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‣ Poverty Decline, Agricultural Wages, and Non-Farm Employment in Rural India 1983–2004

Lanjouw, Peter; Murgai, Rinku
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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The authors analyze five rounds of National Sample Survey data covering 1983, 1987/8, 1993/4, 1999/0, and 2004/5 to explore the relationship between rural diversification and poverty. Poverty in rural India declined at a modest rate during this period. The authors provide region-level estimates that illustrate considerable geographic heterogeneity in this progress. Poverty estimates correlate well with region-level data on changes in agricultural wage rates. Agricultural labor remains the preserve of the uneducated and also to a large extent of the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Although agricultural labor grew as a share of total economic activity over the first four rounds, it had fallen back to the levels observed at the beginning of the survey period by 2004. This all-India trajectory masks widely varying trends across states. During this period, the rural non-farm sector grew modestly, mainly between the last two survey rounds. Regular non-farm employment remains largely associated with education levels and social status that are rare among the poor. However...

‣ Spatial Specialization and Farm-Nonfarm Linkages

Deichmann, Uwe; Shilpi, Forhad; Vakis, Renos
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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49.3338%
Using individual level employment data from Bangladesh, this paper presents empirical evidence on the relative importance of farm and urban linkages for rural nonfarm employment. The econometric results indicate that high return wage work and self-employment in nonfarm activities cluster around major urban centers. The negative effects of isolation on high return wage work and on self-employment are magnified in locations with higher agricultural potential. The low return nonfarm activities respond primarily to local demand displaying no significant spatial variation. The empirical results highlight the need for improved connectivity of regions with higher agricultural potential to urban centers for nonfarm development in Bangladesh.

‣ Self-Employment in the Developing World

Gindling, T. H.; Newhouse, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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69.492075%
This paper analyzes heterogeneity among the self-employed in 74 developing countries, representing two-thirds of the population of the developing world. After profiling how worker characteristics vary by employment status, it classifies self-employed workers outside agriculture as "successful" or "unsuccessful" entrepreneurs, based on two measures of success: whether the worker is an employer, and whether the worker resides in a non-poor household. Four main findings emerge. First, jobs exhibit a clear pecking order, with household welfare and worker education highest for employers, followed by wage and salaried employees, non-agricultural own-account workers, non-agricultural unpaid family workers, and finally agricultural workers. Second, a substantial minority of own-account workers reside in non-poor households, suggesting that their profits are often a secondary source of household income. Third, as per capita income increases, the structure of employment shifts rapidly, first out of agriculture into unsuccessful non-agricultural self-employment...

‣ Self-Employment in the Developing World

Gindling, T. H.; Newhouse, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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79.26675%
This paper analyzes heterogeneity among the self-employed in 74 developing countries, representing two thirds of the population of the developing world. After profiling how worker characteristics vary by employment status, we classify self-employed workers outside of agriculture as “successful” or “unsuccessful” entrepreneurs, based on two measures of success: Whether the worker is an employer, and whether they reside in a non-poor household. Four main findings emerge. First, jobs exhibit a clear pecking order, with household welfare and worker education highest for employers, followed by wage and salaried employees, non-agricultural own-account workers, non-agricultural unpaid family workers, and finally agricultural workers. Second, a substantial minority of own-account workers reside in non-poor households, suggesting that their profits are often a secondary source of household income. Third, as per capita income increases, the structure of employment shifts rapidly, first out of agriculture into unsuccessful non-agricultural self-employment, and then mainly into non-agricultural wage employment. Finally, roughly one third of the unsuccessful entrepreneurs share similar characteristics with their successful counterparts...

‣ The Spatial Division of Labor in Nepal

Fafchamps, Marcel; Shilpi, Forhad
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Português
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48.89983%
the authors examine how economic activity and market participation are distributed across space. Applying a nonparametric von Thunen model to Nepalese data, the authors uncover a strong spatial division of labor. Nonfarm employment is concentrated in and around cities, while agricultural wage employment dominates villages located further away. Vegetables are produced near urban centers. Paddy and commercial crops are more important at intermediate distances. Isolated villages revert to self-subsistence. The findings of the study are consistent with the von Thunen model of concentric specialization, corrected to account for city size. Spatial division of labor is closely related to factor endowments and household characteristics, especially at the local level.

