Página 1 dos resultados de 2018 itens digitais encontrados em 0.018 segundos

‣ Impacts of greenhouse gas mitigation policies on agricultural land; Impacts of GHG mitigation policies on agricultural land

Wang, Xiaodong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 162 p.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.55446%
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are widely acknowledged to be responsible for much of the global warming in the past century. A number of approaches have been proposed to mitigate GHG emissions. Since the burning of fossil-based fuels is an important source of GHGs, the policies on GHG-mitigation encourage the replacement of fossil-based energy with biomass energy. However, a large-scale development of biomass energy may lead to changes in agricultural land use, which are important sources of GHG emissions, and therefore undermine the effectiveness of GHG-mitigation policies. In this research, I analyze the impacts of GHG-mitigation policies on five types of agricultural land (cropland, managed forestry land, pasture land, un-managed forestry land, and un-managed grassland) as well as carbon stored in such land during the 21st century. The scholars in the MIT Joint Program of Science and Policy on Global Change use the Integrated Global Systems Model (IGSM) to simulate changes in climate in response to GHG-mitigation policies, while the researchers at the U. S. Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) apply the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) to simulate land productivities. Based on the predictions of land characteristics affecting land-use decisions...

‣ Enhancing Agricultural Innovation : How to Go Beyond the Strengthening of Research Systems

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.822583%
Agricultural development depends to a great extent on how successfully knowledge is generated and applied. Investments in knowledge, especially in the form of science and technology, have been featured prominently and consistently in most strategies to promote sustainable and equitable agricultural development at the national level. Although many of these investments have been quite successful, the context for agriculture is changing rapidly-sometimes radically-and the process of knowledge generation and use has been transformed as well. It is increasingly recognized that traditional agricultural science and technology investments such as research and extension, although necessary, are not sufficient to enable agricultural innovation. As this paper will demonstrate, new perspectives on the nature of the agricultural innovation process can yield practical approaches to agricultural development that may be more suited to this changing context. This paper includes the following headings: (i) reasons for assessing the value of the innovation systems perspective; (ii) the innovation systems concept - a framework for analysis; (iii) research methodology and case study descriptions; (iv) innovation system capacity - a comparative analysis of case studies; (v) reviewing the innovation systems concept in light of the case studies; (vi) toward a framework for diagnosis and intervention; and (vii) conclusions.

‣ Nicaragua - Responding to the Needs of Farmers Using Agricultural Technology, Knowledge and Innovation Systems

Piccioni, Norman Bentley; Santucci, Fabio Maria
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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57.55341%
The Nicaraguan agricultural and livestock sector experienced wide policy shifts over the last two decades. State intervention during the Sandinista period (1979--1990) was reversed by subsequent governments that drastically reduced credit, curtailed government technical assistance services, and liberalized foreign and domestic input and output markets. However, government withdrawal was not accompanied by promotion of institutions to facilitate competition in input and output markets, and/or provision of credit and technical assistance.

‣ Building Response Strategies to Climate Change in Agricultural Systems in Latin America

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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57.436353%
This report, Building Response Strategies to Climate Change in Agricultural Systems in Latin America, reports the results of action research to identify and prioritize stakeholder driven, locally relevant response options to climate change in Latin American agriculture. The study has three primary objectives. The first is to develop and apply a pilot methodology for assessing agricultural vulnerability to climate change and for formulating adaptation response strategies to inform private and public sector decisions in the Latin America region. The study is principally concerned with adaptation responses to climate change, rather than mitigation. The second objective is to formulate recommendations for investments in each of the selected agro-ecosystems in a range of areas including agricultural technology adaptation, infrastructure investments, public and private sector support activities, and institutional and policy changes. The final objective is to disseminate the study results in the Latin America region and other parts of the world to help increase understanding of the impacts of climate change and alternative adaptation response strategies. This methodology can be used by the Bank to support client countries in defining response strategies...

