and a Renewable Energy Project. Regarding reforms to support Macedonia's participation in the regional energy market, the Report concludes that good progress is being made, particularly as regards development of a regulatory framework for the energy industry. The Report recommends that the Electric Power Company of Macedonia (ESM) be restructured, prior to privatization, with hydro assets being separated from thermal generation, and that possible ownership...

‣ Implementing Energy Efficiency and Demand Side Management : South Africa’s Standard Offer Model

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy-Environment Review; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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This report evaluates opportunities for South Africa to adopt a low carbon development pathway through a standard offer model. The standard offer aims to: provide customers and energy service companies a predetermined amount for delivered energy or demand savings, allow them to efficiently and rapidly structure and propose energy efficiency and demand side management projects, streamline the project approval process and scale-up project development and implementation, simplify the contracts between the utility and the energy service companies or customers, reduce the burden on the utility staff for project evaluation and processing, provide transparency to project proponents on the payments for delivered savings, facilitate the leveraging of commercial financing for energy efficiency projects, and reduce the utility's risk by making the payments. The report concludes that while South Africa has taken important steps towards implementing key elements of a national mitigation strategy; some practical problems...

‣ Towards a Sustainable Energy Future : The World Bank Group's Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Action Plan

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study
Português
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The challenge for the development community is to exploit the links between energy and poverty to combat global poverty. The human scale of this challenge is huge. Today, 1.6 billion people lack access to electricity and 2.4 billion rely on traditional biomass for cooking and heating. Indoor air pollution is among leading causes of illness and death in developing countries. It leads to 2 million premature deaths a year. In 2004, the richest 20 percent of the world s population consume 58 percent of total energy, while the poorest 20 percent consume less than 4 percent. The majority of those underserved are the poor in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. With increasing populations, 25 years from now, business-as-usual energy scenarios project that even after an expenditure of 16 trillion US dollars on energy investments of which half will be in developing countries, 1.4 billion people will still lack access to electricity. This is a reduction of only 200 million people from today. Over 2.6 billion people in developing countries will continue to rely on traditional forms of biomass for cooking and heating in 2030...

‣ Brazil : How Do the Peri-urban Poor Meet their Energy Needs - A Case Study of Caju Shantytown, Rio de Janeiro

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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The phenomenon of poverty has traditionally been measured based on the individual's income. However, more recently, the debate over poverty has evolved beyond income or lack of it. The condition in which people have access to basic civil rights, such as an adequate energy supply, is nowadays considered an important marker of poverty. This study proposes to analyze energy poverty in the shantytowns of Rio de Janeiro. The authors aim is to suggest public policies that can, with support from electric utilities, contribute to improving the living conditions of the shantytown inhabitants. The study was carried out using both quantitative and qualitative data.

‣ Latin America and the Caribbean Region Energy Sector : Retrospective Review and Challenges

Byer, Trevor; Crousillat, Enrique; Dussan, Manuel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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During the 90s, most countries in Latin America and the Caribbean Region (LCR) supported by the World Bank, implemented a market-oriented reform in the energy sector to promote competition, economic regulation and greater private sector participation, as the main instruments to improve the quality, reliability and efficiency of energy services, and improve the government's fiscal position and increase affordable access to modern energy services for the poor. This report comprises an assessment of the energy sector reform in the region: its achievements, difficulties, lessons learnt and current status; an assessment of the future needs of the energy sector investment and financing requirements, constraints, and challenges; and a review of the role of development agencies in supporting the region's energy needs. The study is not a systematic analysis of the reform experience and needs of individual countries, which is not deemed necessary to define an energy strategy for the region, but rather an analysis of the main themes that are common to most countries...

‣ Fighting Poverty through Decentralized Renewable Energy : Energy SME Conference, Phnom Penh, Cambodia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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Decentralized energy services remain at the forefront in the fight against poverty. Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) are driving this effort to provide an alternative to state-owned utilities and other large energy providers in poor and developing countries. SMEs allow entrepreneurs to provide alternative energy supply in remote and rural areas while also providing jobs, lowering energy costs, and reducing carbon and other greenhouse gas emissions. The document provided a forum to discuss the specific role of SMEs in the energy sectors of Cambodia and Lao people's democratic Republic and establish a blueprint for SME involvement in alternative energy products and services in other countries.