‣ African Mining, Gender, and Local Employment

Kotsadam, Andreas; Tolonen, Anja
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
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58.15498%
It is a contentious issue whether large scale mining creates local employment, and the sector has been accused of hurting women’s labor supply and economic opportunities. This paper uses the rapid expansion of mining in Sub-Saharan Africa to analyze local structural shifts. It matches 109 openings and 84 closings of industrial mines to survey data for 800,000 individuals and exploits the spatial-temporal variation. With mine opening, women living within 20 km of a mine switch from self-employment in agriculture to working in services or they leave the work force. Men switch from agriculture to skilled manual labor. Effects are stronger in years of high world prices. Mining creates local boom-bust economies in Africa, with permanent effects on women’s labor market participation.

‣ Ghana Work Program (FY15)

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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48.951323%
Since 1991 the national poverty rate of Ghana has more than halved. The estimated national headcount poverty ratio fell by 31.2 percentage points from 52.6 percent in 1991 to 21.41 percent in 2012. Heterogeneity of poverty outcomes is, however, high both across urban and rural areas and across regions. The robustness of these poverty trends is checked with trends of five correlates: urbanization and rural-urban migration, remittances, asset growth, labor market transformations, and agricultural productivity growth. Urbanization turns out to be highly correlated with poverty reduction. Poverty trends and asset index trends turn out to follow a similar pattern in both urban and rural areas and by regions: asset index increase where poverty decreases. In the report the authors try to understand the drivers of recent decrease in poverty in northern regions. The attention is focused on two different aspects, the agricultural productivity growth and the inflation patterns. In northern regions, there is a generalized increase in production of main food crops and an increase in productivity. To test the contribution of most of these drivers to poverty reduction...

‣ International Migration and Gender Differentials in the Home Labor Market : Evidence from Albania

Mendola, Mariapia; Carletto, Gero
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
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48.819414%
This paper examines the role of male-dominated international migration in shaping labor market outcomes by gender in migrant-sending households in Albania. Using detailed information on family migration experience from the latest Living Standards Measurement Study survey, the authors find that male and female labor supplies respond differently to the current and past migration episodes of household members. Controlling for the potential endogeneity of migration and for the income (remittances) effect, the estimates show that having a migrant abroad decreases female paid labor supply and increases unpaid work. However, women with past family migration experience are significantly more likely to engage in self-employment and less likely to supply unpaid work. The same relationships do not hold for men. These findings suggest that over time male-dominated Albanian migration may lead to women's empowerment in access to income-earning opportunities at the origin.

‣ India - Living Conditions and Human Development in Uttar Pradesh : A Regional Perspective

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: City Development Strategy (CDS); Economic & Sector Work
Português
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48.97448%
Uttar Pradesh, the largest state in India, has 170 million inhabitants who represent 16.2 percent of India's population. Uttar Pradesh (UP) is classified as one of the 'lagging states of India' for its slow growth, low human development indicators and high concentration of the poor. UP occupies an important position in India because of its size and as a determinant of the country's overall progress. UP has continuously slipped behind India as a whole. Growth or the lack of it has a mirror image in poverty trends. In the 1970s, UP's poverty level was almost at the national average and actually came below the all-India level in 1977-78. Poverty climbed again in 1983. Since the 1990s, slow growth in industry and services has been responsible for UP's lag. The report is organized as: it starts with an assessment of trends in growth, poverty, and inequality presents in chapter one. It notes a slower reduction in poverty in urban areas and in the Western and Eastern regions. Chapter two presents a poverty profile...