‣ Designing and implementing Agricultural Innovation Funds : Lessons from Competitive Research and Matching Grant Projects

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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47.673022%
Many countries are using innovation funds in the agricultural sector to support innovators and their links to public institutions, private entrepreneurs, and other actors, such as groups of rural producers. These funds create platforms for innovative activity by providing incentives for quality and collaboration. This report synthesizes experience with the two main innovation funds that the World Bank has used to fund agricultural innovation, competitive research grants and matching grants, and offers lessons and guidelines for designing and implementing them. Although the report draws extensively on experience with World Bank investments, the lessons are relevant in other contexts. The practical aspects of designing and implementing successful grant schemes are emphasized throughout.

‣ Improving Technology Adoption in Agriculture through Extension Services : Evidence from Uruguay

Maffioli, Alessandro; Ubfal, Diego; Vazquez-Bare, Gonzalo; Cerdan-Infantes, Pedro
Fonte: Taylor and Francis Publicador: Taylor and Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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57.140356%
This article evaluates whether cost-sharing public interventions are successful in promoting agricultural technology uptake by small and medium farmers, and whether these changes can affect yields. Our article contributes to the debate by providing empirical evidence, which is scarce in the literature, from a programme offering extension services to fruit producers in Uruguay. Using a unique panel data set, we estimate a fixed effects model for the impact of extension services on technology adoption and yields. We find evidence that the programme increased density of plantation. Once we address small sample issues, we also find some evidence of impact on the adoption of improved varieties. However, we find no evidence of impact on yields for the period under study. Although this lack of effects on yields could be due to the limited time frame of the evaluation and does not rule out effects on other measures of productivity, it may also indicate that the practices promoted by the programme are insufficient to induce a detectable impact on productivity and, consequently, sustainable benefits for the farmers. The study, therefore, confirms the need of including the design of impact evaluations in the policy design in order to properly consider the timing of all the potential effects and produce conclusive findings and precise recommendations.

‣ Sri Lanka : Promoting Agricultural and Rural Non-farm Sector Growth, Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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47.74752%
Economic development has brought about, the decline in contribution of the agricultural sector to the economy of Sri Lanka, and, consistent with this economic transformation, the structure of employment also changed. Thus, as labor migrates away from agriculture, the productivity, for those who remain in the land, needs to increase significantly. This report examines the constraints to promoting more rapid agricultural, and rural non-farm sector growth, and, reviews the recent performance of the agricultural, and rural non-farm sectors, in particular the non-plantation agricultural sector; scrutinizes the major policy, and regulatory barriers, that hinder a sustained growth in rural areas; and, proposes options for improvement in the key areas. A critical step to achieve this sector growth, and meet the changing demands of the overall economy, is the need to formulate, and implement a renewed rural development strategy, that builds on synergies in the agricultural, and non-farm sectors. This integrated rural development framework becomes an instrument that can complement a sustained growth in the non-farm sector...

‣ Deregulating the Transfer of Agricultural Technology : Lessons from Bangladesh, India, Turkey, and Zimbabwe

Gisselquist, David; Nash, John; Pray, Carl
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.80315%
Many transition and developing economies have reduced direct public involvement in the production and trade of seed and other agricultural inputs. This trend creates opportunities for farmers to realize improved access to inputs, including technology from international private research. Unfortunately, input regulations often derail these opportunities by blocking private entry and the introduction of private technology. This study looks at the experience in Bangladesh, India, Turkey, and Zimbabwe to see whether regulations make a difference in agriculture and input industries in developing economies. In all countries, companies and farmers responded to regulatory reforms by introducing and adopting more new technology and by expanding the production, trade, and use of inputs. The increased use of private technology has brought higher yields and incomes, allowing farmers and consumers to reach higher levels of welfare. These results challenge governments to open their regulatory systems to allow market entry and the introduction of private technology through seeds and other inputs.

