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‣ Efeito da escovação e enxaguatório bucal na alteração de cor e rugosidade de resinas compostas; Effect of toothbrushing and mouthwash on the color change and surface roughness of composite resins.

Trauth, Keico Graciela Sano
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/07/2010 Português
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O presente estudo avaliou in vitro a influência de diferentes tipos de enxaguatórios bucais associados com a escovação, na alteração de cor e rugosidade superficial de diferentes tipos de resinas compostas diretas (M1- Filtek Supreme XT, M2- Z100, M3- Ice) por meio do espectrocolorímetro PCB 6807 da BYK-Gradner, rugosímetro modelo SJ-201P Mitutoyo e Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura. Foram preparados 300 corpos de prova (n=10) para a variável alteração de cor, e destes espécimes 180 (n=6) foram submetidos ao ensaio de rugosidade superficial. Os espécimes foram polidos com discos Soft Lex, na sequência de abrasividade decrescente e armazenados em saliva artificial a 37°(±1°C) até o momento de serem submetidos nas soluções S1- Solução com álcool e com corante, Colgate Plax Fresh Mint; S2- Solução sem álcool e com corante, Oral-B; S3- Solução com álcool e sem corante, Cepacol; S4- Solução sem álcool e sem corante, Colgate Plax e S5- Grupo controle, Saliva Artificial e realização das leituras das variáveis em estudo, nos tempos T0- imediatamente após o polimento, T1- 7dias, T2- 14dias, e T3- 21dias. Todos os espécimes dos grupos experimentais foram imersos sob agitação, nos diferentes enxaguatórios bucais...

‣ Perinatal Outcome and Change in Body Mass Index in Mothers of Dichorionic Twins: a Longitudinal Cohort Study

Simões, T; Cordeiro, A; Júlio, C; Reis, J; Dias, E; Blickstein, I
Fonte: Cambridge Publicador: Cambridge
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 Português
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We used a prospective cohort to analyze the effect of change in BMI rather than change in weight, in mothers carrying dichorionic twins from a population that did not receive any dietary intervention. A total of 269 mothers (150 nulliparas and 119 multiparas) were evaluated. The average change (%) from the pre-gravid BMI was 7.2+/-6.1, 17.4+/-8.2, and 28.7+/-10.8, at 12-14, 22-25, and 30-34 weeks, respectively, without difference between nulliparas and multiparas. The comparison between maternities below or above the average change from the pregravid BMI failed to demonstrate an advantage (in terms of total twin birthweight and gestational age) of an above average change from the pregravid BMI, even when the lower versus upper quartiles were compared. Our observations reached different conclusions regarding the recommended universal dietary intervention in twin gestations. A cautious approach is advocated towards seemingly harmless excess weight gain, as normal weight women may turn overweight, or even obese, by the end of pregnancy, and be exposed to the untoward effects of obesity on future health and body image.

‣ Perinatal Outcome and Change in Body Mass Index in Mothers of Dichorionic Twins: a Longitudinal Cohort Study

Simões, T; Cordeiro, A; Júlio, C; Reis, J; Dias, E; Blickstein, I
Fonte: Cambridge Publicador: Cambridge
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.94115%
We used a prospective cohort to analyze the effect of change in BMI rather than change in weight, in mothers carrying dichorionic twins from a population that did not receive any dietary intervention. A total of 269 mothers (150 nulliparas and 119 multiparas) were evaluated. The average change (%) from the pre-gravid BMI was 7.2+/-6.1, 17.4+/-8.2, and 28.7+/-10.8, at 12-14, 22-25, and 30-34 weeks, respectively, without difference between nulliparas and multiparas. The comparison between maternities below or above the average change from the pregravid BMI failed to demonstrate an advantage (in terms of total twin birthweight and gestational age) of an above average change from the pregravid BMI, even when the lower versus upper quartiles were compared. Our observations reached different conclusions regarding the recommended universal dietary intervention in twin gestations. A cautious approach is advocated towards seemingly harmless excess weight gain, as normal weight women may turn overweight, or even obese, by the end of pregnancy, and be exposed to the untoward effects of obesity on future health and body image.

‣ Slight head extension: does it change the sagittal cervical curve?

