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‣ The Household Enterprise Sector in Tanzania : Why It Matters and Who Cares

Kweka, Josaphat; Fox, Louise
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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The household enterprise sector has a significant role in the Tanzanian economy. It employs a larger share of the urban labor force than wage employment, and is increasingly seen as an alternative to agriculture as a source of additional income for rural and urban households. The sector is uniquely placed within the informal sector, where it represents both conditions of informal employment and informal enterprise. This paper presents a case study on Tanzania using a mixed approach by combining both quantitative and qualitative analysis to examine the important role of household enterprises in the labor force of Tanzania, and to identify key factors that influence their productivity. Household enterprise owners are similar to typical labor force participants although primary education appears to be the minimum qualification for household enterprise operators to be successful. Access to location matters -- good, secure location in a marketplace or industrial cluster raises earnings - and access to transport and electricity is found to have a significant effect on earnings as well. In large urban areas...

‣ Poverty Decline, Agricultural Wages, and Non-Farm Employment in Rural India 1983–2004

Lanjouw, Peter; Murgai, Rinku
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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The authors analyze five rounds of National Sample Survey data covering 1983, 1987/8, 1993/4, 1999/0, and 2004/5 to explore the relationship between rural diversification and poverty. Poverty in rural India declined at a modest rate during this period. The authors provide region-level estimates that illustrate considerable geographic heterogeneity in this progress. Poverty estimates correlate well with region-level data on changes in agricultural wage rates. Agricultural labor remains the preserve of the uneducated and also to a large extent of the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Although agricultural labor grew as a share of total economic activity over the first four rounds, it had fallen back to the levels observed at the beginning of the survey period by 2004. This all-India trajectory masks widely varying trends across states. During this period, the rural non-farm sector grew modestly, mainly between the last two survey rounds. Regular non-farm employment remains largely associated with education levels and social status that are rare among the poor. However...

‣ Education and Wage Differentials in the Philippines

Luo, Xubei; Terada, Takanobu
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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49.8458%
In the Philippines, an important part of income inequality is associated with the wage difference between the less educated and the better educated. The majority of the least educated are employed in low-paid services jobs and the agricultural sector. Tertiary education is to a large extent a prerequisite for high-paid occupations. Using the Labor Force Survey 2003-2007, this paper examines disparities in human capital endowment, returns to education, and the role of education in wage differentials in the Philippines. The empirical results show that returns to education monotonically increase - workers with elementary education, secondary education, and tertiary education earn 10 percent, 40 percent, and 100 percent more than those with no education. The results also show that education is the single most important factor that contributes to wage differentials. At the national level, education accounts for about 30 percent of the difference in wages. It accounts for a higher percentage of the difference for female workers (37 percent) than male workers (24 percent). There are also differences across regions and sectors. As an economy develops...

‣ Investment in Agricultural Water for Poverty Reduction and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa : Synthesis Report

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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The report analyses the contribution to date of agricultural water management to poverty reduction and growth in the in sub-Saharan Africa region, the reasons for its slow expansion and apparently poor track record, as well as the ways in which increased investment in agricultural water management could make a sustainable contribution to further poverty reduction and growth. The first chapter places agricultural water management in the context of the millennium development goals and paths to poverty reduction through agricultural growth. The second to fifth chapters contain a regional diagnostic that looks at the role of agricultural water management in sub-Saharan Africa, examines the contribution that investment projects have made, reviews the changing institutional context, and assesses the potential for further development. The sixth and the final chapter then summarizes the lessons and recommendations for increasing the contribution of agricultural water management to poverty reduction and growth in the region.

‣ Trade Reforms, Farm Productivity, and Poverty in Bangladesh

Klytchnikova, Irina; Diop, Ndiame
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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This paper analyzes the distributional impacts of trade reforms in rural areas of Bangladesh. The liberalization of trade in irrigation equipment and fertilizer markets during the early 1990s has led to structural changes in the agricultural sector and a significant increase in rice productivity. A resulting increase in output has been associated with a decline in producer and consumer rice prices of approximately 25 percent. Using a combination of ex-post and ex-ante approaches, the authors investigate the implications of the changes in rice productivity and prices for the welfare of households. They find that the net effects of increased rice productivity and lower rice prices have benefited the poor. Regardless of the particular category analyzed, the poorest households emerged as being particularly positively affected by reforms in the 1990s. This mainly reflects the fact that they are predominantly net rice buyers in both urban and rural markets. In contrast, large net sellers of rice, among the better-off households in the rural areas, were the main losers. Since net buyers in rural areas tend to be poorer than net sellers, trade liberalization has benefited the poor. Although the authors are not able to test empirically what has happened to the welfare level of agricultural wage earners...

