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‣ Information and Communication Technologies for Rural Development : Issues and Options, Volume 1. Main Report and Annexes

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.952478%
Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are a potentially revolutionary means of empowering the poor. Realizing this potential will require investments that increase access to ICTs in remote low productivity areas and the development of innovative applications that cater to the needs of the poor and small firms. The costs of these kinds of investment have been decreasing rapidly, but still yield low short term private returns. The private sector cannot alone be expected to underwrite the costs of these developments. If Government does not support these public investments, economic disparities will rise, undermining social stability and future growth. Effective public sector action is required, to establish a regulatory and legal framework that enables the rise of a vibrant innovative competitive private telecommunications and ICT services sector, and to institute selective efficient and transparent public subsidies with high social payoff but low financial returns. This is needed most urgently precisely in developing country contexts where public institutions are often ineffective, corrupt and unaccountable. The challenge takes added significance in Indonesia, a country still recovering from severe economic and political crisis...

‣ Small-Scale Irrigation Dams, Agricultural Production, and Health: Theory and Evidence from Ethiopia

Ersado, Lire
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.82323%
The author looks at the feasibility and potential of instituting small-scale irrigation dams to reduce Ethiopia s dependence on rainfed agriculture and the associated food insecurity. He develops a theoretical framework to assess the welfare implications of irrigation development programs and provides empirical evidence from microdam construction and reforestation projects in northern Ethiopia. The author pays particular attention to health-related costs of establishing small-scale irrigation dams in areas prone to waterborne diseases. While the theoretical analyses imply that the net welfare impacts of irrigation dams cannot be known a priori due to potential health costs, the empirical evidence shows that current agricultural yield and farm profit have increased in villages with closer proximity to the dams than in those more distant. The increased disease incidence due to standing pools of water has, however, led to significant declines in the returns from investment in irrigation water. Households with poor health are less likely to adopt productivity-enhancing as well as resource-conserving technologies, which are crucial for achieving the ultimate goal of sustainable agricultural development. The ensuing sickness has also led to reduction in labor allocation to off-farm activities. The findings underline the importance of weighing beforehand the magnitude of potential economic benefits against health costs of water development programs. The overall evidence...

‣ Designing and implementing Agricultural Innovation Funds : Lessons from Competitive Research and Matching Grant Projects

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.766333%
Many countries are using innovation funds in the agricultural sector to support innovators and their links to public institutions, private entrepreneurs, and other actors, such as groups of rural producers. These funds create platforms for innovative activity by providing incentives for quality and collaboration. This report synthesizes experience with the two main innovation funds that the World Bank has used to fund agricultural innovation, competitive research grants and matching grants, and offers lessons and guidelines for designing and implementing them. Although the report draws extensively on experience with World Bank investments, the lessons are relevant in other contexts. The practical aspects of designing and implementing successful grant schemes are emphasized throughout.

‣ Sri Lanka : Promoting Agricultural and Rural Non-farm Sector Growth, Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.487954%
Economic development has brought about, the decline in contribution of the agricultural sector to the economy of Sri Lanka, and, consistent with this economic transformation, the structure of employment also changed. Thus, as labor migrates away from agriculture, the productivity, for those who remain in the land, needs to increase significantly. This report examines the constraints to promoting more rapid agricultural, and rural non-farm sector growth, and, reviews the recent performance of the agricultural, and rural non-farm sectors, in particular the non-plantation agricultural sector; scrutinizes the major policy, and regulatory barriers, that hinder a sustained growth in rural areas; and, proposes options for improvement in the key areas. A critical step to achieve this sector growth, and meet the changing demands of the overall economy, is the need to formulate, and implement a renewed rural development strategy, that builds on synergies in the agricultural, and non-farm sectors. This integrated rural development framework becomes an instrument that can complement a sustained growth in the non-farm sector...