Harrison, Deed E.; Harrison, Donald D.; Janik, Tadeusz J.; Holland, Burt; Siskin, Leonard A.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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It is commonly believed that slight flexion/extension of the head will reverse the cervical lordosis. The goal of the present study was to determine whether slight head extension could result in a cervical kyphosis changing into a lordosis. Forty consecutive volunteer subjects with a cervical kyphosis and with flexion in their resting head position had a neutral lateral cervical radiograph followed immediately by a lateral cervical view taken in an extended head position to level the bite line. Subjects were patients at a spine clinic in Elko, Nevada. All radiographs were digitized. Global and segmental angles of the cervical curve were compared for any change in angle due to slight extension of the head. The average extension of the head required to level the bite line was 13.9°. This head extension was not substantially correlated with any segmental or global angle of lordosis. Subjects were categorized into those requiring slight head extension (0°–13.9°) and those requiring a significant head extension (>13.9°). In the slight head extension group, the average change in global angle between posterior tangents on C2 and C7 was 6.9°, and 80% of this change occurred in C1–C4. In the significant head extension group, the average change in global angle between posterior tangents on C2 and C7 was 11.0°...

‣ Widespread Climate Change in the Himalayas and Associated Changes in Local Ecosystems

Bawa, Kamaljit S.; Shrestha, Uttam Babu; Gautam, Shiva Prasad
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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37.06294%
Background: Climate change in the Himalayas, a biodiversity hotspot, home of many sacred landscapes, and the source of eight largest rivers of Asia, is likely to impact the well-being of (sim)20% of humanity. However, despite the extraordinary environmental, cultural, and socio-economic importance of the Himalayas, and despite their rapidly increasing ecological degradation, not much is known about actual changes in the two most critical climatic variables: temperature and rainfall. Nor do we know how changes in these parameters might impact the ecosystems including vegetation phenology. Methodology/Principal Findings: By analyzing temperature and rainfall data, and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) values from remotely sensed imagery, we report significant changes in temperature, rainfall, and vegetation phenology across the Himalayas between 1982 and 2006. The average annual mean temperature during the 25 year period has increased by 1.5(^circ)C with an average increase of 0.06(^circ)C yr(^{−1}). The average annual precipitation has increased by 163 mm or 6.52 mmyr(^{−1}). Since changes in temperature and precipitation are immediately manifested as changes in phenology of local ecosystems, we examined phenological changes in all major ecoregions. The average start of the growing season (SOS) seems to have advanced by 4.7 days or 0.19 days yr(^{−1}) and the length of growing season (LOS) appears to have advanced by 4.7 days or 0.19 days yr(^{−1})...

‣ Social Impacts of Climate Change in Peru : A District Level Analysis of the Effects of Recent and Future Climate Change on Human Development and Inequality

Andersen, Lykke E.; Suxo, Addy; Verner, Dorte
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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This paper uses district level data to estimate the general relationship between climate, income and life expectancy in Peru. The analysis finds that both incomes and life expectancy show hump-shaped relationships, with optimal average annual temperatures around 18-20ºC. These estimated relationships were used to simulate the likely effects of both past (1958-2008) and future (2008-2058) climate change. At the aggregate level, future climate change in Peru is estimated to cause a small reduction in average life expectancy of about 0.2 years. This average, however, hides much larger losses in the already hot areas as well as substantial gains in currently cold areas. Similarly, the average impact on incomes is a modest reduction of 2.3 percent, but with some districts experiencing losses of up to 20 percent and others gains of up to 13 percent. Future climate change is estimated to cause an increase in poverty (all other things equal), but to have no significant effect on the distribution of incomes.

‣ Building Response Strategies to Climate Change in Agricultural Systems in Latin America

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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This report, Building Response Strategies to Climate Change in Agricultural Systems in Latin America, reports the results of action research to identify and prioritize stakeholder driven, locally relevant response options to climate change in Latin American agriculture. The study has three primary objectives. The first is to develop and apply a pilot methodology for assessing agricultural vulnerability to climate change and for formulating adaptation response strategies to inform private and public sector decisions in the Latin America region. The study is principally concerned with adaptation responses to climate change, rather than mitigation. The second objective is to formulate recommendations for investments in each of the selected agro-ecosystems in a range of areas including agricultural technology adaptation, infrastructure investments, public and private sector support activities, and institutional and policy changes. The final objective is to disseminate the study results in the Latin America region and other parts of the world to help increase understanding of the impacts of climate change and alternative adaptation response strategies. This methodology can be used by the Bank to support client countries in defining response strategies...

