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‣ A emergência da tecnologia social: revisitando o movimento da tecnologia apropriada como estratégia de desenvolvimento sustentável; The emergence of social technology: revisiting the appropriate technology movement as a strategy for sustainable development

RODRIGUES, Ivete; BARBIERI, José Carlos
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Este artigo discute os conceitos concernentes à tecnologia social num mundo globalizado, em contraposição às propostas que defendem a adoção, pelas multinacionais, de estratégias organizacionais focadas na base da pirâmide social. Uma análise de aplicação desse novo conceito de tecnologia social é feita a partir de um estudo de caso. Como resultado, identificou-se o potencial inovador dessas tecnologias, em termos de eficácia, possibilidade de multiplicação e desenvolvimento em escala para a solução de problemas que afetam a maioria dos seres humanos, como os relacionados com a demanda por água, alimentos, educação, energia, saúde, entre outros, ao mesmo tempo que promovem a inclusão social e protegem o meio ambiente.; This article discusses the concepts of social technology in a globalized world, in contrast with more recent views that advocate the adoption, by multinational companies, of organizational strategies focused on the base of the social pyramid. An analysis of the application of this new social technology concept is made through a case study. As a result, the innovative potential of these technologies was identified, in terms of efficiency, possibility of dissemination, and scale development, in order to solve problems that affect most people...

‣ Jovens e adultos em processo de escolarização e as tecnologias digitais: quem usa, a favor de quem e para quê?; Youth and adults in the schooling process and the digital technologies: who uses them, in favor of whom, and for what?

Brito, Bianca Maria Santana de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/08/2012 Português
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As tecnologias digitais compõem um cenário de mudanças em diversas esferas da sociedade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a presença de tais tecnologias na EJA (educação de jovens e adultos), por meio dos usos que estudantes dizem fazer dessas tecnologias e as possíveis relações desses usos com o processo de escolarização e as aprendizagens que vivenciam. Foram aplicados trinta questionários a jovens e adultos matriculados em salas de EJA de escolas públicas da região da Freguesia do Ó e Brasilândia, na zona noroeste de São Paulo, e realizadas entrevistas de profundidade com cinco dos sujeitos que responderam aos questionários. Os resultados indicam que a maior parte dos sujeitos utiliza as tecnologias digitais fora das escolas para se comunicarem, para se divertirem e aprenderem sobre temas relacionados a projetos pessoais e conteúdos culturais de seu interesse. Também é possível afirmar que a apropriação das tecnologias, explorando suas diversas possibilidades para a realização de projetos individuais ou coletivos, depende de saberes prévios aprendidos na escola. Sem estarem alfabetizados, por exemplo, a capacidade de navegação pela rede fica comprometida, e quanto mais escolarizados, mais os sujeitos da EJA se apropriam das tecnologias digitais. A partir das análises destes resultados são desenhadas recomendações de como os projetos de EJA...

‣ Tecnologias em telhados verdes extensivos: meios de cultura, caracterização hidrológica e sustentabilidade do sistema; Technologies extensive green roofs: culture media, hydrologic characterization and sustainability system

Willes, Jorge Alex
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/10/2014 Português
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Tanto no meio rural como urbano as novas tendências são de buscar uma melhoria de técnicas e de uso de materiais alternativos buscando-se uma maior sustentabilidade. A utilização de plantas nas paredes e telhados é um dos mais recentes campos da pesquisa ambiental e busca encontrar uma solução ecológica e sustentável para melhorar a qualidade de vida urbana e rural. Uma cobertura verde consiste de um substrato leve e de uma vegetação apropriada, plantada sobre uma base impermeável. Podem conter também camadas adicionais, tais como, um sistema de drenagem e irrigação e uma barreira anti-raízes. Os efeitos positivos da vegetação sobre o ambiente urbano já são bem conhecidos e neste caso da cobertura, diminuem as enxurradas, filtro biológico, redução da poluição do ar, amenizam o calor nas edificações durante o verão e o conservam durante o inverno. Há também benefícios para a fauna, com retorno de espécies que mantêm o equilíbrio biológico local. Essas coberturas podem ter muitas aplicações, como em indústrias, residências, escritórios e outras propriedades comerciais e rurais. Uma criteriosa seleção de plantas permite que a cobertura verde tenha sucesso em condições adversas. Por outro lado...

