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‣ Agricultura urbana e peri-urbana em Campinas/SP : analise do Programa de Hortas Comunitarias como subsidio para politicas publicas; Urban and peri-urban agriculture in Campinas/SP : analysis of the community kitchen-gardens program as subsidy for public politics

Juliana Arruda
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/02/2006 Português
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A Agricultura Urbana e Peri-urbana (AUP) contemporânea vêm ganhando destaque no cenário mundial e nacional e reafirmando-se como um fator permanente nos processos de desenvolvimento sustentável das pessoas e da sociedade.Em Campinas, a câmara e o executivo têm, através das legislações municipais e da regulamentação do Programa de Hortas Comunitárias de Campinas (PHC), sinalizada a intenção em trazer à agenda política do município o tema de agricultura urbana. Porém na atual administração, Hélio de Oliveira Santos (2005-2008), o PHC ainda não tem destino claro. Neste contexto, este trabalho tem como objetivo analisar o PHC, de forma a subsidiar uma nova formulação de políticas públicas de AUP no município. Seus objetivos específicos compreendem a análise da gestão do PHC, dos projetos de hortas no município e do perfil dos participantes, bem como tecer proposições a cerca da percepção dos entrevistados. Os dados utilizados foram obtidos a partir de visitas sistemáticas e entrevistas dirigidas ao longo do ano de 2005, realizadas junto a formuladores, gestores e beneficiários de hortas urbanas escolares, terapêuticas e comunitárias do município de Campinas, além da fonte documental. A análise da maneira como se deu a gestão do PHC evidenciou a...

‣ Growth and Productivity in Agriculture and Agribusiness : Evaluative Lessons from World Bank Group Experience

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
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The World Bank Group has a unique opportunity to match the increases in financing for agriculture with a sharper focus on improving agricultural growth and productivity in agriculture-based economies, notably in Sub-Saharan Africa. Greater effort will be needed to connect sectoral interventions and achieve synergies from public and private sector interventions; to build capacity and knowledge exchange; to take stock of experience in rain-fed agriculture; to ensure attention to financial sustainability and to cross-cutting issues of gender, environmental, and social impacts and climate; and to better integrate the World Bank Group support at the global and regional levels with that at the country level. This evaluation uses the typology of economies developed by the Agriculture for Development: World Development Report 2008 as one classification in its analysis. In the agriculture-based category, which includes most of Sub-Saharan Africa, development of the agriculture sector is essential to growth and poverty reduction...

‣ Agriculture and the Clean Development Mechanism

Larson, Donald F.; Dinar, Ariel; Frisbie, J. Aapris
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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Many experts believe that low-cost mitigation opportunities in agriculture are abundant and comparable in scale to those found in the energy sector. They are mostly located in developing countries and have to do with how land is used. By investing in projects under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), countries can tap these opportunities to meet their own Kyoto Protocol obligations. The CDM has been successful in financing some types of agricultural projects, including projects that capture methane or use agricultural by-products as an energy source. But agricultural land-use projects are scarce under the CDM. This represents a missed opportunity to promote sustainable rural development since land-use projects that sequester carbon in soils can help reverse declining soil fertility, a root cause of stagnant agricultural productivity. This paper reviews the process leading to current CDM implementation rules and describes how the rules, in combination with challenging features of land-use projects, raise transaction costs and lower demand for land-use credits. Procedures by which developed countries assess their own mitigation performance are discussed as a way of redressing current constraints on CDM investments. Nevertheless...

‣ Bolivia - Country Note on Climate Change Aspects in Agriculture

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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This country note briefly summarizes information relevant to both climate change and agriculture in Bolivia, with focus on policy developments (including action plans and programs) and institutional make-up. Like most countries in Latin America, Bolivia has submitted one national communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) with a second one under preparation. Land use change and forestry, coupled with agriculture, are by far the largest contributors to green house gas (GHG) emissions in the country. The emission reduction potential of the sector is large, but not sufficiently explored. Bolivia counts with only two registered Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects, none of which is in the agricultural sector. Agriculture is highly vulnerable to climate variability and weather extremes and around a third of the population derives their livelihood from agricultural production. A greater emphasis on adaptation strategies, in particular those related to water harvest and sustainable land management...