‣ Self-Employment in the Developing World

Gindling, T. H.; Newhouse, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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70.43226%
This paper analyzes heterogeneity among the self-employed in 74 developing countries, representing two-thirds of the population of the developing world. After profiling how worker characteristics vary by employment status, it classifies self-employed workers outside agriculture as "successful" or "unsuccessful" entrepreneurs, based on two measures of success: whether the worker is an employer, and whether the worker resides in a non-poor household. Four main findings emerge. First, jobs exhibit a clear pecking order, with household welfare and worker education highest for employers, followed by wage and salaried employees, non-agricultural own-account workers, non-agricultural unpaid family workers, and finally agricultural workers. Second, a substantial minority of own-account workers reside in non-poor households, suggesting that their profits are often a secondary source of household income. Third, as per capita income increases, the structure of employment shifts rapidly, first out of agriculture into unsuccessful non-agricultural self-employment...

‣ Labor Markets, Occupational Choice, and Rural Poverty in Selected Countries in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa

Estudillo, Jonna P.; Matsumoto, Tomoya; Uddin, Hayat Chowdhury Zia; Kumanayake, Nandika S.; Otsuka, Keijiro
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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This paper reviews the relative importance of different components of rural labor markets, examining how their functions differ across geographical locations and change over time, and inquiring into the difference in the contribution to poverty reduction among different jobs (i.e., agricultural wage employment, formal and informal nonfarm wage jobs, and nonfarm self-employment). Improving rural investment climate through investment in infrastructure and provision of credit will be helpful, because in all likelihood, increased access to nonfarm jobs, in general, and formal jobs in particular, will become a key factor affecting the improvement of living standards and poverty reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), a phenomenon particularly visible in Asia from the mid-1980s to late-2000s which has started to appear in Africa. The development of agriculture stimulates the growth of nonfarm sectors through production and consumption linkages. Furthermore, increased farm income tends to be invested in schooling of children, who later look for nonfarm jobs, as seen in the Asian experience. Supply of such educated labor force to nonfarm sectors must have contributed to their development, and balanced development strategy for both farm and nonfarm sectors is clearly needed in SSA for achieving the twin goals of improving living standards and reducing rural poverty.

‣ Self-Employment in the Developing World

Gindling, T. H.; Newhouse, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
59.8452%
This paper analyzes heterogeneity among the self-employed in 74 developing countries, representing two thirds of the population of the developing world. After profiling how worker characteristics vary by employment status, we classify self-employed workers outside of agriculture as “successful” or “unsuccessful” entrepreneurs, based on two measures of success: Whether the worker is an employer, and whether they reside in a non-poor household. Four main findings emerge. First, jobs exhibit a clear pecking order, with household welfare and worker education highest for employers, followed by wage and salaried employees, non-agricultural own-account workers, non-agricultural unpaid family workers, and finally agricultural workers. Second, a substantial minority of own-account workers reside in non-poor households, suggesting that their profits are often a secondary source of household income. Third, as per capita income increases, the structure of employment shifts rapidly, first out of agriculture into unsuccessful non-agricultural self-employment, and then mainly into non-agricultural wage employment. Finally, roughly one third of the unsuccessful entrepreneurs share similar characteristics with their successful counterparts...

‣ The Wage Labor Market and Inequality in Vietnam in the 1990s

Gallup, John Luke
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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Has the expansion of wage employment in Vietnam exacerbated social inequalities, despite its contribution to income growth? Gallup uses the two rounds of the Vietnamese Living Standards Survey (VLSS) to evaluate the contribution of wage employment to inequality and income growth over the period of rapid economic growth in the 1990s following market reforms. If Vietnam sustains its economic development in the future, wage employment will become an ever more important source of household income as family farms and self-employed household enterprises become less prevalent. Observing the recent evolution of wage employment compared with farm and non-farm self-employment provides clues as to how economic development will change Vietnamese society, in particular its impact on income inequality within and between communities. The author shows that standard methods for calculating income inequality can be severely biased due to measurement error when decomposing the contribution of different sectors, regions, or groups to overall inequality. A new method for consistent decomposition of inequality by income source shows that despite the rapid growth of wages in the 1990s...

‣ Changing Wage Structure in India in the Post-Reform Era; 1993-2011

Jacoby, Hanan G.; Dasgupta, Basab
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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This paper documents the changing structure of wages in India over the post-reform era, the roughly two-decade period since 1993. To investigate the factors underlying these changes, a supply-demand framework is applied at the level of the Indian state. While real wages have risen across India over the past two decades, the increase has been greater in rural areas and, especially, for unskilled workers. The analysis finds that, in rural areas, the changing wage structure has been driven largely by relative supply factors, such as increased overall education levels and falling female labor force participation. Relative wage changes between rural and urban areas have been driven largely by shifts in employment, notably into unskilled-intensive sectors like construction.

