Página 1 dos resultados de 484 itens digitais encontrados em 0.040 segundos

‣ Dependência e monopólio no comércio internacional de sementes transgênicas

Martins, Aline Regina Alves
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: 150 f. : il.
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Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Pós-graduação em Relações Internacionais (UNESP - UNICAMP - PUC-SP) - FFC; Com a Revolução Científica e Tecnológica (1970), a informação e o conhecimento transformam-se em fontes de maior produtividade e de desenvolvimento socioeconômico. No mundo agrário, os Organismos Geneticamente Modificados, também denominados transgênicos, representam a conformação dessa nova dinâmica tecnológica internacional. Em uma economia diretamente enraizada na produção e uso de conhecimentos, este trabalho prima pela investigação da existência de uma monopolização das técnicas transgênicas por determinadas empresas e países restringindo as possibilidades de concorrência no setor de sementes geneticamente modificadas, o que prejudicaria países menos avançados em biotecnologia agrícola. Em que medida conhecimentos e tecnologias de ponta estão organizados em fluxos globais ou estão inseridos em uma estrutura assimétrica, estabelecendo uma divisão entre os países capazes de participar dos processos de geração de novas tecnologias agrícolas e aqueles que passivamente absorvem conhecimentos advindos do exterior? Como a polarização de conhecimentos e informações estratégicos acarretaria e perpetuaria desigualdades na economia global e quais são os mecanismos jurídicos e políticos que corroborariam essa concentração?; In the Scientific-Technical Revolution (1970)...

‣ Chinese public understanding of the use of agricultural biotechnology—A case study from Zhejiang Province of China*

Lü, Lan
Fonte: Zhejiang University Press Publicador: Zhejiang University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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This study explores the Chinese public’s perceptions of, and attitudes to, agriculture and food applications of biotechnology; and investigates the effect of socio-demographic factors on attitudes. A questionnaire survey and interviews were used in an attempt to combine quantitative analysis with qualitative review. The main finding of this study is that the Chinese population has a superficial, optimistic attitude to agricultural biotechnology; and that, in accordance with public attitudes, a cautious policy, with obligatory labelling, should be adopted. The study reveals that education is the factor among socio-demographic variables with the strongest impact on public attitudes. Higher education leads to a more positive evaluation of GM (genetically modified) foods and applications of biotechnology with respect to usefulness, moral acceptability, and suitability for encouragement. In addition, public attitudinal differences depend significantly on area of residence. Compared with their more urban compatriots, members of the public in less developed areas of China have more optimistic attitudes, perceive more benefits, and are more risk tolerant in relation to GM foods and agricultural biotechnology. Finally we obtained a very high rate of “don’t know” answers to our survey questions. This suggests that many people do not have settled attitudes...

‣ The integrated web service and genome database for agricultural plants with biotechnology information

Kim, ChangKug; Park, DongSuk; Seol, YoungJoo; Hahn, JangHo
Fonte: Biomedical Informatics Publicador: Biomedical Informatics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/06/2011 Português
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The National Agricultural Biotechnology Information Center (NABIC) constructed an agricultural biology-based infrastructure and developed a Web based relational database for agricultural plants with biotechnology information. The NABIC has concentrated on functional genomics of major agricultural plants, building an integrated biotechnology database for agro-biotech information that focuses on genomics of major agricultural resources. This genome database provides annotated genome information from 1,039,823 records mapped to rice, Arabidopsis, and Chinese cabbage.