‣ Agriculture for Nutrition in Latin America and the Caribbean : From Quantity to Quality

World Bank; Inter-American Institute for Agriculture Cooperation
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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The Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region has been in many ways successful in increasing agriculture production and competitiveness, as well as tackling nutrition. Mainstreaming nutrition considerations into agriculture operations can increase the availability of and access to nutritious food, which can improve the nutrition status of individuals. The challenge is how to bridge the gap that exists in region between being an agriculture powerhouse and yet having to tackle nutrition problems from the same households that produce the food. The new challenge of integrating nutrition and agriculture should be achievable with political leadership and inter-institutional coordination. This guidance note seeks to bridge some of the important knowledge gaps on how best to identify, design, implement, monitor, and evaluate agriculture and food security interventions. This note describes first the current situation in LAC with respect to agriculture and nutrition, then offers practical guidance to task team leaders (TTLs) regarding the available levers for positively impacting nutrition outcomes of agriculture projects...

‣ Beyond Quality at Entry

Mollard, Ingrid; Brearley, Emily; Vyzaki, Marialena; Taivalmaa, Sanna-Liisa
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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The objective of this study was to go beyond a standard gender review of project design to increase knowledge of how and to what extent World Bank agriculture projects address gender issues during implementation. The study introduces a tool to track gender mainstreaming in the implementation phase of a project. The tool is then used to review the portfolio of current agriculture projects, establish a baseline, and suggest targets for gender mainstreaming for the future portfolio. There is a need to move beyond quality at entry to have a more realistic picture of gender mainstreaming in projects. The Agriculture Action Plan (2013-15) explicitly emphasizes the importance of reducing gender inequality in access to assets, services, collective action, and opportunities. The plan specifies key actions to increase the share of agriculture and rural development projects by 2015. That will (1) include gender analysis in its design, with a target of 100 percent, and (2) include gender mainstreaming in all three dimensions of design (analysis...

‣ Gender in Climate-Smart Agriculture; Module 18 for Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook

World Bank Group; FAO; IFAD
Fonte: World Bank, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, and the International Fund for Agricultural Development Publicador: World Bank, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, and the International Fund for Agricultural Development
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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This module provides guidance and a comprehensive menu of practical tools for integrating gender in the planning, design, implementation, and evaluation of projects and investments in climate-smart agriculture (CSA). The module emphasizes the importance and ultimate goal of integrating gender in CSA practices, which is to reduce gender inequalities and ensure that men and women can equally benefit from any intervention in the agricultural sector to reduce risks linked to climate change. Climate change has an impact on food and nutrition security and agriculture, and the agriculture sector is one of the largest emitters of greenhouse gases. It is crucial to recognize that climate change affects men and women differently. The content is drawn from tested good practice and innovative approaches, with an emphasis on lessons learned, benefits and impacts, implementation issues, and replicability. These insights and lessons related to gender in CSA will assist practitioners to improve project planning, design...

‣ Liberia : Agriculture Sector Public Expenditure Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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This basic Agriculture Public Expenditure Review (AgPER) documents and analyzes information on the volume and structure of Liberia's past public expenditure on the agriculture sector and draws conclusions that can provide an orientation for future policies in view of the effectiveness of spending. The AgPER's focus is on the sectors of agriculture, including crops, fisheries, and forestry, in line with the New Partnership for African Development's (NEPAD) definition of the sectors of focus. This is in accordance with the Maputo Declaration and its target that governments devote ten percent of public expenditure for agricultural development with an aim towards realizing food security and poverty reduction.