‣ Information and communication technologies in northern Portugal rural schools; Las tecnologias de la informacion y de la comunicación en las escuelas rurales de norte de Portugal

Sarmento, João Carlos Vicente; Armas Quintá, Francisco José
Fonte: Universidade de Santiago de Compostela Publicador: Universidade de Santiago de Compostela
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Information and communication technologies (ICT) offer the opportunity to develop rural areas, which were affected by demographic and economic recession. The Information Society offers new opportunities for development because it may allow us to overcome the isolation caused by distance. Electronic commerce or teleworking can be key opportunities to boost rural development processes. Yet, besides infrastructure, it is necessary that people have appropriate qualifications to use technologies in a fruitful manner. This article presents a study of the diffusion of the Information Society in rural areas of northern Portugal, through a survey conducted in rural parish schools. The analysis reveals the degree of ICT equipment in households and the use by families of the computer and Internet services. The research exposed two types of Digital Divide; one of them includes the population who do not have access to the technology, and the second the embraces the population who have the possibility of use, but who do not, either because of the lack of knowledge or because of not seeing any value in it; Las tecnologías de la información y de la comunicación ofrecen posibilidades de desarrollo para el conjunto de las áreas rurales...

‣ The use of information an communication technologies in augmentative and alternative communication : literature review in Portugal

Pinheiro, Patrícia Alexandra Loureiro; Gomes, Maria João; Santos, Anabela Cruz dos
Fonte: Universidade do Minho. Instituto de Educação. Centro de Investigação em Educação Publicador: Universidade do Minho. Instituto de Educação. Centro de Investigação em Educação
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /07/2014 Português
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The applicability of the information and communication technologies, especially mobile devices, to augmentative and alternative communication is relatively recent in Portugal. Their characteristics of universality and portability allow to access information, communicate through voice, image and writing, working, perform recreational activities and multiple others activities almost anywhere and any place. It also promotes skills development in people with special educational needs, like physical, cognitive and social skills, when using the appropriate adaptations and digital augmentative and alternative communication software or other applications adapted to their physical or sensory disabilities. The aim of this work is to reveal the state of the art about the use of information and communication technologies in the context of special educational and more specifically in augmentative and alternative communication in Portugal, supported on the literature review. We selected the Portal B-on – Online Knowledge Library, since it allows us to have a perspective of several databases repositories of scientific research. This literature review aim to analyze, summarize and interpret some studies carried out in Portugal that focus on the binomial: Information and Communications Technologies and children with Special Education Needs.

‣ Viability of Small-Scale Arsenic-Contaminated Water Purification Technologies for Sustainable Development in Pakistan

Hashmi, Fatima; Pearce, Joshua M.
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Drinking arsenic-contaminated water leads to a series of health problems that has limited development for the largely poor rural people of Pakistan who are unable to afford bottled water, centralized treatment plants, or expensive water filter systems. This paper reviews the available appropriate technologies for the removal of arsenic in drinking water to assist in just sustainable development in Pakistan. Several technologies were found to be both technically- and economically- viable and support the large-scale deployment of these small-scale, appropriate technologies. The economic viability determined in this study was based on both first costs and operating costs. The cost of implementing such technologies for an individual Pakistani family is made acceptable with the use of local materials, which the family may already own. For example, systems using sand and iron nails in the filters, and which are placed in plastic buckets that are already in common use in the villages, drive down the overall costs of the technology and put it in the reach of even the most destitute. This study found that complications from the variability of local supplies result in the need to identify the locally most appropriate solution from both a technical and economic standpoint. This review article should be helpful for any practitioner in determining the locally optimal solution for the removal of arsenic from drinking water in Pakistan.

‣ Industrial Structure, Appropriate Technology and Economic Growth in Less Developed Countries

Lin, Justin Yifu; Zhang, Pengfei
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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The authors develop an endogenous growth model that combines structural change with repeated product improvement. That is, the technologies in one sector of the model become not only increasingly capital-intensive, but also progressively productive over time. Application of the basic model to less developed economies shows that the (optimal) industrial structure and the (most) appropriate technologies in less developed economies are endogenously determined by their factor endowments. A firm in a less developed country that enters a capital-intensive, advanced industry in a developed country would be nonviable owing to the relative scarcity of capital in the factor endowments of less developed countries.

