Página 1 dos resultados de 785 itens digitais encontrados em 0.037 segundos

‣ Avaliação ambiental estratégica no Brasil: considerações a respeito do papel das agências multilaterais de desenvolvimento; Strategic environmental assessment in Brazil: debates regarding the role of multilateral development agencies

PELLIN, Angela; LEMOS, Clara Carvalho de; TACHARD, André; OLIVEIRA, Isabel Silva Dutra de; SOUZA, Marcelo Pereira de
Fonte: ABES Publicador: ABES
Tipo: Relatório
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.512773%
A Avaliação Ambiental Estratégica (AAE) surge como uma ferramenta que fornece oportunidades para a formulação de políticas, planos e programas mais sensíveis às questões ambientais; facilita a integração e coordenação entre vários atores institucionais; e aumenta e fortalece a participação pública. As agências multilaterais de desenvolvimento, como o Banco Interamericano de Desenvolvimento e o Banco Mundial, vêm estimulando a adoção da AAE nos países em desenvolvimento como recomendação ou requisito para aprovação de investimentos e, ainda, por meio de eventos e atividades de capacitação. O presente trabalho discutiu a situação atual da AAE no Brasil, e o papel que essas agências estão desempenhando na sua implementação, a fim de identificar possíveis melhoras práticas e limitações. Defende-se que a prática da AAE no Brasil seja resultado de um modelo autônomo, baseado nas características e demandas internas.; Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) has emerged as a tool that provides opportunities for making policies, plans and programs more sensitive to environmental issues. It can also assist integration and coordination between various institutional actors, and the increasing and strengthening of public participation. Multilateral development agencies such as the Interamerican Development Bank and the World Bank have been encouraging the adoption of SEA in developing countries as a recommendation or requirement for investments approval. This paper presents and discusses the role Multilateral Agencies are actually playing in SEA application in Brazil in order to identify possible best practices and constraints. It is argued that SEA in Brazil should be developed as an autonomous instrument...

‣ Políticas públicas para o patrimônio cultural na América Latina: a experiência brasileira e equatoriana e o papel do Banco Interamericano de Desenvolvimento; Public policies for the cultural heritage in Latin America: Brazilian and Ecuadorian experience and the role of the Inter-American Development Bank

Pozzer, Marcio Rogerio Olivato
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/04/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
97.67422%
As reformas orientadas para o mercado realizadas no Brasil e no Equador a partir da década de 1980 e de 1990 diminuíram os gastos públicos e os recursos humanos das organizações nacionais de patrimônio cultural. Para suprir a demanda por tais recursos, surgiu, na arena política do patrimônio cultural, o agente financeiro internacional. Nesse contexto, esta dissertação busca compreender a relação de poder e as formas como são feitas as escolhas políticas entre os órgãos de patrimônio nacionais e a instituição multilateral que financia diversas políticas públicas culturais. Para tanto, partiu-se da experiência de dois países latino-americanos, o Brasil e o Equador, analisando em que medida os órgãos nacionais desobrigaram-se da realização das políticas públicas para o setor, sofrendo ingerência dos organismos financeiros internacionais. Estabeleceu-se como objeto de estudo três organizações o Banco Interamericano de Desenvolvimento (BID), o Instituto do Patrimônio Histórico e Artístico Nacional (IPHAN), no Brasil, e o Instituto Nacional de Patrimonio Cultural (Instituto de Patrimônio Cultural) (INPC), no Equador e recorreu-se à pesquisa bibliográfica, documental e de campo, bem como a entrevistas com gestores dos órgãos estudados. Confirmou-se a hipótese de que o processo de enfraquecimento das instituições nacionais de patrimônio cultural contribuiu decisivamente para que se retirasse...

‣ Gender in international economic development projects: how is gender being institutionalized in the Inter-American Development Bank?