‣ Brazil - Country Note on Climate Change Aspects in Agriculture

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
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This country note briefly summarizes information relevant to both climate change and agriculture in Brazil, with focus on policy developments (including action plans and programs) and institutional make-up. In Brazil, the 5th largest emitter of greenhouse gases in the world, agriculture (including land use change and forestry) is the largest contributor to green house gas (GHG) emissions. The emission reduction potential of the agricultural sector (including land use change and forestry) is significant and not yet sufficiently explored. Brazil currently counts with 30 Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects in the agricultural sector (targeting only methane emission reductions and biomass generation), while there are no registered CDM projects in the country under the 'afforestation and reforestation' category. Agriculture is highly vulnerable to climate variability, particularly in the Brazilian semi-arid Northeast where droughts have had a significant impact on crop yields and people's livelihood. The extension and improvement of both irrigation infrastructure and climate-sensitive insurance coverage for agricultural production...

‣ Honduras - Country Note on Climate Change Aspects in Agriculture

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
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This country note briefly summarizes information relevant to both climate change and agriculture in Honduras, with focus on policy developments (including action plans and programs) and institutional make-up. Like most countries in Latin America, Honduras has submitted one national communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) with a second one under preparation. Land use change and forestry are by far the largest contributors to green house gas (GHG) emissions in the country. The emission reduction potential of the sector is large, but not sufficiently explored. Honduras counts with the largest number of registered CDM projects in Central America, 15 Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects, of which three are in the agricultural sector. It is estimated that Central America produces less than 0.5 percent of global carbon emissions, but it is one the most vulnerable regions to climate change related impacts on the planet. In 2004, the United Nations identified Honduras among the first 20 most vulnerable countries in the world in terms of vulnerability to floods and the most vulnerable to hurricanes. Honduras was also identified as the most vulnerable country in Central America by the British society Maplecroft in their study titled 'vulnerability index to climate change.' Agriculture is highly vulnerable to climate variability and weather extremes...

‣ Tracking Results in Agriculture and Rural Development in Less-Than-Ideal Conditions : A Sourcebook of Indicators for Monitoring and Evaluation

Larson, Gunnar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
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The demand for verifiable evidence of results and impacts of development agricultural programs and projects is growing. However, most of the indicators that development practitioners have traditionally used in tracking progress toward achieving projects' objectives focus on the workings of the development operation itself. These performance indicators relate mainly to lower-level inputs and outputs and are used to populate management information systems. Higher-level indicators are used to measure progress in achieving the ultimate objectives of projects, and in bringing about larger outcomes and impacts. The ability to measure and demonstrate outcomes and impacts relies on the use of indicators that are based on reliable data and on the capacity to systematically collect and analyze that information. The conditions in which monitoring and evaluation (M&E) are carried out vary widely, depending on the demand for information, the extent to which it is used to inform decision-making, and the reliability of the systems that are in place to capture and convey that information. Throughout much of the developing world these conditions are "less-than-ideal...

‣ Lebanon Agriculture Sector Note : Aligning Public Expenditures with Comparative Advantage

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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Agriculture is a small but stable part of the Lebanese economy. Approximately 20 to 25 percent of Lebanon's active population is involved in the sector in one way or another. This note is a synthesis of previous work written on agriculture development in Lebanon and related public expenditures in the sector. It starts with an overview of the agriculture sector in Lebanon and its role and contribution to the economy. Approximately eight percent of Lebanese households live below the poverty line. Among major economic sectors, agriculture has the highest rate of poverty. Over 20 percent of heads of households engaged in this sector are very poor. The North governorate is among the hardest hit areas with one in four agriculture workers likely to be poor. Agriculture sector development could play an important role in pro-poor growth. This note aims to focus on an agriculture sub-sector with significant growth potential. The Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis explains that Lebanon is relatively more competitive in fruits and vegetables than in cereals and livestock. First...