‣ Colombia : Agricultural and Rural Competitiveness

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.70629%
The purpose of this study is to assess agriculture's competitiveness in Colombia. During the past 12 years, Colombia's agricultural sector has performed poorly, resulting in the continuation of extensive rural poverty. Improving the sector's competitiveness is the only sure and lasting way to improve its growth performance and reduce poverty. Thus, the main objectives of this study are to assess: (a) the sector's current and potential competitiveness, (b) the factors that determine or inhibit its competitiveness, (c) the extent to which the campesino economy is competitive and could become more so, and (d) the role of policies in determining the sector's competitiveness. The study outlines strategic options that would strengthen the sector's competitiveness, with emphasis on development of transition measures to ease the path to adoption of new orientations. The work has been organized around three main themes: (a) the competitiveness of products and product chains, (b) underlying factors that influence competitiveness...

‣ Republic of India : Accelerating Agricultural Productivity Growth

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.677793%
In the past 50 years, Indian agriculture has undergone a major transformation, from dependence on food aid to becoming a consistent net food exporter. The gradual reforms in the agricultural sector (following the broader macro-reforms of the early 1990s) spurred some unprecedented innovations and changes in the food sector driven by private investment. These impressive achievements must now be viewed in light of the policy and investment imperatives that lie ahead. Agricultural growth has improved in recent years (averaging about 3.5 percent since 2004-05), but at a long-term trend rate of growth of 3 percent, agriculture has underperformed relative to its potential. The pockets of post-reform dynamism that have emerged evidently have not reached a sufficiently large scale to influence the sector's performance. For the vast population that still derives a living directly or indirectly from agriculture, achieving "faster, more inclusive, and sustainable growth', the objectives at the heart of the Twelfth five year plan...

‣ Sustainable Management of Agricultural Research and Technology Dissemination (SMARTD) : A Strategic Framework

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.862676%
Revitalizing agriculture is critical for rural Indonesia's economic prosperity. Historically, Indonesia's dramatic poverty reduction was driven by progress in agriculture and agriculture continues to be a potent driver of growth and poverty alleviation. Agricultural sector growth strongly induces non-agricultural sector growth in rural areas, particularly through demand for locally produced and services. Agricultural sector productivity growth (along with price changes) has remained the most important way out of poverty. To shift agriculture along these dimensions, Indonesia needs to transition from its current and ineffective public stance, growing subsidies and selective output protection, to a more aggressive provision of public goods and services that build support systems for farmers to achieve continuous productivity gains. This will require an enabling agriculture policy environment, significant improvement in the delivery of services, agricultural research and extension in particular, and supporting enabling investments...

‣ Increasing Resilience to Climate Change in the Agricultural Sector in the Middle East : The Cases of Jordan and Lebanon

Verner, Dorte; Lee, David R.; Ashwill, Maximillian; Wilby, Robert
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.6839%
The increasing resilience to climate change in the agricultural sector report presents local-level priorities, informed by stakeholder input, to build agricultural resilience in both countries. The objectives of this study were threefold: (1) to improve the understanding of climate change projections and impacts on rural communities and livelihoods in selected regions of Jordan and Lebanon, specifically the Jordan River Valley and Lebanon's Bekaa Valley; (2) to engage local communities, farmers, local experts, and local and national government representatives in a participatory fashion in helping craft agricultural adaptation options to climate change; and (3) to develop local and regional climate change action plans that formulate recommendations for investment strategies and strategic interventions in local agricultural systems. The climate challenges confronting development in the Middle East are particularly stark. This region, and in particular its rural people, face what might be called a "triple threat" from climate change. First...