Hennessey, Flavia Lange
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
98.00203%
O Banco Interamericano de Desenvolvimento, o Banco Mundial, e outras organizações financiam iniciativas para acelerar o desenvolvimento da região da América Latina e Caribe. Antes do final da década de 80, vários projetos e políticas dessas instituições careciam de considerações ligadas à gênero e foram criticadas por essa falta (Flora, 1998). Em 1987, o BID publicou um documento sobre uma nova política operacional sobre mulheres e desenvolvimento e vem desde então buscando institucionalizar gênero e criar indicadores para medir os impactos relacionados à gênero em seus projetos. O objetivo dessa dissertação é explorar o tema de gênero no contexto do desenvolvimento internacional através de uma análise de como o Banco Interamericano de Desenvolvimento inclui gênero em suas operações. Após uma revisão literária sobre a importância de gênero e de bancos de desenvolvimento, essa dissertação irá analisar de que maneira gênero é incluído nas discussões dos projetos do Banco à nível institucional. A pesquisa será feita através de documentação disponível para o público geral, documentos internos e entrevistas em vídeo com pessoal do BID. Após uma análise dos dados coletados, recomendações para ações futuras serão dadas.; The Inter-American Development Bank...

‣ A atuação do Banco Interamericano de Desenvolvimento no Brasil (1959-2006); The role of the Inter-American Development Bank in Brasil (1959-2006)

Marcio Augusto Scherma
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/12/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
77.620264%
Esta dissertação analisa as linhas de atuação do Banco Interamericano de Desenvolvimento (BID) no Brasil, desde sua criação, em 1959, até o ano de 2006 (final do primeiro governo Lula), tendo como preocupação central detectar uma possível mudança no modo de atuação do BID a partir de fins da década de 80 e início dos anos 90, período de crise na América Latina. A hipótese da dissertação é que, embora tenha o BID sido influenciado pelo receituário do ?Consenso de Washington? e por idéias mais liberais oriundas dos Estados Unidos durante os 70-80, as raízes do Banco garantiram a ele um papel mais independente do que outras instituições, fazendo com que, no caso do BID, as conhecidas ?condicionalidades? nos empréstimos fossem menos relevantes e contassem com menos exigências. Acreditamos que e exemplo brasileiro é interessante para demonstrar isso, já que as chamadas ?reformas neoliberais? ocorrem mais tardiamente no Brasil do que em outros países da América Latina; o que nos levou a questionar qual fora o real papel de organizações internacionais como o BID no processo de adoção destas reformas. Escolhemos o caso específico do BID por ser, esta instituição, a maior fonte multilateral de crédito brasileira; This dissertation examines the lines of action of the Inter-American Development Bank (IADB) in Brazil...

‣ The Quality of Life in Latin American Cities : Markets and Perception

Lora, Eduardo; Powell, Andrew; Praag, Bernard M.S. van; Sanguinetti, Pablo
Fonte: Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank and the World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank and the World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.56829%
This book suggests how that exploration should be undertaken, and how a monitoring system that has a solid conceptual basis and is both easy to operate and reasonable in cost can then be put into practice. Long the ideal of many scholars and observers of urban problems, such a system may now be close to realization. In this book, examples of Latin American cities are used as case studies. As argued in the first chapter, there are good reasons to concentrate on Latin America: it is the world region with the most rapid urban development and is the most urbanized region in the developing world. In contrast to residents of cities in poorer regions, Latin Americans have managed to democratize homeownership and to extend basic services to the majority of households. That means that improving the Quality of Life (QoL) in Latin American cities is no longer primarily a matter of bricks and mortar. But the challenges are as large as they are diverse. Chapter two introduces the reader to the hedonic price and the life satisfaction approaches and presents a comparative summary of the conclusions of the six case studies. This chapter...

‣ Strengthening Caribbean Pensions : Improving Equity and Sustainability

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
77.74024%
This report aims to provide additional insights to existing analyses of public pension and social security schemes in the Caribbean. Such analyses have been undertaken with the support of the Inter-American Development Bank, the Caribbean Development Bank, the Canadian International Development Agency, the Economic Commission for Latin America, and the Caribbean and the International Social Security Association. By making cross-country comparisons within the region and across the world, this report will review fiscal vulnerability, sustainability, labor market efficiency, migration, financial market development, and other pension-related areas. Finally, governance and investment management should be strengthened by: (i) strengthening the governance structure, including authority and accountability of Board members; (ii) improving governance mechanisms with the assistance of external oversight and improved information disclosure; (iii) introducing codes of conduct for the governing body and management; and (iv) introducing a number of measures to strengthen the investment policies...

‣ Making Poverty Reduction Count : Celebrating 10 Years of the Program for the Improvement of Statistical Information

John-Abraham, Indu; Molinas Vega, José
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.57229%
This note points out that the World Bank, jointly with the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) and the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) developed the Program for the Improvement of Surveys and Measurement of Living Conditions in Latin America and the Caribbean (MECOVI in Spanish) in 1996. The program was initiated with the objective of facilitating improved living conditions for the people of Latin America and the Caribbean through the production of relevant, quality and timely data. Ten years later, the MECOVI program continues to pursue this goal with new and innovative strategies for statistical development.