‣ War and Women’s Work : Evidence from the Conflict in Nepal

Menon, Nidhiya; van der Meulen Rodgers, Yana
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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58.974536%
This paper examines how Nepal's 1996-2006 civil conflict affected women's decisions to engage in employment. Using three waves of the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, the authors employ a difference-in-difference approach to identify the impact of war on women's employment decisions. The results indicate that as a result of the Maoist-led insurgency, women's employment probabilities were substantially higher in 2001 and 2006 relative to the outbreak of war in 1996. These employment results also hold for self-employment decisions, and they hold for smaller sub-samples that condition on husband's migration status and women's status as widows or household heads. Numerous robustness checks of the difference-in-difference estimates based on alternative empirical methods provide compelling evidence that women's likelihood of employment increased as a consequence of the conflict.

‣ Nigeria - Employment and Growth Study

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Public Sector Study
Português
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48.927%
Since 1999, Nigeria has made significant progress in economic reform. Sound macroeconomic policies, combined with structural reforms aimed at increasing the supply responsiveness of the economy, ushered in sustained high growth, driven by the non-oil economy. The goal of this book is to shed light on the extent to which Nigeria's much improved economic performance has impacted the labor market, and to develop a growth strategy that could enhance the employment intensity of growth. The report consists of six chapters. Chapter one provides an overview of the book's main findings, reviews Nigeria's growth performance from 2001 to 2007, and addresses the question of the sustainability of that growth performance. Chapter two analyzes the evolution of the labor market since 1999. The analysis focuses on the share of the formal and informal sectors in employment; the development of incomes; and the unemployment rate. Chapter three addresses the question of what Nigeria could do to increase the availability of quality jobs and reduce rising youth unemployment. Chapters four discusses Nigeria's policy and investment environment. Chapter five proposes strategies for skills development; and Chapter six analyzes the effects of restrictive trade policies.

‣ Distributional Effects of WTO Agricultural Reforms in Rich and Poor Countries

Hertel, Thomas W.; Keeney, Roman; Ivanic, Maros; Winters, L. Alan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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58.603735%
Rich countries' agricultural trade policies are the battleground on which the future of the WTO's troubled Doha Round will be determined. Subject to widespread criticism, they nonetheless appear to be almost immune to serious reform, and one of their most common defenses is that they protect poor farmers. The authors' findings reject this claim. The analysis uses detailed data on farm incomes to show that major commodity programs are highly regressive in the United States, and that the only serious losses under trade reform are among large, wealthy farmers in a few heavily protected subsectors. In contrast, analysis using household data from 15 developing countries indicates that reforming rich countries' agricultural trade policies would lift large numbers of developing country farm households out of poverty. In the majority of cases these gains are not outweighed by the poverty-increasing effects of higher food prices among other households. Agricultural reforms that appear feasible, even under an ambitious Doha Round, achieve only a fraction of the benefits for developing countries that full liberalization promises, but protect U.S. large farms from most of the rigors of adjustment. Finally, the analysis indicates that maximal trade-led poverty reductions occur when developing countries participate more fully in agricultural trade liberalization.

‣ Making Work Pay in Bangladesh : Employment, Growth, and Poverty Reduction

Paci, Pierella; Sasin, Marcin
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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58.96916%
The objective of this report is to analyze the important roles of labor markets, employment, productivity, and labor income in facilitating shared growth and promoting poverty reduction in Bangladesh. First, the report provides a background discussion of poverty, reform, and growth in Bangladesh. Following that, it gives an overview of the labor market, describing the country's demographics, the institutional structure of the labor market, and the labor market indicators. Then a poverty profile of the labor market is developed, followed by a discussion of the income sources and a decomposition of poverty reduction. A number of selected issues are discussed in the final section, including rural versus urban conditions; women, and children in the labor market; self-employment and household employment; and socioeconomic inequalities.