‣ Chile’s Agricultural Innovation System : An Action Plan Towards 2030

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.895825%
The report builds on the 'towards a vision for agricultural innovation in Chile in 2030' report and is further based on a series of background papers and a consultation process that took place between December 2010 and May 2011. The current study is the third in a series of three that were agreed between the Government of Chile and the World Bank to support the development of a long-term agricultural innovation strategy. The first paper reviewed the functioning of the three main public technological institutes and recommended how their performance can be improved. The second study explored the future of Chile's agriculture towards 2030, using scenario planning and developing a vision for the future of its agricultural innovation system. This paper is based on the results of the former two studies, as well as a set of background documents and further consultations, and will outline the action plan required to achieve the aforementioned vision. The objective of this action plan is to enhance the capacity of Chile's agricultural innovation system in order to achieve the goals as laid out in the vision for the sector for the year 2030. It builds on the current strengths of the agricultural innovation system and elaborates on the main actions needed to address the priority topics. Five principles serve as the foundation of the plan: recognizing national and regional responsibilities; distinguishing public and private roles; diversity; excellence; and institutional integration. Most of the actions can be implemented between 2011 and 2015 and consolidated in the next five years. After 2020...

‣ Towards a Vision for Agricultural Innovation in Chile in 2030

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.693384%
This paper aims to develop a vision statement for the agricultural sector that may then guide the future investments in Chile's agricultural innovation system, A joint and shared perspective on how the sector might look and what role agricultural innovation should play in getting there is a prerequisite for any effective strategy. But developing such a vision is not only a function of what the country wants: it also depends on the context in which Chile's agricultural sector will find itself. This paper therefore reports on a participatory process to explore the many uncertainties that surround Chile's agriculture and to derive possible implications and answers. This will then lead to a vision for the sector that should be realistic both in terms of Chile's agricultural ambitions and its surrounding uncertainties. Based on the vision, a series of topics that needs to be explored in the agricultural innovation system if Chile wishes to make its vision come true will be identified and briefly described. The current paper is the second one in a series of three that were agreed between the Government of Chile and the World Bank to support the development of a long term agricultural innovation strategy. The first paper reviewed the functioning of the three main public technological institutes and made recommendations on how their performance can be improved. This second study explores the future of Chile's agriculture towards 2030...

‣ Sustainable Management of Agricultural Research and Technology Dissemination (SMARTD) : A Strategic Framework

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.862676%
Revitalizing agriculture is critical for rural Indonesia's economic prosperity. Historically, Indonesia's dramatic poverty reduction was driven by progress in agriculture and agriculture continues to be a potent driver of growth and poverty alleviation. Agricultural sector growth strongly induces non-agricultural sector growth in rural areas, particularly through demand for locally produced and services. Agricultural sector productivity growth (along with price changes) has remained the most important way out of poverty. To shift agriculture along these dimensions, Indonesia needs to transition from its current and ineffective public stance, growing subsidies and selective output protection, to a more aggressive provision of public goods and services that build support systems for farmers to achieve continuous productivity gains. This will require an enabling agriculture policy environment, significant improvement in the delivery of services, agricultural research and extension in particular, and supporting enabling investments...

‣ Republic of India : Accelerating Agricultural Productivity Growth

World Bank Group
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.68571%
In the past 50 years, Indian agriculture has undergone a major transformation, from dependence on food aid to becoming a consistent net food exporter. The gradual reforms in the agricultural sector (following the broader macro-reforms of the early 1990s) spurred some unprecedented innovations and changes in the food sector driven by private investment. These impressive achievements must now be viewed in light of the policy and investment imperatives that lie ahead. Agricultural growth has improved in recent years (averaging about 3.5 percent since 2004-05), but at a long-term trend rate of growth of 3 percent, agriculture has underperformed relative to its potential. The pockets of post-reform dynamism that have emerged evidently have not reached a sufficiently large scale to influence the sector's performance. For the vast population that still derives a living directly or indirectly from agriculture, achieving "faster, more inclusive, and sustainable growth', the objectives at the heart of the Twelfth five year plan...

‣ Agricultural Extension Services in Indonesia : New Approaches and Emerging Issues

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Rural Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.689023%
Indonesian agriculture is at a crossroads. Supporting the livelihood of millions of Indonesians, it needs to underpin renewed and robust growth of the economy; and be a key component of the Government's poverty alleviation strategy. The challenge for the future is to reinvigorate productivity gains among rural producers, and provide the foundation for long run sustainability of these productivity gains. Productivity gains are key to farmer income growth, and for this rebuilding the research and extension systems that have seen a marked deterioration in recent years will be critical. The experience of the Indonesian decentralization of its extension system has been mixed, with adverse impact on extension through sharp reductions in funding, and removal of central-level guidance. At the same time, a series of positive debates and experimentation in management have taken place from a shift on top-down to participatory approaches, input and technology dissemination to dissemination of market and upstream information and technology...