‣ Information and Communication Technologies for Rural Development : Volume 2. An Evaluation of Telecenters in Indonesia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are a potentially revolutionary means of empowering the poor. Realizing this potential will require investments that increase access to ICTs in remote low productivity areas and the development of innovative applications that cater to the needs of the poor and small firms. The costs of these kinds of investment have been decreasing rapidly, but still yield low short term private returns. The private sector cannot alone be expected to underwrite the costs of these developments. If Government does not support these public investments, economic disparities will rise, undermining social stability and future growth. Effective public sector action is required, to establish a regulatory and legal framework that enables the rise of a vibrant innovative competitive private telecommunications and ICT services sector, and to institute selective efficient and transparent public subsidies with high social payoff but low financial returns. This is needed most urgently precisely in developing country contexts where public institutions are often ineffective, corrupt and unaccountable. The challenge takes added significance in Indonesia, a country still recovering from severe economic and political crisis...

‣ The Future of Water in African Cities : Why Waste Water? Integrated Urban Water Management, Background Report

Echart, Jochen; Ghebremichael, Kebreab; Khatri, Krishna; Mutikanga, Harrison; Sempewo, Jotham; Tsegaye, Seneshaw; Vairavamoorthy, Kalanithy
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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The primary objective of this report is to provide a coherent and comprehensive review on integrated urban water management (IUWM) approach to assist public authorities to identify and address the future challenges of urban water supply, sanitation and flood management in African cities. This report presents the existing and future challenges in Africa, the possible options for innovative technologies and approaches for their breakthrough and a way forward to achieve the objectives of IUWM. It highlights technical and institutional constraints of the IUWM in Africa. It presents the global and African best practices and trends in IUWM which are linked to urban development and which have very good lessons learnt that can be shared within and among the cities in Africa. The report consists of four chapters. Chapter two reviews the existing condition, future challenges and opportunities in Urban Water Sector (UWS) in Africa. The review covers the current situation of urban water systems and their management approaches; the major future change pressures (climate change...

‣ Greening Global Value Chains : Innovation and the International Diffusion of Technologies and knowledge

Glachant, Matthieu; Dussaux, Damien; Ménière, Yann; Dechezleprêtre, Antoine
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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Using novel data on patents, trade of equipment goods, and foreign direct investments and insights from the economic literature, the paper seeks to lay out the state of knowledge on the role of innovation and the diffusion of technologies in the greening of global value chains as well as some of the main policy issues. A special emphasis is put on developing countries -- distinguishing emerging economies and least-developed countries -- and on climate-mitigation technologies. Emerging economies are already reasonably well integrated in the global economy. As a consequence, technologies flow in through the imports of capital goods and local investments by multinational enterprises owning technologies. Pushing further technology transfer requires strengthening intellectual property rights, lowering barriers to trade and investments and improving technological absorptive capacities. In contrast, their role in innovation is limited. Standard tools of innovation policy - public research and development, public support to private research and development...

‣ Weightless Machines and Costless Knowledge : An Empirical Analysis of Trade and Technology Diffusion

Barba Navaretti, Giorgio; Soloaga, Isidro
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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The authors examine the impact on productivity of technologies imported by a sample of developing, and transition economies in Central and Easter Europe, and the Southern Mediterranean - economies becoming increasingly integrated with the European Union. They depart from earlier studies of technology diffusion by focusing on the technology embodied in the machines imported. Earlier work focused mostly on spillovers from foreign research, and development conveyed through trade, without controlling for the characteristics of the goods imported. The authors jointly estimate the choice of foreign technology, and its impact on domestic productivity for a set of manufacturing sectors. They proxy the technological level of the machines imported, by using an index relating the unit value of the machines imported by a given country, to the unit value of similar machines imported by the United States. At any point in time between 1989 and 1997, there is a persistent (even increasing) gap between the unit values of the machines imported by the United States...

‣ Information and Communication Technologies for Health Systems Strengthening

Otto, Kate; Shekar, Meera; Herbst, Christopher H.; Mohammed, Rianna
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Information and communication technologies (ICT) for health or eHealth solutions hold great potential for generating systemic efficiencies by strengthening five critical pillars of a health system: human resources for health, supply chain management, health care financing, governance and service delivery, and infrastructure. This report describes the changing landscape of eHealth initiatives through these five pillars, with a geographic focus on Sub-Saharan Africa. This report further details seven criteria, or prerequisites, that must be considered and addressed in order to effectively establish and scale up ICT-based solutions in the health sector. These criteria include infrastructure, data and interoperability standards, local capacity, policy and regulatory environments, an appropriate business model, alignment of partnerships and priorities, and monitoring and evaluation. In order to bring specific examples of these criteria to light, this report concludes with 12 specific case studies of potentially scalable ICT-based health care solutions currently being implemented across the globe at community...