‣ A study on applicability of biotechnology to development in the Caribbean opportunities and risks

Fonte: ECLAC, Subregional Headquarters for the Caribbean Publicador: ECLAC, Subregional Headquarters for the Caribbean
Tipo: Texto
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The present study analyzes the potential opportunities and risks involved in employing biotechnologies in the Caribbean region. This information would support developmental policies in the areas of food security, climate change and poverty reduction. The report provides a brief overview of biotechnology development, covering industrial and other microbial biotechnologies, tissue culture and molecular biology. Details of opportunities and risks of biotechnology development are provided for agricultural, industrial, environmental, industrial and medical biotechnology, with information on the global agreements for regulation of genetically modified organisms. The rest of the report analyzes the Caribbean situation. Biotechnology applications, opportunities and risks in the Caribbean are described in detail, with focus on industrial and agricultural biotechnology, and including climate change and constraints to biotechnology development. The report closes with a discussion of the applicability of biotechnology to the region in terms of agricultural, industrial, environmental, medical and marine biotechnology. Conclusions and recommendations are provided. The main conclusion of the study is that there is an urgent need for development and use of biotechnology in the Caribbean...

‣ Cotton, Biotechnology, and Economic Development

Baffes, John
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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During the past decade, cotton prices remained considerably below other agricultural prices (although they recovered toward the end of 2010). Yet, between 2000-04 and 2005-09 world cotton production increased 13 percent. This paper conjectures that biotechnology-induced productivity improvements increased supplies by China and India, which, in addition to keeping cotton prices low, aided these countries to cap-ture market share from (and cause losses to) non-users of biotechnology. By contrast, with a single exception, Africa has not adopted biotechnology and, not coincidentally, its cotton output declined by more than 20 percent between the first and second half of the past decade. The paper concludes that the development implications of biotechnology go beyond cotton and Africa. High energy prices have been an important driver of the recent commodity price boom. Therefore, investment and policy strategy responses to a cost-driven boom should be consistent with cost-saving alternatives. Biotechnology clearly meets this challenge.

‣ Agriculture and the WTO : Creating a Trading System for Development

Ingco, Merlinda D.; Nash, John D.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank and Oxford University Press Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank and Oxford University Press
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This publication explores the key issues and options in agricultural trade liberalization from a developing country perspective. Chapters cover market access, domestic support, export competition, quota administration methods, food security, biotechnology, intellectual property rights, agricultural trade under the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture (URAA), and many other subjects, always focusing on the question of how the outcome of the World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiations can be made pro-development. Material is covered in summary and in comprehensive detail with supporting data tables, text boxes, figures, and a detailed table of contents. Many chapters have a substantial bibliography, listings of online resources, and tables summarizing the major points of WTO member country proposals that deal directly with each chapter topic.

‣ Policy challenges for agricultural biotechnology in the Asia Pacific: developing framework for analysis

Parthasarathy, D
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 421367 bytes; 354 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
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Introduction: The paper then seeks to go beyond rhetoric and emotive debates and develop a framework for facilitating effective technology development and transfer in different countries in the Asia-Pacific region. By focusing on issues related to agrarian structure, agricultural systems, and the nature of global and regional integration, a heterodox and heterogeneous approach to the analysis of technology uptake and impact assessment will be developed. It is argued that such an approach is essential for formulating effective policies for agricultural biotechnology.; no

‣ The state of food and agriculture 2003/04, agricultural biotechnology: Meeting the needs of the poor?

Killicoat, Phillip
Fonte: Blackwell Publ Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publ Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 Português
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Book Review: The State of Food and Agriculture 2003/04, Agricultural Biotechnology: Meeting the needs of the poor?, by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Published by FAO, Rome, Italy, 2004, pp xv + 209, ISBN 92 5 105079 1 (pbk), $US65.00.; Article first published online: 9 JUN 2005

‣ Framing the public : three case studies in public participation in the governance of agricultural biotechnology

Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: Paper
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Ideas about public engagement with controversial technologies are growing in political prominence. This dissertation delivers a theoretically grounded, empirical analysis of why active public involvement is considered to be of growing importance for the legitimate use of new technologies. It examines the different social dynamics influencing actual attempts to engage the public and the difficulties encountered. Janus Hansen argues that while there are strong normative reasons to further public engagement with the regulation of controversial technologies, there are also strong sociological reasons to reflect carefully on what such engagement can realistically achieve. This dissertation delivers conceptual tools and empirical analyses to support such reflections based on in-depth case studies of important attempts to engage public concerns across Europe.; Defence date: 10 June 2005; Examining board: Prof. Andrew Webster (University of York) ; Prof. Donatella Della Porta (EUI) ; Prof. Klaus Eder (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, external co-supervisor) ; Prof. Colin Crouch (University of Warwick, former EUI, supervisor)