‣ Involving Farmers : Social Assessment in the Estonia Agriculture Project

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
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Countries in transition from centrally planned to market economies face several challenges when planning investments. These include a lack of information about beneficiary groups, particularly those in rural areas; and the collapse of institutions maintained by the state prior to transition. During preparation of the Estonia Agriculture Project, the government sought World Bank technical assistance to undertake a social assessment (SA) to fill information gaps and initiate a process of building new local level institutions. The SA was divided into three phases, with the overall objective of building institutional capacity at both the local and the national level. Phase I has been completed. It has enabled the government to assess farmers' commitment to rehabilitation of field drainage systems, and their willingness to form farmer-managed Land and Water Associations and to share costs and assume responsibilities for operation and maintenance. Since regaining independence in 1991, Estonia has stabilized its macroeconomic situation and moved rapidly towards a market economy. Living standards...

‣ Achieving Financial Sustainability and Recovering Costs in Bank Financed Water Supply and Sanitation and Irrigation Projects

McPhail, Alexander; Locussol, Alain R.; Perry, Chris
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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This note is a partial response to the above mentioned 2010 Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) evaluation. It covers the specific issues to be addressed in the Water supply and Sanitation (WSS) sector and in the irrigation sector in two distinct parts, because if WSS and irrigation have some common features, there are many distinctions to be made. Among the various water-using sectors, that include navigation, fisheries, hydropower, rain fed agriculture, irrigated agriculture, WSS, and more generally 'the environment', cost recovery issues are of primary concern, and are the focus for this note, in the WSS and irrigation sectors. This preliminary background Note is divided in four parts: a 'history' of the call for financial sustainability and cost recovery and the parallel documenting of the lack of progress. This section ends with what this Note hopes to achieve in the face of what is clearly a deeply rooted problem; an outline of options to be considered for achieving financial sustainability of WSS service providers and recovering the costs of the WSS service through tariffs...

‣ Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook

World Bank; Food and Agriculture Organization; International Fund for Agricultural Development
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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Three out of every four poor people in developing countries live in rural areas, and most of them depend directly or indirectly on agriculture for their livelihoods. In many parts of the world, women are the main farmers or producers, but their roles remain largely unrecognized. The 2008 World development report: agriculture for development highlights the vital role of agriculture in sustainable development and its importance in achieving the millennium development goal of halving by 2015 the share of people suffering from extreme poverty and hunger. Climate change and rising food prices are reminders of the need to focus on food security and agriculture for development; and the material presented in the gender in agriculture sourcebook suggests that accounting for the different roles of women and men and gender equality in access to resources and opportunities is a necessary condition for doing so. This sourcebook is a particularly timely resource. It combines descriptive accounts of national and international experience in investing in agriculture with practical operational guidance on to how to design agriculture for development strategies that capitalize effectively on the unique properties of agricultural growth and rural development involving women and men as a high-impact source of poverty reduction. It looks at gender equality and women's empowerment...

‣ World Bank Assistance to Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa : An IEG Review; L'appui de la Banque a l'agriculture en Afrique Subsaharienne : examen de l'IEG

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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This study assesses the development effectiveness of World Bank assistance in addressing constraints to agricultural development in Africa over the period of fiscal years 1991-2006. This Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) review of World Bank assistance to agriculture in Africa has a twofold purpose. First, it is a pilot for the proposed IEG study on Bank-wide assistance in agriculture scheduled for fiscal year 2009. Second, the review provides timely insight into specific issues relevant to the Bank's renewed focus on agriculture in Africa, especially as expressed in the Africa Action Plan. The central finding of the study is that the agriculture sector has been neglected both by governments and the donor community, including the World Bank. In order to effectively support the implementation of the Africa Action Plan and its appropriate focus on agricultural development as a key priority, the study has three recommendations for the Bank. First, it should focus attention on achieving improvements in agricultural productivity. Second...