‣ Comparing the Costs of Intermittent and Dispatchable Electricity Generating Technologies

JOSKOW, Paul L.
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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Economic evaluations of alternative electric generating technologies typically rely on comparisons between their expected life-cycle production costs per unit of electricity supplied. The standard lifecycle cost metric utilized is the “levelized cost” per MWh supplied. This paper demonstrates that this metric is inappropriate for comparing intermittent generating technologies like wind and solar with dispatchable generating technologies like nuclear, gas combined cycle, and coal. Levelized cost comparisons are a misleading metric for comparing intermittent and dispatchable generating technologies because they fail to take into account differences in the production profiles of intermittent and dispatchable generating technologies and the associated large variations in the market value of the electricity they supply. Levelized cost comparisons overvalue intermittent generating technologies compared to dispatchable base load generating technologies. These comparisons also typically overvalue wind generating technologies compared to solar generating technologies. Integrating differences in production profiles, the associated variations in the market value of the electricity at the times it is supplied, and the expected life-cycle costs associated with different generating technologies is necessary to provide meaningful economic comparisons between them. This market-based framework also has implications for the appropriate design of procurement auctions created to implement renewable energy procurement mandates...

‣ Endogenous and Modern Innovations : Differing Perspectives

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
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This notes paper touches on Ethiopia's being one of nine countries Involvement in the international network PROLINNOVA (Promoting Local Innovation). The Ethiopian program set up multi-stakeholder teams in different agro climatic zones. The paper goes on to mention exhibition of local and modern innovations at the Agricultural Technologies Exhibition which was held in Mekelle, the capital of Tigray region and give examples of local innovations. Some of the technologies at the exhibition are: a water-lifting device developed by Priest Malede Abreha and displayed as a model he built himself; subsurface drainage developed to relieve waterlogged farms in the main wet season; Drip irrigation systems, improved bee hives and queen rearing; and domesticating wild bees for medicinal honey. The paper also covers how farmers assess these innovations and the differences in interests and perceptions that such innovations bring.

‣ Biotechnology Innovation for Inclusive Growth : A Study of Indian Policies to Foster Accelerated Technology Adaptation for Affordable Development

Vijayaraghavan, K.; Dutz, Mark A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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This paper describes and analyzes a series of complementary policy initiatives in India to adapt and commercialize existing global biotechnologies to meet local needs in healthcare, agriculture, industry and the environment in a more affordable manner. This evolving approach has been implemented through six complementary elements, namely (1) translational research; (2) technology access through global consortia; (3) commercialization supported by public-private partnerships, broadly interpreted; (4) skills development; (5) regulation; and (6) institutional governance, including special purpose vehicles, for effective project management. The paper focuses on two public-private partnership initiatives, the Small Business Innovation Research Initiative and the Biotechnology Industry Partnership Program, which together have allocated more than US$70 million in public funding to almost 150 projects, contributing to a total public-private investment of more than $170 million over the past five years. The authors' key recommendation...

‣ Burkina Faso's infrastructure : A continental perspective

Briceno-Garmendia, Cecilia; Dominguez-Torres, Carolina
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
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Infrastructure contributed 1.3 percentage points to Burkina Faso's annual per capita gross domestic product (GDP) growth over the past decade, much of it due to improvements in information and communication technology (ICT). Raising the country's infrastructure endowment to that of the region's middle-income countries (MICs) could boost annual growth by more than 3 percentage points per capita. Burkina Faso has made significant progress developing its infrastructure in recent years, especially in the ICT sector. The country has also moved forward in the areas of road maintenance and water and sanitation, but still faces challenges in these sectors, as well as in the electricity sector. As of 2007, Burkina Faso faced an annual infrastructure funding gap of $165 million per year, or 4 percent of GDP. That gap could be cut in half by the adoption of more appropriate technologies to meet infrastructure targets in the transport and the water and sanitation sectors. Even if Burkina Faso were unable to increase infrastructure spending or otherwise close the infrastructure funding gap...

‣ Capturing Technology for Development : An Evaluation of World Bank Group Activities in Information and Communication Technologies, Volume 2. Appendixes

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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Technological innovation drives economic progress. Information and communication technologies (ICT) can be leveraged for development, but harnessing this potential depends on an enabling environment for their production, diffusion, and use. Otherwise, technology can widen rather than narrow existing inequalities. Over the past decade developing countries have seen rapid but uneven growth in ICT access and use. The unprecedented spread of mobile technologies, driven by private sector investment and supported by reforms to promote competition, enabled the growth of phone services for the underserved and poor to levels unseen before. But outside mobile telephony, large gaps exist in high-speed Internet access and broadband connectivity and in the diffusion and use of ICT in business, services, and government the areas where ICT can deliver the largest developmental impacts. The World Bank Group's strategy has sought development results in ICT by promoting (i) sector reform, (ii) access to information infrastructure...