‣ Household adoption of ecological sanitation : an assessment of agricultural value and user perspectives in Nyanza Province, Kenya

Robinson, Brian E. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 154 p.; 9577061 bytes; 9583501 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.189155%
Ecological sanitation, or ecosan, refers to a range of sanitation technologies in which human excreta is recovered and retained on-site, and eventually reused. However, when a culture does not have a tradition of reusing or handling human waste, what would motivate a household within that culture to recycle and reuse their waste? More specifically, how do the agricultural value of the material from an ecosan toilet and user perspectives on ecosan systems influence households' adoption of ecosan toilets? On average, households in the study area produce 4 kilograms of nitrogen and 0.6 kilograms of phosphorous per year from urine collected in the skyloo toilet, the type of urine-diverting ecosan toilet available in the study area in the Nyanza Province, Kenya. These nutrients are the equivalent of a cost savings of about US $12 per year (the GDP per capita in Kenya in 2004 was US $1 100). About two-thirds of the households reuse the processed feces and urine in household gardens. Users reported additional major benefits such as the absence of foul odors, inexpensive construction costs (partly due to a materials subsidy by the promoting NGO), and the aesthetic value/social status that the facility brings to the owners' homes.; (cont.) The major negative factors included problems with construction and design of the facility...

‣ The Soviet Farm Complex : industrial agriculture in a Socialist context, 1945-1965

Smith, Jenny Leigh
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 204 leaves
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.714805%
"The Soviet Farm Complex" is a history of food, farming and the environment in the postwar Soviet Union. It tells the story of how different technical and institutional authorities created an industrial Soviet countryside in the generation after World War II. Beyond the leadership of the Soviet state, international trade relationships, new technologies, unusual scientific cultures, stubborn environmental realities and human shortcomings played important roles in shaping the progress of agricultural change. Four historical fields inform this project: the history of technology, agricultural history, Soviet history and environmental history. Each of the five chapters addresses a different time, place and theme in the history of the Soviet countryside, providing a close-up view of the most important aspects of postwar rural change. Soviet agricultural reform has often been interpreted as a failure: a textbook case of poor central planning and destructive, high-modernist logic on the part of the Soviet state. In fact, this study shows that the collective farming system as a whole was not particularly dysfunctional, nor was it doomed to failure simply by virtue of being centrally planned.; (cont.) Much like the capitalist farms with which it competed...

‣ The economic impact of global climate and tropospheric oxone on world agricultural production

Wang, Xiaodu
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 74 leaves; 4089187 bytes; 4090568 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.915703%
The objective of my thesis is to analyze the economic impact on agriculture production from changes in climate and tropospheric ozone, and related policy interventions. The analysis makes use of the Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, a computable general equilibrium model of the world economy and crop yield results from the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM), a biogeochemical model of terrestrial vegetation. I disaggregated the original EPPA model to capture the dynamic behaviors of crops, livestock and forestry within the agriculture sector. Further calibration was done to validate projections on future food shares according to Engel's Law. Results from AIDADS (An Implicit Direct Additive Demand System) were used to adjust the model, as the EPPA Agriculture Model was implemented using CES (Constant Elasticity of Substitution) consumption function that, other things equal, keeps the food share constant as income grows. My research shows that the direct effects of environmental change on yields are substantially moderated in terms of production effects as a result of crop sector adaptations and reallocation of resources within the economy. However, costs (or benefits) resulting from reallocation of resources show up as losses (or gains) in aggregate economic consumption. The findings also uncover additional benefits of policies that impose greenhouse gas emissions constraints as they mitigate damages from ozone pollutions. For example...