‣ Demand versus Returns? Pro-Poor Targeting of Business Grants and Vocational Skills Training

Macours, Karen; Premand, Patrick; Vakis, Renos
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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69.295557%
Interventions aimed at increasing the income generating capacity of the poor, such as vocational training, micro-finance or business grants, are widespread in the developing world. How to target such interventions is an open question. Many programs are self-targeted, but if perceived returns differ from actual returns, those self-selecting to participate may not be those for whom the program is the most effective. The authors analyze an unusual experiment with very high take-up of business grants and vocational skills training, randomly assigned among nearly all households in selected poor rural communities in Nicaragua. On average, the interventions resulted in increased participation in non-agricultural employment and higher income from related activities. The paper investigates whether targeting could have resulted in higher returns by analyzing heterogeneity in impacts by stated baseline demand, prior participation in non-agricultural activities, and a wide range of complementary asset endowments. The results reveal little heterogeneity along observed baseline characteristics. However...

‣ Gender and Rural Non-farm Entrepreneurship

Rijkers, Bob; Costa, Rita
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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48.87437%
Despite their increasing prominence in policy debates, little is known about gender inequities in non-agricultural labor market outcomes in rural areas. Using matched household-enterprise-community data sets from Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Indonesia and Sri Lanka, this paper documents and analyzes gender differences in the individual portfolio choice and productivity of non-farm entrepreneurship. Except for Ethiopia, women are less likely than men to become nonfarm entrepreneurs. Women's nonfarm entrepreneurship isn't strongly correlated with household composition or educational attainment, but is especially prevalent amongst women who are the head of their household. Female-led firms are much smaller and less productive on average, though gender differences in productivity vary dramatically across countries. Mean differences in log output per worker suggest that male firms are roughly 10 times as productive as female firms in Bangladesh, three times as those in Ethiopia and twice as those in Sri Lanka. By contrast, no significant differences in labor productivity were detected in Indonesia. Differences in output per worker are overwhelmingly accounted for by sorting by sector and size. They can't be explained by differences in capital intensity...

‣ Agricultural Productivity, Hired Labor, Wages and Poverty : Evidence from Bangladesh

Emran, Shahe; Shilpi, Forhad
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
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48.917812%
This paper provides evidence on the effects of agricultural productivity on wage rates, labor supply to market oriented activities, and labor allocation between own farming and wage labor in agriculture. To guide the empirical work, this paper develops a general equilibrium model that underscores the role of reallocation of family labor engaged in the production of non-marketed services at home (`home production'). The model predicts positive effects of a favorable agricultural productivity shock on wages and income, but the effect on hired labor is ambiguous; it depends on the strength of reallocation of labor from home to market production by labor surplus and deficit households. Taking rainfall variations as a measure of shock to agricultural productivity, and using subdistrict level panel data from Bangladesh, this paper finds significant positive effects of a favorable rainfall shock on agricultural wages, labor supply to market work, and per capita household expenditure. The share of hired labor in contrast declines substantially in response to a favorable productivity shock...

‣ Income Diversification Patterns in Rural Sub-Saharan Africa : Reassessing the Evidence

Davis, Benjamin; Di Giuseppe, Stefania; Zezza, Alberto
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
49.0835%
Is Africa's rural economy transforming as its economies grow? This paper uses comparable income aggregates from 41 national household surveys from 22 countries to explore the extent of income diversification among rural households in Sub-Saharan Africa, and to look at how income diversification in Sub-Saharan Africa compares with other regions, taking into account differences in levels of development. The paper also seeks to understand how geography drives income diversification, focusing on the role of agricultural potential and distance to urban areas. The countries in the African sample have higher shares of on-farm income (63 versus 33 percent) and lower shares on nonagricultural wage income (8 and 21 percent) compared with countries of other regions. Specialization in on-farm activities continues to be the norm in rural Africa (52 percent of households, 21 percent in other regions). In terms of welfare, specialization in nonagricultural income-generating activities stochastically dominates farm-based strategies in all of the countries in our African sample. Crop income is still important for welfare...