‣ Developing a new business model for enabling research - the case of the ACPFG in Australia

Agius, S.; Corkindale, D.; Dottore, A.; Gilbert, M.
Fonte: Inderscience Publishers Publicador: Inderscience Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 485297 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em //2006 Português
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The way in which companies, research centres and educational institutions are organised and structured may provide a competitive advantage for commercialisation, in particular if companies are dependent on the deployment of complementary assets and capabilities by third parties. This paper presents the case of the Australian Centre for Plant Functional Genomics (ACPFG), a private agricultural biotechnology (agbiotech) company specialising in early stage Research and Development (R&D) to produce superior adapted cereal varieties, tolerant to abiotic stress conditions such as drought, frost, salt, or mineral toxicity, all of which have a direct and negative impact on plant growth and crop productivity. The organisational structure of the company has been influenced and shaped by Government policy, shareholders expectations and trends in the agbiotech industrial organisation. It has proved attractive to potential alliance partners for collaborative R&D and commercialisation. We present the ACPFG as a new business model to fund basic research and facilitate technology transfer.; Stephanie C. Agius, David Corkindale, Antonio G. Dottore, Michael Gilbert; Publisher's postprint archived as permitted by publisher.

‣ Economic impacts of policies affecting crop biotechnology and trade

Anderson, K.
Fonte: Elsevier BV Publicador: Elsevier BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 Português
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Agricultural biotechnologies, and especially transgenic crops, have the potential to boost food security in developing countries by offering higher incomes for farmers and lower priced and better quality food for consumers. That potential is being heavily compromised, however, because the European Union and some other countries have implemented strict regulatory systems to govern their production and consumption of genetically modified (GM) food and feed crops, and to prevent imports of foods and feedstuffs that do not meet these strict standards. This paper analyses empirically the potential economic effects of adopting transgenic crops in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. It does so using a multi-country, multi-product model of the global economy. The results suggest the economic welfare gains from crop biotechnology adoption are potentially very large, and that those benefits are diminished only very slightly by the presence of the European Union's restriction on imports of GM foods. That is, if developing countries retain bans on GM crop production in an attempt to maintain access to EU markets for non-GM products, the loss to their food consumers as well as to farmers in those developing countries is huge relative to the slight loss that could be incurred from not retaining EU market access.; Kym Anderson

‣ Seeds of Life : Women and Agricultural Biodiversity in Africa; Les femmes et la biodiversite vegetale en Afrique

Easton, Peter; Ronald, Margaret
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
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One of the down-sides of worldwide agricultural development, has been the replacement of native plant species by marketable crops, accompanied by a reduction in the diversity of the seed stock. This accounts for the disappearance of plants with potential medicinal uses, particularly in high biodiversity areas, and, the crowding out of native diversity of edible species by standard, sometimes genetically altered by commercial farming demands, is an equally serious problem. Indigenous knowledge of edible plants is one key "pool" of biodiversity in Africa - one in which women play a vital role. The note looks at bean farming in Kenya, where evidence shows that in pre-colonial times a large variety of bean species was cultivated, which constituted a critical element of rural people's diet, and a rich source of protein. Traditionally, women grew, and conserved multiple seed stocks, as a hedge against disease, and unpredictable climate changes. However, the colonial agricultural extension service eliminated multi-cropping - a phenomenon that brought negative consequences for nutrition...