‣ Determinants of Agricultural Extension Services : The Case of Haiti

Arias, Diego; Leguía, Juan José; Sy, Abdoulaye
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.747085%
The Haitian population is among the poorest in the world, with over 78 percent living on less than United States (U.S.) 2 dollar a day and over 50 percent living on less than U.S. 1 dollar a day. This paper extracts relevant lessons from historical data on factors influencing the receipt of extension services in Haiti, taking stock of the use of agricultural extension services prior to the 2010 earthquake. The goal is to influence future policies and development projects involving the provision of extension services as well as the type of extension services offered. This paper uses data from the 2010 agricultural census and examines the characteristics of farmers in Haiti receiving extension services by gender, education, agricultural training, farm size, and type of crop. Through in-depth study of each variable and a review of trends in the receipt of agricultural extension services, the study analyzes the equilibrium between the demand for and supply of extension services to particular farmer groups. The study draws the following nine key conclusions: (1) the proportion of households receiving agricultural extension services in Haiti is non-negligible; (2) location is an important determinant of the recipients of agricultural extension services; (3) there are no statistical differences between men and women in terms of receipt of extension services; however...

‣ Factors influencing the adoption of precision agricultural technologies: a review for policy implications

Tey, Yeong Sheng; Brindal, Mark Kennion
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
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67.47044%
Increasing pressure for food security and sustainability as well as a need to halt environmental degradation has focused attention on increasing the efficient use of farm resources. One answer to aspects of that problem is the use of precision agricultural technologies (PATs). To facilitate their adoption, initiatives have been fostered in developed countries since the 1980s. Despite a low rate of adoption elsewhere, similar efforts in recent years have been initiated in developing countries. Given this, understanding those underlying factors that influence the adoption of PATs is vital. It is timely to review these factors and to draw policy implications from that review for future actions. This review, based on studies investigating the limited adoption of PATs in ‘experienced’ countries, extrapolates their findings to explain why farmers have or have not adopted PATs. At the same time, this review summarizes the key insights for more effectively targeting ‘new’ followers: e.g. it provides some answers to the question of who is more likely to adopt PATs. Additionally, the review points to the limitations of current research in the area and suggests a robust economic model or multidisciplinary approach be adopted for future investigation.; Yeong Sheng Tey and Mark Brindal

‣ Gender in Climate-Smart Agriculture; Module 18 for Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook

World Bank Group; FAO; IFAD
Fonte: World Bank, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, and the International Fund for Agricultural Development Publicador: World Bank, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, and the International Fund for Agricultural Development
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.880283%
This module provides guidance and a comprehensive menu of practical tools for integrating gender in the planning, design, implementation, and evaluation of projects and investments in climate-smart agriculture (CSA). The module emphasizes the importance and ultimate goal of integrating gender in CSA practices, which is to reduce gender inequalities and ensure that men and women can equally benefit from any intervention in the agricultural sector to reduce risks linked to climate change. Climate change has an impact on food and nutrition security and agriculture, and the agriculture sector is one of the largest emitters of greenhouse gases. It is crucial to recognize that climate change affects men and women differently. The content is drawn from tested good practice and innovative approaches, with an emphasis on lessons learned, benefits and impacts, implementation issues, and replicability. These insights and lessons related to gender in CSA will assist practitioners to improve project planning, design...

‣ Basic Agricultural Public Expenditure Diagnostic Review : Ghana's Ministry of Food and Agriculture

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.48002%
Ghana, like many other African countries, had made a commitment in 2003 to allocate at least ten percent of their national budgetary resources to develop the agricultural sector by 2008, following the adoption of the Comprehensive African Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP), with an aim towards realizing food security and poverty reduction. This Agriculture Public Expenditure Review (AgPER) for Ghana analyzes data on public spending from both government and donor sources to assess: 1) the alignment between expenditure patterns within the agricultural sector and stated policy priorities; and 2) the effectiveness of public spending by comparing spending against results. The outputs of the review include a comprehensive agricultural expenditure assessment to help provide a solid foundation for carrying out specialized studies, such as Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys (PETS), and the establishment of the levels and composition of public expenditure in the selected subsectors