‣ E-GP Functional Specifications

Asian Development Bank; Inter-American Development Bank; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
77.61276%
Authorities in developed and newly developing countries alike have been seeking to reform and strengthen the governance and management frameworks around their systems of public procurement. Their objectives have been to enhance effective management, reduce the risk of corruption, promote economic activity, and strengthen policy and strategic development. Increasingly an important part of these reforms has become the systematic application of technology to the processes of public procurement, including in the advertising of business opportunities, management of information and workflows, document delivery, purchase orders and transactions. This systematic application of technology to government procurement, or e-Government Procurement (e-GP), can lead to a substantial automation of the procurement process but requires significant reforms and process improvements in the management of procurement. These reforms have seen the introduction of new procurement laws and regulations, the introduction of new training for public procurement officers...

‣ Mulitlateral Development Bank International Survey of e-Procurement Systems

Soontiens, Werner; Miyamoto, Tadayuki; Egan, Victor; Schapper, Paul; McDermont, David; Vargas, Jorge Enrique
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
77.703843%
This survey of e-procurement systems in Asia/Oceania, South America and Europe was funded by the Asian Development Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank and the World Bank. It is a project of the Multilateral Development Bank (MDB) harmonization of e-procurement group. The survey was developed by Curtin University and International Governance Solutions using an experienced research and consultancy team. The survey covered systems in fourteen countries, which vary in size of the procurement market, the degree of integration of systems and degree of centralized management of procurement. While there is clear evidence as to how common issues were addressed, the relatively small number of countries involved makes identifying some trends difficult.

‣ A Globalized Market--Opportunities and Risks for the Poor : Global Poverty Report 2001

African Development Bank; Asian Development Bank; European Bank for Reconstruction and Development; Inter-American Development Bank; International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.775967%
The Global Poverty Report considers the effects of globalizing markets on poverty in developing countries. It outlines the channels through which increased trade openness can affect poverty and examines the evidence from four regions: Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean. Written at the request of the G8, the report is the result of a joint effort of the regional development banks, the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund. Increased openness can affect an economy in various ways, creating opportunities for the poor as well as risks. First, it can affect the prices of goods and services that the poor consume and produce, benefiting those who are net consumers of goods that become cheaper and those who can obtain higher prices for their products on international markets. Second, it can affect the demand for and returns to factors of production that the poor have to offer, such as labor. Third, it can affect government revenue and the resources available for antipoverty programs. Fourth...

‣ Public-Private Partnerships : Reference Guide, Version 2.0

World Bank; Asian Development Bank; Inter-American Development Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC; Asian Development Bank, Mandaluyong City, Philippines; Inter-American Development Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC; Asian Development Bank, Mandaluyong City, Philippines; Inter-American Development Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
87.93854%
A growing number of developing country governments are interested in using public-private partnerships (PPPs) to provide public infrastructure assets and services. The PPP reference guide seeks to provide advice on what PPP practitioners should know, rather than provide advice on what to do. The guide sets out the main topics, looks at the key issues that must be addressed, and provides what one consider the most important references that PPP practitioners can turn to for answers and to enhance one knowledge and understanding. It is structured into separate sections that focus on three main areas, firstly what are PPPs, when may they be used and the advantages and disadvantages relative to public provision; secondly the policy, legal, and institutional frameworks that should be put into place to help improve effectiveness; and finally the ways in which PPP projects can be developed and implemented. It introduces key topics on PPP, sets out options, and directs readers to examples, and key references where one can find out more. This guide provides new resources and updated examples.

‣ Electronic Government Procurement : Roadmap

Asian Development Bank; Inter-American Development Bank; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.617803%
The use of electronic means to enhance the management of the procurement process is one of the central components of Public sector reform due to its potential impact on public sector efficiency and effectiveness, on the institutional reorganization process, on businesses´ productivity and competition levels and on the level of trust form the public. The main difficulty in implementing e-GP lies on knowing how to start, and the stages to be followed. Several countries have already developed their own e-GP processes, under various models, achieving different degrees of success. These experiences have provided several key components to be taken into account in order to develop a successful e-GP process. These are the components used to build this Roadmap. Characteristics of this e-GP Roadmap are as follows: it can be applied in all countries, regions, and municipalities. This roadmap serves as a baseline for the creation of a more specific one; and it is based on the fact that the role played by e-GP in the modernization of public sector processes encompasses a combination of institutional changes...