‣ Biotechnology Innovation for Inclusive Growth : A Study of Indian Policies to Foster Accelerated Technology Adaptation for Affordable Development

Vijayaraghavan, K.; Dutz, Mark A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
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This paper describes and analyzes a series of complementary policy initiatives in India to adapt and commercialize existing global biotechnologies to meet local needs in healthcare, agriculture, industry and the environment in a more affordable manner. This evolving approach has been implemented through six complementary elements, namely (1) translational research; (2) technology access through global consortia; (3) commercialization supported by public-private partnerships, broadly interpreted; (4) skills development; (5) regulation; and (6) institutional governance, including special purpose vehicles, for effective project management. The paper focuses on two public-private partnership initiatives, the Small Business Innovation Research Initiative and the Biotechnology Industry Partnership Program, which together have allocated more than US$70 million in public funding to almost 150 projects, contributing to a total public-private investment of more than $170 million over the past five years. The authors' key recommendation...

‣ Reducing Distortions to Agricultural Incentives: Progress, Pitfalls and Prospects

Anderson, Kym
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
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Most of the world's poorest people depend on farming for their livelihood. Earnings from farming in low-income countries are depressed partly due to a pro-urban bias in own-country policies, and partly because richer countries (including some developing countries) favor their farmers with import barriers and subsidies. Both sets of policies reduce national and global economic growth and add to inequality and poverty in developing countries. Acknowledgement of that since the 1980s has given rise to greater pressures for reform, both internal and external. Over the past two decades numerous developing country governments have reduced their sectoral and trade policy distortions, while many high-income countries continue with protectionist policies that harm developing country exports of farm products. Recent research suggests that the agricultural protectionist policies of high-income countries reduce welfare in many developing countries. Most of those studies also suggest that full global liberalization of merchandise trade would raise value added in agriculture in developing country regions, and that much of the benefit from global reform would come not just from reform in high-income countries but also from liberalization among developing countries...

‣ The Status and Impact of Bio Safety Regulation in Developing Economies Since Ratification of the Cartagena Protocol

McLean, Morven; Foley, Mary-Ellen; Pehu, Eija
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
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The World development report 2010: development and climate change highlights the link between biotechnology, development, and environment. Aside from recognizing biotechnology's potential to improve crop productivity, increase crop adaptation to climatic stresses such as drought, and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, the report emphasizes the need to establish science-based regulatory systems 'so that risks and benefits can be evaluated on a case-by-case basis, comparing the potential risks with alternative technologies' (World Bank 2010). This paper explores how the Cartagena protocol to the convention on biological diversity, as well as other important drivers, have affected the regulation of Genetically engineered (GE) crops in developing countries. It examines the impact of biosafety regulation on research and development of GE crops and on product approvals. Finally, it identifies opportunities to advance biosafety regulation in those developing countries that wish to access the potential benefits of agricultural biotechnology. As is true for capacity development in other regulatory arenas...

‣ The CGIAR at 31 : An Independent Meta-Evaluation of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, Revised Edition

Operations Evaluation Department
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
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The original mission of the CGIAR was a strategic, science-based focus on increasing "the pile of rice on the plates of food-short consumers," as characterized by a former chairman. It was to use the best science in advanced countries to develop technologies for the benefit of food deficit countries and populations. But a rapidly changing external environment has led to an expanded mission and mandate. The mission statement adopted in 1998 is "food security and poverty eradication in developing countries through research, partnerships, capacity building, and policy support, promoting sustainable agricultural development based on the environmentally sound management of natural resources." Several forces continue to influence the CGIAR's mandate. First, the rise of civil society organizations and the empowerment of marginal groups and women have increased donors' attention to social concerns. By restricting their funding to preferred programs and areas, donors are altering the composition of CGIAR activities. Second...