‣ Endogenous and Modern Innovations : Differing Perspectives

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.83789%
This notes paper touches on Ethiopia's being one of nine countries Involvement in the international network PROLINNOVA (Promoting Local Innovation). The Ethiopian program set up multi-stakeholder teams in different agro climatic zones. The paper goes on to mention exhibition of local and modern innovations at the Agricultural Technologies Exhibition which was held in Mekelle, the capital of Tigray region and give examples of local innovations. Some of the technologies at the exhibition are: a water-lifting device developed by Priest Malede Abreha and displayed as a model he built himself; subsurface drainage developed to relieve waterlogged farms in the main wet season; Drip irrigation systems, improved bee hives and queen rearing; and domesticating wild bees for medicinal honey. The paper also covers how farmers assess these innovations and the differences in interests and perceptions that such innovations bring.

‣ Sustainable Management of Agricultural Research and Technology Dissemination (SMARTD) : A Strategic Framework

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.773267%
Revitalizing agriculture is critical for rural Indonesia's economic prosperity. Historically, Indonesia's dramatic poverty reduction was driven by progress in agriculture and agriculture continues to be a potent driver of growth and poverty alleviation. Agricultural sector growth strongly induces non-agricultural sector growth in rural areas, particularly through demand for locally produced and services. Agricultural sector productivity growth (along with price changes) has remained the most important way out of poverty. To shift agriculture along these dimensions, Indonesia needs to transition from its current and ineffective public stance, growing subsidies and selective output protection, to a more aggressive provision of public goods and services that build support systems for farmers to achieve continuous productivity gains. This will require an enabling agriculture policy environment, significant improvement in the delivery of services, agricultural research and extension in particular, and supporting enabling investments...

‣ Reviving Sri Lanka's Agricultural Research and Extension System : Towards More Innovation and Market Orientation

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Rural Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.929448%
This review's objectives were to examine the structure and performance of the agricultural research and extension systems (public and private) at the central and provincial levels, identify successes as well as constraints to improving the system s effectiveness for fostering innovation, and propose options for further policy and institutional development, drawing on lessons from international experience. The review focused principally on nonplantation crops, although its main recommendations apply across the agricultural sector. This synthesis report summarizes the main findings of the review and builds upon them by adding some new elements. The conflict in Sri Lanka is explicitly recognized. Additionally, the implications of changes in the wider agricultural context for agricultural research and extension are explored, and have led to the adoption of an innovation systems perspective to organize the major findings

‣ Increasing Resilience to Climate Change in the Agricultural Sector in the Middle East : The Cases of Jordan and Lebanon

Verner, Dorte; Lee, David R.; Ashwill, Maximillian; Wilby, Robert
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.49637%
The increasing resilience to climate change in the agricultural sector report presents local-level priorities, informed by stakeholder input, to build agricultural resilience in both countries. The objectives of this study were threefold: (1) to improve the understanding of climate change projections and impacts on rural communities and livelihoods in selected regions of Jordan and Lebanon, specifically the Jordan River Valley and Lebanon's Bekaa Valley; (2) to engage local communities, farmers, local experts, and local and national government representatives in a participatory fashion in helping craft agricultural adaptation options to climate change; and (3) to develop local and regional climate change action plans that formulate recommendations for investment strategies and strategic interventions in local agricultural systems. The climate challenges confronting development in the Middle East are particularly stark. This region, and in particular its rural people, face what might be called a "triple threat" from climate change. First...

‣ Can Africa Replicate Asia's Green Revolution in Rice?