‣ El Salvador - Public Expenditure Review : Enhancing the Efficiency and Targeting of Expenditures, Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.74866%
This Public Expenditure Review (PER), produced jointly by the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank (IADB), is an in-depth economic and sector report on El Salvador. The study builds on the analysis and recommendations of the PER delivered in 2004 that concluded that El Salvador faced the dual challenge of addressing deteriorating fiscal trends while financing key investments required to accelerate growth and meet pressing social needs. This report is intended to provide the government with practical and useful near-and medium-term recommendations that will support the country's efforts to ensure sustainable fiscal balances and establish effective and transparent mechanisms to allocate public resources to promote broad-based economic growth, improve social indicators, and reduce poverty. Hence, the government knows that El Salvador is faced with two fiscal challenges that will have great influence on the economic performance over the coming years. The first is the need to improve the fiscal balance...

‣ El Salvador - Public Expenditure Review : Enhancing the Efficiency and Targeting of Expenditures, Volume 2. Chapters and Statistical Tables

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.610166%
This Public Expenditure Review (PER), produced jointly by the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank (IADB), is an in-depth economic and sector report on El Salvador. The study builds on the analysis and recommendations of the PER delivered in 2004 that concluded that El Salvador faced the dual challenge of addressing deteriorating fiscal trends while financing key investments required to accelerate growth and meet pressing social needs. This report is intended to provide the government with practical and useful near-and medium-term recommendations that will support the country's efforts to ensure sustainable fiscal balances and establish effective and transparent mechanisms to allocate public resources to promote broad-based economic growth, improve social indicators, and reduce poverty. Hence, the government knows that El Salvador is faced with two fiscal challenges that will have great influence on the economic performance over the coming years. The first is the need to improve the fiscal balance...

‣ 2014 Joint Report on Multilateral Development Banks' Climate Finance

African Development Bank; Asian Development Bank; European Bank for Reconstruction and Development; European Investment Bank; Inter-American Development Bank; World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.75434%
This joint report on MDB Climate Finance captures a particular context of activities that Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) carry out in developing and emerging economies. The context is built on the premise that development finance is being provided in a world shaped by climate change. This is the fourth edition of the Joint Report on MDB Climate Finance. The report covers financing for climate change mitigation and adaptation projects and activities, in developing and emerging economies, committed by this group of MDBs in 2014. The report contains the following new information, not presented in previous years: overview of MDB climate finance from 2011 to 2014; information about the financial instruments used by MDBs for climate finance; and additional thematic regional coverage, including small island states and least developed countries. This report has two main sections. Section 1 contains total MDB climate finance numbers for 2014, broken down by adaptation and mitigation and by sector and geographic region...

‣ Restoring Fiscal Discipline for Poverty Reduction in Peru : A Public Expenditure Review

World Bank; Inter-American Development Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
87.69459%
This public expenditure review is produced jointly by the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank, and focuses on social sectors spending and leaves aside infrastructure and other sectors. This report, finalized in June 2002 and discussed with Authorities in mid-August 2002, does not take into account policy developments occurring after this time. The report is organized as follows: Chapter 1 presents a synthesis of Peru's public expenditure reform agenda from the Bank's perspective. It is based on, and distills, the thematic chapters that make up this report. Chapters 2-4 examine the core functions of public expenditure management: macro fiscal aggregates, resource allocations to strategic sectors, and microeconomic efficiency of public spending. Chapters 5-8 explore selected themes, such as the decentralization of public administration and the social sectors; civil service reform; governance and corruption; and mining fiscal and environmental issues. These chapters are, in turn, supported by fifteen topic-specific background papers...