‣ Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change : Ethiopia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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The report is part of a broader study, the Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change (EACC), which has two objectives: (a) to develop a global estimate of adaptation costs for informing international climate negotiations; and (b) to help decision makers in developing countries assess the risks posed by climate change and design national strategies for adapting to it. This paper is one of a series of country-level studies, where national data were disaggregated to more local and sector levels, helping to understand adaptation from a bottom-up perspective. Ethiopia is heavily dependent on rainfed agriculture. Its geographical location and topography in combination with low adaptive capacity entail a high vulnerability to the impacts of climate change. Historically the country has been prone to extreme weather variability. Rainfall is highly erratic, most rain falls with high intensity, and there is a high degree of variability in both time and space. Since the early 1980s, the country has suffered seven major droughts five of which have led to famines in addition to dozens of local droughts. Major floods also occurred in different parts of the country in 1988...

‣ Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change : Vietnam

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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This report provides a synthesis of key findings of sector studies undertaken in Vietnam in the context of the EACC study. The sector studies were on agriculture (Zhu & Guo 2010), a separate computable general equilibrium [CGE] analysisbased on agriculture findings (Adams et al. 2010), aquaculture (Kam et al. 2010), forestry (Phuong). At the global level, the EACC study estimates that it will costbetween $70 and $100 billion each year to adapt to climate change over the period 2010 to 2050. The study was funded by the governments of the UnitedKingdom, Netherlands, and Switzerland. Further details may be found at: www.worldbank.org/eacc. In addition, the synthesis report from Vietnam and the six underlying national sector reports can be downloaded from the Environment site of the World Bank s web site for Vietnam: www.worldbank.org/vn/environment.et al. 2010, Almeida et al. 2010), social (McElwee et al. 2010), and coastal ports (VIMARU 2010). Further details can be found in the individual sector reports prepared by teams of national and international experts.

‣ Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change : Samoa

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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37.15387%
Over the last two decades Samoa has suffered major damage from two cyclones in 1990-91, minor damage from a third cyclone in 2004, and an earthquake tsunami in 2009. Changes in the scale and impact of these types of natural disasters are likely to be important consequences of climate change for the country because the increases in sea level and in average sea surface temperatures will increase theintensity and damage from major storms. Other potential impacts are linked to changes in the weather patterns associated with El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. The primary concern focuses on the impact on agriculture, especially in periods of lower precipitation following strong El Niño episodes.This study examines the consequences of an increase in average temperatures of up to 1°C by 2050 and up to 2.75°C by 2100 for the frequency and intensity of major cyclones that hit the islands. Estimates of the economic damage caused by storms in the past have been used to calibrate a damage function that yields an estimated increase in the expected value of economic damage as the peak wind speeds for storms with return periods of 10...

‣ Municipal Vulnerability to Climate Change and Climate-Related Events in Mexico

Borja-Vega, Christian; de la Fuente, Alejandro
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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A climate change vulnerability index in agriculture is presented at the municipal level in Mexico. Because the index is built with a multidimensional approach to vulnerability (exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity), it represents a tool for policy makers, academics and government alike to inform decisions about climate change resilience and regional variations within the country. The index entails baseline (2005) and prediction (2045) levels based on historic climate data and future-climate modeling. The results of the analysis suggest a wide variation in municipal vulnerability across the country at baseline and prediction points. The vulnerability index shows that highly vulnerable municipalities demonstrate higher climate extremes, which increases uncertainty for harvest periods, and for agricultural yields and outputs. The index shows at baseline that coastal areas host some of the most vulnerable municipalities to climate change in Mexico. However, it also shows that the Northwest and Central regions will likely experience the largest shifts in vulnerability between 2005 and 2045. Finally...

‣ Growth Still Is Good for the Poor

Dollar, David; Kleineberg, Tatjana; Kraay, Aart
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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Incomes in the poorest two quintiles on average increase at the same rate as overall average incomes. This is because, in a global dataset spanning 118 countries over the past four decades, changes in the share of income of the poorest quintiles are generally small and uncorrelated with changes in average income. The variation in changes in quintile shares is also small relative to the variation in growth in average incomes, implying that the latter accounts for most of the variation in income growth in the poorest quintiles. These findings hold across most regions and time periods and when conditioning on a variety of country-level factors that may matter for growth and inequality changes. This evidence confirms the central importance of economic growth for poverty reduction and illustrates the difficulty of identifying specific macroeconomic policies that are significantly associated with the relative growth rates of those in the poorest quintiles.