‣ Making Work Pay in Madagascar : Employment, Growth, and Poverty Reduction

Hoftijzer, Margo; Paci, Pierella
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
48.92057%
There is little doubt that economic growth contributes significantly to poverty reduction; however, countries clearly differ in the degree to which income growth translates into reduced levels of poverty. Although cross-country estimates suggest that differences in the responsiveness of poverty to income growth account for a small fraction of overall differences in poverty changes across countries, from the point of view of an individual country these differences may have significant implications for poverty reduction, especially in the short term. The report is structured into eight chapters, beginning with this introduction. Chapter two describes the data and the main definitions used in this report. Chapter three provides the socioeconomic context of the study, with a particular emphasis on growth, poverty, and labor market characteristics. Chapter four takes a look at the linkages between macro and microeconomic data by reviewing the ways in which changes in aggregate and sectoral labor productivity translate into individual earnings as gathered from the household surveys. Chapter five also reviews the relationships between productivity and earnings by looking at the linkages between changes in aggregate and sectoral labor productivity data (macro) and changes in individual earnings as gathered from the household surveys (micro). Chapter six examines the origins and determining factors of household earnings and employment and assesses their impact on poverty and poverty reduction. Chapter seven analyzes the individual and household characteristics that are associated with having either 'good' jobs or 'bad' jobs and reviews the question of whether there may be barriers preventing the movement of workers from bad to good labor market segments. Finally...

‣ Cote d'Ivoire; From Crisis to Sustained Growth -- Priorities for Ending Poverty and Boosting Shared Prosperity

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Country Focus :: Country Assistance Strategy Document
Português
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48.98248%
This systematic country diagnostic is structured in two main parts, one backward looking and the other forward looking. The backward-looking analysis aims to draw lessons on the determinants of poverty and sustainable and inclusive growth from (a) stakeholder consultations; (b) a poverty profile; (c) a jobs profile; and (d) a review of Cote d’Ivoire’s experience, and a comparison with Ghana and Sri Lanka, countries with similarities to Côte d’Ivoire, but with different growth trajectories. The poverty analysis shows that over the past 25 years, poverty has deepened considerably, in particular in rural areas in the North and West. While the fall in cocoa prices played an important role, consequences of the price shock were amplified by political and social crisis and cuts in social expenditure. The main employment challenge faced by Cote d’Ivoire is a high concentration of employment in low-productivity occupations, such as agricultural and non-agricultural self-employment, particularly among the poor, women and those living in rural areas. Very few individuals hold formal wage jobs...

‣ Revitalization of education for self-reliance in education for enhancing youth involvement in agriculture in Tanzania

Msuya,C. P.; Ahmad,A. K.; Kalunguizi,V.; Busindi,I.; Rwambali,E. G.; Machinda,F.; Krogh,E.; Gjøtterud,S.; Kifaro,G. C.; Ndemanisho,E.; Nziku,Z..
Fonte: South African Journal of Agricultural Extension Publicador: South African Journal of Agricultural Extension
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2014 Português
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58.009316%
Agriculture is the backbone of the Tanzania's economy regardless of its low productivity. Several efforts have been put in place to improve the situation including introduction of Education for Self-Reliance (ESR) policy to guide Tanzania education system to produce graduates who are competent in agricultural production and other hands on activities necessary for community development. Regardless of its contextual, theoretical and practical relevance, ESR policy overtime lost its position in the education circles. A Dialogue Conference was organised in Morogoro for exploring stakeholders' views on the need for revitalization of ESR in education for enhancing youth involvement in Agriculture. Data were collected by voice recording and note taking while thematic method was used for data analysis. Majority of the participants perceived the relevance of reconsidering ESR since it helps to inculcate positive attitude towards agriculture, equip students with hands-on skills, source of self-employment, self-reliance and improve classroom learning. Challenges of revitalization were also elicited, like teachers' lack of knowledge and skills on planning and utilizing experience developed through the ESR, shortage of teachers and inadequate resources for implementation. Voices of stakeholders favour rethinking of ESR and therefore appropriate strategies should be considered in the process of revitalising ESR taking into consideration the highlighted challenges.