‣ O sistema logístico e os impactos da segregação dos grãos diferenciados : desafios para o agronegócio brasileiro; The logistics system and the impacts of segregation of different grain : challenges for brazilian agribusiness

Andrea Leda Ramos de Oliveira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/02/2011 Português
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O rápido processo de difusão da biotecnologia agrícola ocorre simultaneamente à necessidade de implementar um aparato regulatório, que implica em custos ao longo da cadeia agroalimentar. No caso da agricultura de grãos, isto tem ocasionado custos elevados associados à regulação. A emergência de um mercado consumidor mais exigente quanto à preservação da identidade de uma categoria de grãos e o crescimento das exportações de commodities agrícolas brasileiras aponta para a geração de impactos positivos, na forma de melhor remuneração para os produtos agrícolas de qualidade diferenciada. Todavia, tal tendência entra em choque com a estratégia brasileira dos últimos anos de exportar commodities, processo que expõe uma série de fragilidades logísticas do País. O objetivo da presente tese é analisar o efeito da segregação dos grãos diferenciados na logística de transporte e armazenagem do Brasil, especialmente os grãos geneticamente modificados (GMs), a partir das diretrizes do Protocolo de Cartagena de Biossegurança (PCB), bem como os desdobramentos na competitividade no mercado internacional. Com isto, antecipam-se os impactos sobre as exportações de grãos em um cenário em que segregação e identificação de cargas por seus atributos - por exemplo...

‣ Applications of Novel Techniques to Health Foods, Medical and Agricultural Biotechnology

Baianu, I. C.; Lozano, P. R.; Prisecaru, V. I.; Lin, H. C.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/06/2004 Português
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Selected applications of novel techniques in Agricultural Biotechnology, Health Food formulations and Medical Biotechnology are being reviewed with the aim of unraveling future developments and policy changes that are likely to open new niches for Biotechnology and prevent the shrinking or closing the existing ones. Amongst the selected novel techniques with applications to both Agricultural and Medical Biotechnology are: immobilized bacterial cells and enzymes, microencapsulation and liposome production, genetic manipulation of microorganisms, development of novel vaccines from plants, epigenomics of mammalian cells and organisms, as well as biocomputational tools for molecular modeling related to disease and Bioinformatics. Both fundamental and applied aspects of the emerging new techniques are being discussed in relation to their anticipated impact on future biotechnology applications together with policy changes that are needed for continued success in both Agricultural and Medical Biotechnology. Several novel techniques are illustrated in an attempt to convey the most representative and powerful tools that are currently being developed for both immediate and long term applications in Agriculture, Health Food formulation and production...


Figueira, Mariane; Zambalde, Andre Luiz; Sugano, Joel Yutaka
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Economia, Administração e Contabilidade Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Economia, Administração e Contabilidade
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/08/2011 Português
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The purpose of this article is to investigate the business model practice and the existence of business model innovation within an agricultural biotechnology organization in Brazil. This is a qualitative study of exploratory character, with case study procedures based upon bibliographical and documental references, as well as in-depth interviews, which were analyzed using the content analysis technique. After describing the nuclei of the concepts of business model and business model innovation and applying these concepts to Monsanto do Brasil S.A. (Monsanto Brazil, Inc.), as well as the company’s historical path, the study allowed concluding that, after incorporating biotechnology into its businesses, Monsanto innovated its business model. The results showed that the innovation was based upon the offer of value propositions previously unknown to the company’s customers (the farmers) and upon changes in some of the components of the company’s business model, such as the management infrastructure and the financial aspects.; O propósito deste artigo foi investigar a prática do modelo de negócios e a existência real da inovação de modelo de negócios em uma organização de biotecnologia agrícola no Brasil. Este é um estudo qualitativo...

‣ Is the European attitude to GM products suffocating African development?

Bodulovic, Greg
Fonte: CSIRO Publishing Publicador: CSIRO Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Currently, parts of Southern Africa are experiencing the third major drought in five years. The previous two droughts greatly affected food production, resulting in food shortages, which necessitated the provision of food aid to the region by developed nations. However, some of the food aid included genetically modified (GM) crops, the supply of which triggered hostile reactions by southern African governments, and in one case resulted in food aid being withheld from people on the verge of starvation. This article will examine the background and reasons behind the condemnation of GM crops by southern African nations, and will consider whether the lack of support of agricultural biotechnology by European nations has contributed to this situation. Furthermore, the necessity of agricultural biotechnology in future African development will be considered.