The gender and governance in rural
services insights from India, Ghana, and Ethiopia report
aims to generate policy-relevant knowledge on strategies for
improving agricultural service delivery, with a focus on
providing more equitable access to these services,
especially for women. The project has been implemented in
India, Ghana, and Ethiopia. These countries were chosen to
capture variation in important macro-factors, especially the
level of economic development; various aspects of
governance, such as political system and party system; the
role of women in society; and strategies adopted to promote
gender equity. The project focused on agricultural extension
as an example of a critical agricultural service. In India,
the main problem is the lack of overall capacity resulting
from a past policy of not hiring agricultural extension
providers. The study indicates that access to agricultural
extension is low in Ghana, despite the fact that an
extension agent-to-farmer ratio is comparatively high.
Agricultural extension is a high for the Ethiopia government
The National Agricultural Extension and
Research Program Support Project of Cameroon undertook to
finance - jointly with the government, IFAD, and AfDB -
implementation (2001-2004) of the national agricultural
extension policy and agricultural research in Cameroon as
follows : competitive research grants (IDA); linkages
between agricultural research and extension (IFAD); and
on-station agricultural research ( AfDB). While providing
services to all farmers, the project sought to prioritize
resource-poor farmers, and women farmers. This project was a
follow-on intervention to the National Project for
Agricultural Extension (PNVA).
Putting responsibility in the hands of
farmers to determine agricultural extension programs can
make services more responsive to local conditions, more
accountable, more effective, and more sustainable. To
realize these benefits, the role of the public sector has to
be redefined to permit multiple approaches which account for
user diversity, and to develop partnerships with farmer
organizations, nongovernmental organizations, and the
private sector for service delivery.
The Haitian population is among the
poorest in the world, with over 78 percent living on less
than United States (U.S.) 2 dollar a day and over 50 percent
living on less than U.S. 1 dollar a day. This paper extracts
relevant lessons from historical data on factors influencing
the receipt of extension services in Haiti, taking stock of
the use of agricultural extension services prior to the 2010
earthquake. The goal is to influence future policies and
development projects involving the provision of extension
services as well as the type of extension services offered.
This paper uses data from the 2010 agricultural census and
examines the characteristics of farmers in Haiti receiving
extension services by gender, education, agricultural
training, farm size, and type of crop. Through in-depth
study of each variable and a review of trends in the receipt
of agricultural extension services, the study analyzes the
equilibrium between the demand for and supply of extension
services to particular farmer groups. The study draws the
following nine key conclusions: (1) the proportion of
households receiving agricultural extension services in
Haiti is non-negligible; (2) location is an important
determinant of the recipients of agricultural extension
services; (3) there are no statistical differences between
men and women in terms of receipt of extension services;
The extension system referred to as
Training and Visitation (T&V), which is currently widely
used in Africa, emerged from and was launched from the
initiatives of the 1980s to support agricultural extension.
Since its introduction, this system has gone through several
permutations, informed by the experiences on the ground in
each country. In the case of Madagascar, these permutations
led to supporting farmers' organizations and
diversification of the implementing agencies, which include,
outside of the government and its units, non-governmental
organizations (NGOs) and private operators.
Indonesian agriculture is at a
crossroads. Supporting the livelihood of millions of
Indonesians, it needs to underpin renewed and robust growth
of the economy; and be a key component of the
Government's poverty alleviation strategy. The
challenge for the future is to reinvigorate productivity
gains among rural producers, and provide the foundation for
long run sustainability of these productivity gains.
Productivity gains are key to farmer income growth, and for
this rebuilding the research and extension systems that have
seen a marked deterioration in recent years will be
critical. The experience of the Indonesian decentralization
of its extension system has been mixed, with adverse impact
on extension through sharp reductions in funding, and
removal of central-level guidance. At the same time, a
series of positive debates and experimentation in management
have taken place from a shift on top-down to participatory
approaches, input and technology dissemination to
dissemination of market and upstream information and
This paper seeks to justify that extension has a role to play in rural development. The author has adopted a desktop study in which literature was reviewed and synthesized in order to establish facts about rural development and extension. The author discusses the meanings of agricultural extension and rural development. He locates the place of extension in rural development where it can make its contribution. Furthermore he identifies five specific factors that are central to extension in rural development. Some of the factors include: food security, conservation of natural resources, dissemination of useful information, sustainability of projects, and empowerment of farming groups. The paper concludes by suggesting some recommendations on how extension can better be utilized in order to achieve sustained results in rural development. The recommended factors include: establishment of rural development Centres, developing farmer leadership, establishment of agricultural development teams, collaborating with other role players and developing a new extension agenda. The recommendations are broad and further research is recommended to specifically look into other factors that may have a serious impact in farmer's lives such as sustainability...