‣ BARRIERS AND SOLUTIONS TO OPEN SOURCE APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: INNOVATION THROUGH COLLABORATION

ZELENIKA, IVANA
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.343135%
It has been proposed that the field of appropriate technology (AT) - small-scale, energy efficient and low-cost solutions, can be of tremendous assistance in many of the sustainable development challenges, such as food and water security, health, shelter, education and work opportunities. Unfortunately, there has not yet been a significant uptake of AT by organizations, researchers, policy makers or the mainstream public working in the many areas of the development sector. Some of the biggest barriers to higher AT engagement include: 1) AT perceived as inferior or ‘poor persons technology’, 2) questions of technological robustness, design, fit and transferability, 3) funding, 4) institutional support, as well as 5) general barriers associated with tackling rural poverty. With the rise of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for online networking and knowledge sharing, the possibilities to tap into the collaborative open-access and open-source AT are growing, and so is the prospect for collective poverty reducing strategies, enhancement of entrepreneurship, communications, education and a diffusion of life-changing technologies. In short, the same collaborative philosophy employed in the success of open source software can be applied to hardware design of technologies to improve sustainable development efforts worldwide. To analyze current barriers to open source appropriate technology (OSAT) and explore opportunities to overcome such obstacles...

‣ Tecnologia apropriada : uma modesta apresentação de pequenos casos; Appropriate technology: a modest presentation of the small cases

Caldas, Eduardo de Lima; Alves, Mario Aquino
Fonte: Salvador Publicador: Salvador
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Este artigo é uma narrativa sobre a trajetória do fenômeno das tecnologias apropriadas, a partir de sua origem na Índia até o Brasil do primeiro decênio do século XXI, por meio da qual se pretende responder duas questões: Qual o caminho ou quais os descaminhos percorridos pela ideia de tecnologia apropriada desde os anos 50? Qual a pertinência em se resgatar o debate sobre tecnologia apropriada? No Brasil, a narrativa é construída a partir de três experiências: município de Lages (SC); estado de São Paulo, no governo de Franco Montoro (SP); Distrito Federal, no governo de Cristovam Buarque. A partir do ano 2000 muitas dessas práticas começaram a ser identificadas como tecnologia social. Neste longo percurso, ocorrem dois movimentos: a prática desconhecia o nome; e a prática é reconhecida como tecnologia social. Em ambos, a ideia de tecnologia apropriada não é explícita. Os ensinamentos das experiências de Lages, São Paulo e Distrito Federal foram esquecidos. O esquecimento não é gratuito e se justifica pelas seguintes hipóteses: ausência de criatividade; disseminação de práticas onerosas; racionalidade política eleitoral dependente de vultosos recursos financeiros. Muito desse “esquecimento” também foi resultado...

‣ Tecnologia apropriada em obstetrícia: definição e avaliação a partir das perspectivas da população e do pessoal de saúde; Tecnología apropiada en obstetricia: definición y evaluación desde las perspectivas de la población y del personal de salud; Appropriate technology in obstetrics: definition and assessment of the public and of health professionals

Climent, Graciela Irma
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/10/1987 Português
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Parte-se da hipótese de que para satisfazer as necessidades de saúde do povo será necessário, entre outras coisas, que os serviços de saúde utilizem tecnologias adequadas, quando e como definir o que se considera "adequado", e quem deverá fazê-lo. Para tanto foi realizada pesquisa para detectar e analisar comparativamente a definição que, a partir das perspectivas da população e dos profissionais, se faz da tecnologia apropriada em obstetrícia e também da tecnologia utilizada nos distintos setores da assistência (público, de obras sociais e privado). São apresentados alguns dados referentes a dois aspectos da assistência: utilização de técnicas e procedimentos biomédicos e consideração das relações interpessoais no processo de assitência. Observou-se que foram utilizadas modalidades de assistência diferenciadas segundo o setor, sendo, no privado mais tecnologizadas e medicalizadas, bem como nesse mesmo setor são levadas mais em consideração as relações interpessoais. Além disso, as opiniões dos profissionais, quanto ao que se considera adequado, estão mais em concordância com as das mães deste setor, sendo suas necessidades satisfeitas em maior intensidade que as dos demais. Como resultado deste enfoque...