‣ Armenia : Promoting Productive Employment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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This paper examines labor market outcomes in Armenia and their impact on poverty. The outcomes are of considerable concern: relatively few persons of working age are employed, and many of those who are employed have low-productivity jobs. The problem is not only high unemployment, but also low labor force participation. The main factor behind the low employment/population ratio is weak labor demand and the scarcity of productive job opportunities. This paper begins in section one by discussing the main labor market challenges in Armenia, before focusing on unemployment in section two. Section three analyzes the nature of employment and jobs, while section four examines wage determination and structure. Section five then evaluates the relationship between individuals' and households' labor market status and poverty. Finally, section six concludes with policy implications of the analysis. In order to reach the 60 percent employment rate Armenia would need to create an additional 166,000 jobs. This will lead to a 14 percent increase in employment...

‣ War and Women’s Work : Evidence from the Conflict in Nepal

Menon, Nidhiya; van der Meulen Rodgers, Yana
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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This paper examines how Nepal's 1996-2006 civil conflict affected women's decisions to engage in employment. Using three waves of the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, the authors employ a difference-in-difference approach to identify the impact of war on women's employment decisions. The results indicate that as a result of the Maoist-led insurgency, women's employment probabilities were substantially higher in 2001 and 2006 relative to the outbreak of war in 1996. These employment results also hold for self-employment decisions, and they hold for smaller sub-samples that condition on husband's migration status and women's status as widows or household heads. Numerous robustness checks of the difference-in-difference estimates based on alternative empirical methods provide compelling evidence that women's likelihood of employment increased as a consequence of the conflict.

‣ Distributional Implications of Climate Change in India

Jacoby, Hanan; Rabassa, Mariano; Skoufias, Emmanuel
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
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Global warming is expected to heavily impact agriculture, the dominant source of livelihood for the world's poor. Yet, little is known about the distributional implications of climate change at the sub-national level. Using a simple comparative statics framework, this paper analyzes how changes in the prices of land, labor, and food induced by modest temperature increases over the next three decades will affect household-level welfare in India. The authors predict a substantial fall in agricultural productivity, even allowing for farmer adaptation. Yet, this decline will not translate into a sharp drop in consumption for the majority of rural households, who derive their income largely from wage employment. Overall, the welfare costs of climate change fall disproportionately on the poor. This is true in urban as well as in rural areas, but, in the latter sector only after accounting for the effects of rising world cereal prices. Adaptation appears to primarily benefit the non-poor, since they own the lion's share of agricultural land. The results suggest that poverty in India will be roughly 3-4 percentage points higher after thirty years of rising temperatures than it would have been had this warming not occurred.

‣ Welfare and Poverty Impacts of India's National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme : Evidence from Andhra Pradesh

Deininger, Klaus; Liu, Yanyan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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This paper uses a three-round 4,000-household panel from Andhra Pradesh together with administrative data to explore short and medium-term poverty and welfare effects of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme. Triple difference estimates suggest that participants significantly increase consumption (protein and energy intake) in the short run and accumulate more nonfinancial assets in the medium term. Direct benefits exceed program-related transfers and are most pronounced for scheduled castes and tribes and households supplying casual labor. Asset creation via program-induced land improvements is consistent with a medium-term increase in assets by nonparticipants and increases in wage income in excess of program cost.

‣ Making Work Pay in Bangladesh : Employment, Growth, and Poverty Reduction

Paci, Pierella; Sasin, Marcin
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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The objective of this report is to analyze the important roles of labor markets, employment, productivity, and labor income in facilitating shared growth and promoting poverty reduction in Bangladesh. First, the report provides a background discussion of poverty, reform, and growth in Bangladesh. Following that, it gives an overview of the labor market, describing the country's demographics, the institutional structure of the labor market, and the labor market indicators. Then a poverty profile of the labor market is developed, followed by a discussion of the income sources and a decomposition of poverty reduction. A number of selected issues are discussed in the final section, including rural versus urban conditions; women, and children in the labor market; self-employment and household employment; and socioeconomic inequalities.

‣ To What Extent Are Bangladesh's Recent Gains in Poverty Reduction Different from the Past?

Kotikula, Aphichoke; Narayan, Ambar; Zaman, Hassan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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The poor in Bangladesh are more likely to belong to households with a larger number of dependents and lower education among household members, be engaged in daily wage labor, own little land, and be less likely to receive remittances. This poverty profile for 2005 is similar to the profile in the mid-1980s and hence at first glance it would appear that little has changed over time. A closer look at national household survey data suggests a more nuanced story. This paper uses the latest two rounds of the Bangladesh Household Income and Expenditure Survey to decompose the micro-determinants of poverty reduction between 2000 and 2005, closely following a similar analysis using five earlier rounds of the Survey. The comparison of results shows that the spatial distribution of poverty seen in earlier decades has changed with time and the drivers of poverty reduction are different in several respects.