Larson, Donald F.; Otsuka, Keijiro; Kajisa, Kei; Estudillo, Jonna; Diagne, Aliou
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
38.026533%
Asia's green revolution in rice was transformational and improved the lives of millions of poor households. Rice has become an increasingly important part of African diets and imports of rice have grown. Agronomists point out that large areas in Africa are well suited for rice and are encouraged by the field tests of new rice varieties. So is Africa poised for its own green revolution in rice? This study reviews the recent literature on rice technologies and their impact on productivity, incomes, and poverty, and compares current conditions in Africa with the conditions that prevailed in Asia as its rice revolution got under way. An important conclusion is that, to a degree, a rice revolution has already begun in Africa. Moreover, many of the same practices that have proved successful in Asia and in Africa can be applied where yields are currently low. At the same time, for many reasons, Africa's rice revolution has been, and will continue to be, characterized by a mosaic of successes, situated where the conditions are right for new technologies to take hold. This can have profound effects in some places. But because diets...

‣ Improving Agricultural Productivity and Market Efficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean : How ICTs Can Make a Difference?

Goyal, Aparajita; González-Velosa, Carolina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
58.180166%
Agricultural growth rates in the Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region have been much slower than the rest of the developing world. In the regions of East Asia, South Asia and Middle East and North Africa, the annual growth of agricultural Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 1980-2004 exceeded 3 percent, while growth in Sub- Saharan Africa averaged almost 3 percent. This paper attempts to present an overview of the agricultural sector in LAC, discuss its distinctive features, and the potential role of Information and Communication Technology's (ICTs) in improving agricultural productivity and market efficiency in this region. The discussion in this paper will refer to the evidence provided by studies that evaluate the impact of ICTs interventions. While the emphasis will be put on the studies that evaluate interventions in the LAC region, there will also be references to studies in other developing economies whenever these are pertinent to the LAC context. The commercialization of agricultural products has suffered important transformations in recent decades...

‣ Chile’s Agricultural Innovation System : An Action Plan Towards 2030

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
38.006436%
The report builds on the 'towards a vision for agricultural innovation in Chile in 2030' report and is further based on a series of background papers and a consultation process that took place between December 2010 and May 2011. The current study is the third in a series of three that were agreed between the Government of Chile and the World Bank to support the development of a long-term agricultural innovation strategy. The first paper reviewed the functioning of the three main public technological institutes and recommended how their performance can be improved. The second study explored the future of Chile's agriculture towards 2030, using scenario planning and developing a vision for the future of its agricultural innovation system. This paper is based on the results of the former two studies, as well as a set of background documents and further consultations, and will outline the action plan required to achieve the aforementioned vision. The objective of this action plan is to enhance the capacity of Chile's agricultural innovation system in order to achieve the goals as laid out in the vision for the sector for the year 2030. It builds on the current strengths of the agricultural innovation system and elaborates on the main actions needed to address the priority topics. Five principles serve as the foundation of the plan: recognizing national and regional responsibilities; distinguishing public and private roles; diversity; excellence; and institutional integration. Most of the actions can be implemented between 2011 and 2015 and consolidated in the next five years. After 2020...

‣ Sustainable Management of Agricultural Research and Technology Dissemination (SMARTD) : A Strategic Framework

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.773267%
Revitalizing agriculture is critical for rural Indonesia's economic prosperity. Historically, Indonesia's dramatic poverty reduction was driven by progress in agriculture and agriculture continues to be a potent driver of growth and poverty alleviation. Agricultural sector growth strongly induces non-agricultural sector growth in rural areas, particularly through demand for locally produced and services. Agricultural sector productivity growth (along with price changes) has remained the most important way out of poverty. To shift agriculture along these dimensions, Indonesia needs to transition from its current and ineffective public stance, growing subsidies and selective output protection, to a more aggressive provision of public goods and services that build support systems for farmers to achieve continuous productivity gains. This will require an enabling agriculture policy environment, significant improvement in the delivery of services, agricultural research and extension in particular, and supporting enabling investments...