Biodiversity conservation, particularly on communal and rural farmlands, is still of a great concern in South Africa. This worry is further worsened with the different threats, ranging from deforestation and habitat fragmentation, encroachment, pollution, invasion of alien species, wildfires, logging, to hunting that communities pose to biodiversities on their lands. Agriculture emerges the greatest factor posing the most threats to biodiversity. Using this framework of interconnectedness between biodiversity and agriculture, this paper presents a philosophical argument exploring the role that agricultural extension can play to realise the goals of biodiversity conservation on South African communal and farm lands. Drawing on relevant published works, this paper argues that extension is particularly well positioned to address biodiversity conservation concern through the instruments of social mobilization, education, indigenous knowledge facilitation, linkages and ongoing advisory services.
Accomplishing household food security simultaneously with biodiversity conservation, particularly on communal farm lands, constitutes a great challenge in South Africa. This is because biodiversity species are being threatened on lands wherein agricultural production is done in the name of securing food availability. The general threats to biodiversity are in the forms of deforestation and habitat fragmentation, encroachment, pollution, invasion of alien species, wild fires, logging, and hunting. Over time, agriculture emerges the greatest threat to biodiversity. Using this framework, this paper presents a scientific argument, backed with empirical evidences, by exploring the role that agricultural extension can play to realise the goals of biodiversity conservation on South African communal and farm lands. Drawing on relevant published works, this paper argues that extension is particularly well positioned to address both food security and biodiversity conservation concerns through the instruments of linkages, local knowledge facilitation, social capital and education.
Extension practitioners from the private sector are highly trained in the Natural Science. Some shortfalls in their Extension Science training have been identified. Perceived training needs in the Extension Science within this sector have been privatised. A number of possible training inputs and options are suggested. Options can be pursued by way of the Continuous Professional Development (CPD) models as already practiced by a number of Professions. Such investment can assist management with personnel evaluation. Credible and experienced seminar style (including capable retirees) would become involved in CPD programmes and as mentors within in-service training initiatives. The private sector is becoming increasingly involved in the upliftment of the emerging agricultural sector. Many emerging farmers are seen as the Commercial Gardens of the future and are being empowered by their Extensionists to fulfil such roles. The quality of the training cannot be compromised. Compromising education and training programmes is disadvantageous to the Extensionist but even more so to the disadvantage of the farming clientele. Only 16.3% of the practicing agricultural Extensionist lack sufficient training in the Natural Sciences to register with the South African Council for Natural Scientific Professions (SACNASP). 43...
Fonte: South African Journal of Agricultural ExtensionPublicador: South African Journal of Agricultural Extension
Tipo: Artigo de Revista CientíficaFormato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013Português
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The paper reflects on the diversity and the multitude of challenges mastered by agricultural extension in South Africa since its founding in 1925. The post-apartheid era (since 1994) saw drastic organizational and other changes. The present-day service is facing new professional challenges aimed at improving the delivery of service to a growing and technically more divergent farming community. The first 69 years of agricultural extension saw the establishment of a diversity of compartmentalized services: to the commercial (white) sector and to the black, Indian and Coloured communities. Agricultural co-operatives, community organizations and the private sector also rendered services. The South African Society for Agricultural Extension (SASAE) and tertiary training institutions in the agricultural as well as the agricultural extension disciplines were founded during these years. The post-apartheid era (since 1994) has raised questions concerning effective service delivery and professionalism. It would appear that dual-registration by extension practitioners with the South African Council for Natural Scientific Professions (SACNASP) as well as the SASAE should enjoy popular support.