‣ Agricultural Productivity, Hired Labor, Wages and Poverty : Evidence from Bangladesh

Emran, Shahe; Shilpi, Forhad
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
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50.450796%
This paper provides evidence on the effects of agricultural productivity on wage rates, labor supply to market oriented activities, and labor allocation between own farming and wage labor in agriculture. To guide the empirical work, this paper develops a general equilibrium model that underscores the role of reallocation of family labor engaged in the production of non-marketed services at home (`home production'). The model predicts positive effects of a favorable agricultural productivity shock on wages and income, but the effect on hired labor is ambiguous; it depends on the strength of reallocation of labor from home to market production by labor surplus and deficit households. Taking rainfall variations as a measure of shock to agricultural productivity, and using subdistrict level panel data from Bangladesh, this paper finds significant positive effects of a favorable rainfall shock on agricultural wages, labor supply to market work, and per capita household expenditure. The share of hired labor in contrast declines substantially in response to a favorable productivity shock...

‣ Income Diversification Patterns in Rural Sub-Saharan Africa : Reassessing the Evidence

Davis, Benjamin; Di Giuseppe, Stefania; Zezza, Alberto
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
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50.09525%
Is Africa's rural economy transforming as its economies grow? This paper uses comparable income aggregates from 41 national household surveys from 22 countries to explore the extent of income diversification among rural households in Sub-Saharan Africa, and to look at how income diversification in Sub-Saharan Africa compares with other regions, taking into account differences in levels of development. The paper also seeks to understand how geography drives income diversification, focusing on the role of agricultural potential and distance to urban areas. The countries in the African sample have higher shares of on-farm income (63 versus 33 percent) and lower shares on nonagricultural wage income (8 and 21 percent) compared with countries of other regions. Specialization in on-farm activities continues to be the norm in rural Africa (52 percent of households, 21 percent in other regions). In terms of welfare, specialization in nonagricultural income-generating activities stochastically dominates farm-based strategies in all of the countries in our African sample. Crop income is still important for welfare...

‣ Making Work Pay in Madagascar : Employment, Growth, and Poverty Reduction

Hoftijzer, Margo; Paci, Pierella
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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There is little doubt that economic growth contributes significantly to poverty reduction; however, countries clearly differ in the degree to which income growth translates into reduced levels of poverty. Although cross-country estimates suggest that differences in the responsiveness of poverty to income growth account for a small fraction of overall differences in poverty changes across countries, from the point of view of an individual country these differences may have significant implications for poverty reduction, especially in the short term. The report is structured into eight chapters, beginning with this introduction. Chapter two describes the data and the main definitions used in this report. Chapter three provides the socioeconomic context of the study, with a particular emphasis on growth, poverty, and labor market characteristics. Chapter four takes a look at the linkages between macro and microeconomic data by reviewing the ways in which changes in aggregate and sectoral labor productivity translate into individual earnings as gathered from the household surveys. Chapter five also reviews the relationships between productivity and earnings by looking at the linkages between changes in aggregate and sectoral labor productivity data (macro) and changes in individual earnings as gathered from the household surveys (micro). Chapter six examines the origins and determining factors of household earnings and employment and assesses their impact on poverty and poverty reduction. Chapter seven analyzes the individual and household characteristics that are associated with having either 'good' jobs or 'bad' jobs and reviews the question of whether there may be barriers preventing the movement of workers from bad to good labor market segments. Finally...

‣ Wage Growth, Landholding, and Mechanization in Chinese Agriculture

Wang, Xiaobing; Yamauchi, Futoshi; Otsuka, Keijiro; Huang, Jikun
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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This paper uses farm panel data from China to examine the dynamics of land transactions, machine investments, and the demand for machine services. Recently, China's agriculture has experienced a large expansion of machine rentals and machine services provided by specialized agents, which has contributed to mechanization of agricultural production. The empirical results show that an increase in nonagricultural wage rates leads to expansion of self-cultivated land size. A rise in the proportion of nonagricultural income or the migration rate also increases the size of self-cultivated land. Interestingly, however, relatively educated farm households decrease the size of self-cultivated land, which suggests that relatively less educated farmers tend to specialize in farming. The demand for machine services has also increased if agricultural wage and migration rate increased over time, especially among relatively large farms. The results on crop income support the complementarity between rented-in land and machine services (demanded)...