‣ Energy Efficient Cities : Assessment Tools and Benchmarking Practices

Bose, Ranjan K.
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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With cities accounting for half the world's population today, and two-thirds of global energy demand, urbanization is exacting a serious toll on the environment. As rapid urban growth continues, energy use in cities and associated levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are projected to continue unabated; current projections indicate that approximately 70 percent of the world's population will live in cities by 2050, producing some 80 percent of the world's GHG emissions. Unfortunately, most of this urban growth will take place in developing countries, where the vast majority of people remain underserved by basic infrastructure service and where city authorities are under-resourced to shift current trajectories. Further, the developing regions of Africa and Asia are where the most rapid urbanization is taking place, and they are least able to cope with the uncertainties and extremities of climate impacts. The development and mainstreaming of energy-efficient and low-carbon urban pathways that curtail climate impacts without hampering the urban development agenda thus are essential to meeting such challenges. Reducing long-term energy use through efficiency also enhances energy security by decreasing dependence on imported and fossil fuel. In addition...

‣ Improved Energy Technologies for Rural Cambodia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Rural Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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More than 90 percent of total household energy used in rural Cambodia comes from wood and charcoal, which will continue to be the primary energy source for many more years, especially for poorer people. Faced with this reality, it is clear that simple and affordable solutions to the problems associated with burning wood and charcoal should be addressed. One obvious solution is the production and wide dissemination of more efficient stoves, which can cut fuel consumption in half. The new, improved cook stoves are based on traditional stove models, but both are more efficient due to three main improvements in design: 1) the space between the pot and the pot-rest is reduced, 2) the grate has smaller holes, and 3) the combustion chamber is smaller. The effect is better combustion with less heat loss, a more complete burning of wood, and also less smoke. There are two models of improved cook stoves: the Neang Kongrey stove and the New Lao stove. The Neang Kongrey is a simple ceramic cook stove that sells for about $1.25 and lasts for 1-2 years. The New Lao Stove has metal cladding and insulation that adds at least two years to the stove's lifetime and increases its cost to about $4.

‣ The Energy Efficient Cities Initiative Practitioners' Roundtable

Energy Sector Management Assistance Program
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
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Cities represent a major contributor of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. According to the United Nations Population Fund,1 half of the world's population now lives in cities and is responsible for 75% of global energy use and GHG emissions. Since the world's population will continue to grow, and rapid urbanization will continue particularly in the developing world, tackling climate change issues in the urban context will be essential. In response to these challenges, the World Bank's Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP), in cooperation with the Bank?s Finance Economics and Urban Department (FEU), has launched an Energy Efficient Cities Initiative, which is designed to help mainstream and scale-up sustainable energy and climate change mitigation actions and investments in the urban context. The first activity proposed under this Initiative is the Energy Efficient Cities Practitioners Roundtable, a facilitated discussion cohosted by ESMAP and FEU. The purpose of this event was to bring together client cities and partner organizations to investigate ongoing initiatives and programs to support cities' sustainable energy goals needs and develop an Energy Efficient Cities Action Plan that will outline a vision and subsequent actions to be taken under the Initiative. The event took place at the Washington DC offices of the World Bank...

‣ Energy for Sustainable Development – An Assessment of the Energy-Poverty-Development Nexus

Nussbaumer, Patrick; Patt, Anthony
Fonte: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Publicador: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,
Tipo: Tesis i dissertacions electròniques; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2012 Português
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La energía es un elemento fundamental para muchos aspectos del desarrollo socioeconómico. Los servicios que la mayoría de las personas en los países industrializados dan garantizados - iluminación adecuada, energía limpia para calefacción y cocina, telecomunicaciones, fuerza motriz y ocio - están fuera del alcance en gran parte de la población mundial. La falta de acceso a servicios energéticos confiables y asequibles representa un claro obstáculo para el desarrollo humano, social, económico y para el logro de los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio. Constituyendo actualmente un hecho inaceptable e insostenible, la pobreza energética representa una cruda realidad que junto a otros problemas globales debe ser tratada de manera urgente. A pesar de los importantes esfuerzos realizados por las instituciones y los gobiernos locales, las entidades públicas y las organizaciones internacionales, la tendencia indica que el número total de pobres en términos de acceso a la energía aumente en las próximas décadas, a menos de que se inicien de forma inmediata acciones adicionales orientadas a evitar ese incremento. En este sentido, la historia ha demostrado que es posible lograr un significativo avance en acceso energetico en un corto espacio de tiempo. Este hecho se ha producido recientemente en varios países asiáticos (por ejemplo...