‣ Agricultural Extension Services in Indonesia : New Approaches and Emerging Issues

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Rural Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.78234%
Indonesian agriculture is at a crossroads. Supporting the livelihood of millions of Indonesians, it needs to underpin renewed and robust growth of the economy; and be a key component of the Government's poverty alleviation strategy. The challenge for the future is to reinvigorate productivity gains among rural producers, and provide the foundation for long run sustainability of these productivity gains. Productivity gains are key to farmer income growth, and for this rebuilding the research and extension systems that have seen a marked deterioration in recent years will be critical. The experience of the Indonesian decentralization of its extension system has been mixed, with adverse impact on extension through sharp reductions in funding, and removal of central-level guidance. At the same time, a series of positive debates and experimentation in management have taken place from a shift on top-down to participatory approaches, input and technology dissemination to dissemination of market and upstream information and technology...

‣ Agribusiness Indicators : Ghana

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.662627%
Agriculture plays an important role in the economies of most countries in Africa. However, few African countries have been able to capitalize on the sector's considerable potential to contribute to economic development through commercialization. Few have created an enabling environment for agricultural finance in which lenders and other agents are encouraged to develop innovative financial products that are well tailored to meet the needs of local producers. Few African countries have purposefully set out to encourage the use of modern farm machinery. Some, however, have invested in road infrastructure and transport facilities to reduce transaction costs and improve producers' access to markets. The countries that have undertaken initiatives to expand producers' access to agricultural technologies such as certified or hybrid seeds and fertilizers have generally been the most effective at increasing agricultural productivity. The research described in this volume used a set of agribusiness indicators to collect data that capture the performance of the agriculture sector in the Republic of Ghana...

‣ Evaluation of alternative irrigation technologies based upon applied water and simulated yields

Santos, Francisco Lúcio
Fonte: Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research Publicador: Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.09058%
Abstract Adequate estimates of yields under comparable amounts of infiltrated water of different irrigation systems are essential for evaluation and adoption of irrigation decisions. A simulation model, crop evapotranspiration and Young's criteria for subjective probability estimates from objective data were used to simulate water management regimes for pressurized and surface-irrigation systems. Historical climatic data, representative soil series and irrigation technologies for CentralArizona were considered in the simulations. Comparable spatial and average yields for drip, graded furrow, level furrow and level basin systems with similar distribution uniformity of applied water were predicted when each irrigation system infiltrates to the same depth in the low-quarter section of the irrigated field as the average of that quarter, to meet seasonal crop evapotranspiration. This implies that a similar fraction of the field (87·5%) is adequately irrigated in each case. Irrigation reuse systems are advisable to achieve comparable, and high, water application efficiencies with furrow systems. Applied water and simulated yields were influenced by the uniformity distribution of the irrigation technologies showing that the model can be used to explore theimplications of design and management decisions. The applied water and simulated yields can be used as inputs in economic models to aid selection of farm irrigation systems.

‣ The use of mobile technologies amongst South African commercial farmers

Simpson,A. P; Calitz,A. P
Fonte: South African Journal of Agricultural Extension Publicador: South African Journal of Agricultural Extension
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.660474%
Organisations offering extension services provide services to farmers which include the provision of relevant and current information pertaining to agriculture. The increased use of mobile technologies is changing the way farmers access information, specifically by using the Internet. This paper focuses on South African (SA) commercial farmers who currently use the Internet to establish their Internet access profile, the devices they utilise for Internet access and the purpose for which they use mobile technologies. An Internet and Mobile Device Usage Survey was conducted in the SA agricultural community. Farmers were found to have embraced mobile technology and in excess of 70% of the farmers who participated in the study indicated that they use their mobile devices to access the Internet. No brand of mobile phone or tablet computer was found to dominate the agricultural community. Importantly, close to 50% of respondents indicated that they owned and used a tablet. The primary reason for which mobile devices are used by farmers is for business purposes, including access to information about agriculture. Agricultural organisations offering extension services could benefit from embracing the technology and exploring new ways to provide information services to their farmer base.