‣ Republic of Panama : Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability; Panama - Informe del desempeno de la gestion de las finanzas publicas (PEFA)

World Bank; Inter-American Development Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
87.69467%
Panama's public financial management (PFM) system displays several strengths with respect to the fiscal position, debt management, and payroll administrative controls, but from a systemic perspective budget preparation and budget credibility issues undermine the efficiency of sectoral investment plans and make it difficult to advance on other improvements in the public sector. An efficient and transparent allocation of budgetary resources allows the government to achieve value for money in delivering public services. This assessment is undertaken at the request of the Government of Panama (GoP) which is in the process of reforming and modernizing its public finances, and is therefore interested in establishing both a baseline for future PFM performance measures and the degree of management alignment to internationally accepted best practices. The public expenditure and financial accountability (PEFA) methodology provides relevant information on current management and will allow establishment or adjustment of a reform strategy to improve PFM quality. This PEFA assessment provides a reference and a baseline for two projects and a baseline for the GoP to measure progress of the current reform. The projects are: (i) the program to strengthen fiscal management financed by Inter-American Development Bank (IADB)...

‣ Colombia - National Level Public Financial Management and Procurement Report : Status of the Public Financial Management and Procurement System; Colombia - Informe de la gestion financiera publica y sistema de contratacion

World Bank; Inter-American Development Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Sector Study
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
77.68497%
This Public Financial Management Performance Report (PFMPR) analyzes the performance of Colombia's public financial management (PFM) institutions, systems and processes. It documents areas where performance is close to or follows international good practice, as well as opportunities to further enhance PFM contribution to the goals of strengthening fiscal discipline, enabling more efficient allocation of resources, increasing operational efficiency, and fostering transparency. It is expected that the identified opportunities will strengthen further the Government of Colombia's programs of continuous PFM improvement, as provided for under the National Development Plan pillar regarding a state at the service of its citizens: efficient and effective Government. The main challenges cited in the report could also be an important reference to future development plans and PFM reforms. Ensuring the sustainability and trajectory of PFM programs becomes even more critical in the context of public expenditure policies to deal with the current international economic crisis. The study is based on the 28 high-level indicators and 69 individual dimensions that compose the PFM performance measurement framework. Each indicator seeks to measure performance of a key PFM element against a scale from A to D. The highest score is warranted for an individual indicator if the core PFM element meets the relevant objective in a complete...

‣ Caught in the Middle: Multilateral Development Bank Responses to Environmental Performance

Buntaine, Mark Thomas
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.714004%

Since their creation, the multilateral development banks have accumulated performance records that include both substantial successes and stunning failures. Nowhere have their performance records been more mixed and controversial than with respect to environmental management issues. The multilateral development banks have financed projects that are widely considered to be environmental disasters, but have also financed projects that successfully included best practice environmental mitigation measures. They have wasted hundreds of millions of dollars financing unsuccessful environmental protection programs, while at the same time they have supported programs that contributed to the rapid development of environmental management capacity in less-developed countries. The purpose of this dissertation is to explore when and why monitoring and evaluation can prompt the multilateral development banks to move away from poor performing projects and towards high performing projects.

This type of performance-based allocation has been repeatedly highlighted as a key element in the successful delivery of development assistance. To test when the multilateral development banks practice performance-based allocation, I assembled a team that coded environmental performance information from 960 project evaluations...

‣ O ajuste urbano: as políticas do Banco Mundial e do BID para as cidades; El ajuste urbano: las políticas del Banco Mundial y el BID para las ciudades; The" urban adjustment": the World Bank's and the Inter-american Development Bank's policies for cities

Arantes, Pedro Fiori
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.54626%
Ao ajuste estrutural que se seguiu à crise da dívida no Terceiro Mundo, no início dos anos 80 - e ainda persiste como um ajuste permanente -, parece ter ocorrido um correspondente" ajuste urbano". Em ambos os casos, o Banco Mundial e, na América Latina, o BID, tiveram ação decisiva, em parceria com as elites e tecnocracias locais. As estratégias de ação dessas duas instituições financeiras, apesar de sua forte interferência nas políticas públicas dos países em desenvolvimento, constituem um tema novo e ainda pouco abordado pela pesquisa acadêmica. Em nosso caso, o objetivo foi desvendar o modelo de cidade que tem sido por elas defendido e qual seu significado. Na dissertação que realizei pela FAUUSP, constatei que os empréstimos do Banco Mundial e do BID - que aparecem aos gestores públicos como" tábuas de salvação" em tempos de crise -, não são" neutros" e carregam consigo uma agenda afirmativa: pretendem modelar um determinado padrão de uso do recurso público e de organização do Estado. As duas instituições difundem políticas públicas que seguem critérios empresariais de rentabilidade e um modelo de gestão estatal terceirizada, à mercê de um corpo técnico privado - formado por gerenciadoras de projeto...