Fonte: South African Journal of Agricultural ExtensionPublicador: South African Journal of Agricultural Extension
Tipo: Artigo de Revista CientíficaFormato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014Português
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This paper highlights the underperformance of African agriculture and examines some of the underlying causes with a view to identify opportunities for improvement with special emphasis on agricultural extension policy. A brief review of literature reveals a disturbing gap between concepts and practice. Many extension concepts have been developed and brought into the field in rapid succession with little or no impact at farmer level. The paper argues against endless debates of no practical value that take the energies away from seeking practical solutions to low agricultural development. The paper recommends that extension practitioners, through their professional organizations like the South African Society for Agricultural Extension and the African Forum for Agricultural Advisory Services, provide leadership in facilitating extension policy dialogue.
There is no doubt that public agricultural extension has contributed to the success of South Africa's current large-scale farmers, the fruit of which the nation still enjoys. Nonetheless, the ineffectiveness of the extension service to meet the current challenges - particularly among resource-challenged, small-holder farmers - is widely acknowledged. This ineffectiveness extends to promoting household food security within the context of encouraging biodiversity conservation on farm lands. To examine this, this paper draws on recently conducted research to sketch the current model within which extension pursues these seemingly dichotomous objectives and identifies some gaps which, if addressed, can enable extension to simultaneously meet these two objectives. The paper presents a refurbished extension model which builds on the current South African model by introducing three elements: collaboration among all the stakeholders involved in promoting food security, biodiversity conservation and agricultural extension objectives; adopting a capacity-building approach (replacing the current top-down, technology transfer approach) to support farmers who are significant actors in food security and biodiversity agendas; and re-invigorating extension institutions through introducing specific presently lacking capacities. The refurbished model postulates that extension...
In rural South Africa, the sustainability of cattle-based livelihoods is threatened by the competition for natural resources such as land and water. The central and provincial governments continue to invest funds in agricultural extension in order to uplift the productivity and safeguard the multifunctionality of cattle farming. However, the design of effective and efficient livestock extension models remains a challenge. The objective of this study was to investigate the drivers and first-order impacts of participation in livestock extension programmes in the KwaZulu-Natal province. To that end, the study adopted the propensity score matching (PSM) method. Based on data from a survey of 230 smallholder farmers in 13 communities of the Okhahlamba Local Municipality, the results of the Probit model showed that the likelihood of participation in extension programmes decreases with education, and increases with group membership, distance from the extension office, adoption of mixed breed, herd size and usage of forage and feed supplements, suggesting a largely supply-driven extension approach. Based on the nearest neighbour and kernel matching algorithms, the results further showed that benefits accrued from participating in livestock extension programmes in terms of cattle production and input use were scant. The study concludes with some policy implications.
There are indications that the backgrounding of beef calves will become more important in future as heavier beef carcasses are required. To increase the profitability of beef systems, backgrounding prepare weaned calves for finishing on high energy rations to promote rapid weight gain in a feedlot. Backgrounding operations may be pasture or dry-lot based or some combination thereof. The primary objective of this study was to investigate factors leading to poor average daily gain (ADG), high morbidity and mortality rate and the increased costs of gain. The secondary objective was to study the management practices followed in the backgrounding of beef calves concerning purchasing, adaptation, processing, raising, health management and marketing strategies. Forty questionnaires were administered to farmers, small and large feedlots doing backgrounding of beef calves. Data was generated by using the SUM equation and the means, minimum and maximum were generated by using PROC MEANS in SAS (2004). On-farm observations were employed in collecting data and discussions with other farmers and experts doing backgrounding of beef calves. According to this study, the ADG for summer differed significantly (P<0.05) from that of winter as the ADG during summer was 22.2% higher than that of winter. However...
The challenge of meeting the ever-increasing demand for animal products in Nigeria has become keen over the years. A major factor is low technology input by the bulk of animal producers. Because Extension has a crucial role to play, the purpose of this study was to investigate livestock extension (LE) activities and competencies of Agricultural Extension Agents (AEA's) in north-central Nigeria. Data were collected from 112 randomly selected AEA's with the aid of a structured questionnaire that consisted of positively presented livestock extension practice and competency items on 5-point Likert-type scales. A Livestock Extension Competency Coefficient (LECC) was computed for each respondent. The test-retest technique was used to pre-test the instrument, yielding a coefficient r=0.91. Descriptive, correlation and t-test statistics were used to analyze data. Results revealed that about 40% of respondents engaged in livestock extension activities in the last two years, while about 16% actually specialized in Animal Production while in school. Respondents generally expressed competence in some aspects of livestock production such as feeding, handling, housing, and production management systems. However, respondents claimed less competence in sire selection...