‣ Comprehensive Assessment of the Agriculture Sector in Liberia : Volume 2, Sub-sector Reports, Part I

Ministry of Agriculture (Liberia)
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Rural Development Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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The overall objective of the Comprehensive Assessment of the Agricultural Sector (CAAS) is to provide an evidence base to enable appropriate strategic policy responses by the Government of Liberia (GoL) and its development partners in order to maximize the contribution of the agriculture sector to the Government's overarching policy objectives. Given the strong relationship between growth in agricultural productivity and poverty reduction, future efforts in Liberia need to focus on productivity enhancing measures with a pro-poor focus that increase incomes. Growth based on extensification using traditional technologies is generally not profitable and has damaging implications for the environment. Given the low level of assets possessed by most Liberians, future efforts need to address the question of access to assets (i.e. land, knowledge and inputs) in addition to providing opportunities and an enabling environment. Liberia needs to make concerted efforts to preserve and consolidate its emerging stability by focusing on interventions to ensure food security and poverty alleviation at the community and household levels. Improving access to food and generating sustainable...

‣ Comprehensive Assessment of the Agriculture Sector in Liberia : Volume 3, Sub-sector Reports, Part II

Ministry of Agriculture (Liberia)
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Rural Development Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.653164%
The overall objective of the Comprehensive Assessment of the Agricultural Sector (CAAS) is to provide an evidence base to enable appropriate strategic policy responses by the Government of Liberia (GoL) and its development partners in order to maximize the contribution of the agriculture sector to the Government's overarching policy objectives. Given the strong relationship between growth in agricultural productivity and poverty reduction, future efforts in Liberia need to focus on productivity enhancing measures with a pro-poor focus that increase incomes. Growth based on extensification using traditional technologies is generally not profitable and has damaging implications for the environment. Given the low level of assets possessed by most Liberians, future efforts need to address the question of access to assets (i.e. land, knowledge and inputs) in addition to providing opportunities and an enabling environment. Liberia needs to make concerted efforts to preserve and consolidate its emerging stability by focusing on interventions to ensure food security and poverty alleviation at the community and household levels. Improving access to food and generating sustainable...

‣ Niagara alternative food projects : networks, discourses and nature /

Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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This thesis undertakes an exploration of the nature of alternative food projects in Niagara. A review of various theoretical approaches to the study of food and agriculture, suggests that actor-network theory offers the most useful lens through which to understand these projects. In particular, actor-network theory facilitates non-dualistic theorisations of power and scale and a commitment to the inclusion of non-humans in the 'social' sciences. The research is based on 19 in-depth interviews with actors involved in various urban and rural projects including community supported agriculture, community gardens, chefs using local seasonal food, a winery that grows organically, the good food box, a value-added small business, and organic producers. The analysis consists of four themes. The first analytical section pays special attention to the prominence of agri-tourism in Niagara, and examines the ways in which the projects in the sample interact with agri-tourist networks. In the second section the discussion focuses on the discourses and practices of resistance among Niagara alternative food actors. The participants' interviews suggest there are more discourses of resistance toward agri-tourist than toward dominant food networks. The third section questions commodity chain theorisations of alternative food projects. In particular...

‣ Adoption of Conservation Agriculture in Malawi

Williams, Joseph
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project Formato: 2329562 bytes; application/pdf
Português
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There is need in Malawi to increase agricultural yields to feed the growing population. Concurrently, conventional agriculture techniques practiced by subsistence farmers steady depletes soil fertility thereby reducing the potential yield on the arable land. The practice of conservation agriculture may be a solution for rural farmers to improve the long-term soil health as well as increase yields and buffer potential losses due to drought, problems with the fertilizer import market and farmer health. The non-governmental organization Total Land Care, LLC, with support from the United States Agency for International Development, manages the Chia Lagoon Project in the Nkhotakota and Ntchisi districts of Malawi. One part of this project teaches conservation agriculture and has had extraordinarily successful results—project managers have documented high yields, farmer involvement and requests from other farmers to be part of this project component. This Masters Project involved a survey of conservation agriculture farmers in the Chia Lagoon Project to address the question of what indicators project managers should address in future conservation agriculture projects. The survey included questions on demographic information, agricultural practices and results...