The sale price of 868 Dorper rams sold between 2004 and 2013 were compared with their measured performances. The independent variables (Selection, Weaning Index, Wean direct, Wean maternal, Post wean, Breeding value for number of lambs weaned (GLS), Relative economic value (REV), Selection Index percentage (SI%), Scrotal deviation (SD), Mean Lamb Index (MLI) and Ewe productivity Index (EPI) were used to predict the dependent variable (sale price of the Dorper rams) from 2004 to 2013. Factors with the most significant influence in order of importance were selection (stud or commercial), SI% and REV. It is evident that rams with better performance figures fetched higher prices. Although buyers did consider breeding values when buying rams none of it consistently contributed to sale price. It appears that buyers rather responded on SI%, a performance parameter familiar to them which was displayed in the sale catalogue from the beginning of the project. In an extension approach performance data must form the base for convincing breeders and farmers to move towards more scientific breeding methods, combining visual evaluation with measured performance at all Dorper sales. A unified effort by research, extension and the Breeders' Society may address the problem best.
South Africa (SA) finds itself in a region where the rich countries perceive it as a sustainable and viable proposition for investment. The prospects for the future are bright but a warning light is burning: high food prices; shortage of essential food and the import of it; 50% of land reform projects have failed. Can the SA Agricultural Extension service play a role to address these issues? Research in SA clearly indicates a new concept of Extension and identifies 13 essential principles underlying any Extension approach, ranging from an educational and pro-active approach to an advisory and reactive approach. By means of consultation, discussion and dialogue extension practitioners and trainers developed an Agricultural Landscape for Extension, identifying specific concepts, study fields and essential knowledge/skills areas that form the "playing field" for the extension agent. An effective extension service is based on certain fixed principles namely: The interrelationship between agricultural development and human development; Development being needs based; Participation being essential for all role players; and Any intervention program being focused on behaviour change. The Landscape highlights the following concepts as being necessary to improve Agricultural Extension: - Technical competency (the extension agent must be an expert in at least one field of agriculture); - Communication skills (verbal; non verbal; written and mass communication); - Group facilitation skills (group dynamics and leadership); and - Extension management (program planning...
South Africa is in the process of rectifying the social injustices of the past and building a new future towards "equitable access and participation " in the agricultural sector (DoA, 2001) through the transference of farmland to emerging-black farmers and communities. This new class of farmers needs an effective extension service to help them become commercial farmers. However, agricultural extension is generally viewed to be ineffective. Thus, there is also a need for a revised extension model for, in this case, the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Eight factors were identified and were included in this study. The eight factors, viz. Personal characteristics of extension workers; Community cooperation and networks; Training of extension workers; Leadership and mentoring ability; Financial support; Institutional support (technical and skills); Communication; and Staffing. This paper is aimed at discussing the identified factors, related to organizational and human capital development, that are essential for effective extension and will propose the basis and design framework of an extension model discussed in a later paper. Researchers who are currently undergoing an academic programme/training at the University of the Free State and extension officers were interviewed via questionnaires in order to determine their perceived importance of the identified factors. The results revealed their perceptions regarding those eight identified factors and also their misconceptions relating to these factors...
The paper describes the adaptation of the Service Quality Instrument (SERVQUAL) for measuring the provision of information as an Extension Service. It explores agricultural Extension Services as a customer service and SERVQUAL as a service evaluation tool. The study aims to provide an adapted SERVQUAL instrument which includes a dimension for the measurement of the provision of information as a service. The reliability of the adapted instrument is tested by examining the results of a practical implementation thereof. The reliability of the adapted instrument is confirmed by using quantitative analysis of empirical data. Data used in the analysis was collected by means of a case study involving an agricultural organisation in the South African grain sector. This paper serves as the impetus for a discussion on the evaluation of the provision of Information as a Service, as provided by an agricultural organisation using Extension Services.