‣ Climate Change and Sea Level Rise : A Review of the Scientific Evidence

Dasgupta, Susmita; Meisner, Craig
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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Sea-level rise (SLR) due to climate change is a serious global threat: the scientific evidence is now overwhelming. The rate of global sea level rise was faster from 1993 to 2003, about 3.1 mm per year, as compared to the average rate of 1.8 mm per year from 1961 to 2003 (IPCC, 2007); and significantly higher than the average rate of 0.1 to 0.2 mm/yr increase recorded by geological data over the last 3,000 years. Anthropogenic warming and SLR will continue for centuries due to the time scales associated with climate processes and feedbacks, even if greenhouse gas concentrations were to be stabilized. This paper reviews the scientific literature to date on climate change and sea level rise. There appears to be a consensus across studies that global sea level is projected to rise during the 21st century at a greater rate than during the period 1961 to 2003 and unanimous agreement that SLR will not be geographically uniform. Ocean thermal expansion is projected to contribute significantly, and land ice will increasingly lose mass at an accelerated rate. But most controversial are the mass balance loss estimates of the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets and what the yet un-quantified dynamic processes will imply in terms of SLR. Recent evidence on the vulnerability of Greenland and west Antarctic ice sheets to climate warming raises the alarming possibility of SLR by one meter or more by the end of the 21st century.

‣ Growth, Inequality, and Social Welfare : Cross-Country Evidence

Dollar, David; Kleineberg, Tatjana; Kraay, Aart
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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Social welfare functions that assign weights to individuals based on their income levels can be used to document the relative importance of growth and inequality changes for changes in social welfare. In a large panel of industrial and developing countries over the past 40 years, most of the cross-country and over-time variation in changes in social welfare is due to changes in average incomes. In contrast, the changes in inequality observed during this period are on average much smaller than changes in average incomes, are uncorrelated with changes in average incomes, and have contributed relatively little to changes in social welfare.

‣ Social Impacts of Climate Change in Chile : A Municipal Level Analysis of the Effects of Recent and Future Climate Change on Human Development and Inequality

Andersen, Lykke E.; Verner, Dorte
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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37.11208%
This paper uses municipality level data to estimate the general relationship between climate, income, and life expectancy in Chile. The analysis finds that incomes are negatively related to temperature, while life expectancy is not significantly related to average temperatures. Both incomes and life expectancy are greater in areas with either very little rain or a lot of rain. The authors use the estimated relationships to simulate the effects of both past (1958-08) and future (2008-58) climate change. The findings indicate that past climate change has been favorable for the central, and most populous, part of Chile, and it has contributed to reduced poverty and reduced inequality of health outcomes. Whereas temperatures in the past have shown a downward trend for most of the Chilean population, climate models suggest that they will increase in the future, and that there will be a reduction in precipitation in the central part of Chile. The analysis simulates the likely effects of these projected climate changes over the next 50 years. The findings suggest that expected future climate will tend to reduce incomes across the whole country...

‣ Yemen - Assessing the Impacts of Climate Change and Variability on the Water and Agricultural Sectors and the Policy Implications

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Environmental Analysis (CEA)
Português
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Yemen is particularly vulnerable to climate change and variability impacts because of its water dependence and current high levels of water stress. This natural resource challenge is compounded by demographic pressure, weak governance and institutions, and by a deteriorating economic situation. The economic and social outlook is not bright, and planning and international support will certainly be needed to help Yemen to adapt to the further stresses caused by climate change and variability. In the light of these challenges, the government has developed a National Adaptation Program of Action (NAPA). In support of this, the World Bank commissioned a series of studies of climate change in two phases: the first phase projected climate change scenarios for Yemen, and phase two assessed climate change impacts on the agricultural and water sectors, and outlined possible policy and program responses. The present study is essentially a digest of the work done to date, and is intended as a contribution to Government's process of assessing vulnerability and adaptation options by: (i) assessing possible impacts on the water balance and on agriculture and rural livelihoods; and (ii) reviewing adaptation options and the priorities for government policies...

‣ Reducing the Vulnerability of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia's Agricultural Systems to Climate Change : Impact Assessment and Adaptation Options

Sutton, William R.; Srivastava, Jitendra P.; Neumann, James E.; Strzępek, Kenneth M.; Boehlert, Brent B.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
Português
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36.969827%
Agricultural production is inextricably tied to climate, making agriculture one of the most climate-sensitive of all economic sectors. In countries such as the Former Yugoslav Republic (FYR) of Macedonia, the risks of climate change for the agricultural sector are a particularly immediate and important problem because the majority of the rural population depends either directly or indirectly on agriculture for their livelihoods. Climate impacts can therefore undermine progress that has been made in poverty reduction and adversely impact food security and economic growth in vulnerable rural areas. In order to be effective, a plan for adapting the sector to climate change must strengthen both human capital and physical capital in their capacity. The need to adapt to climate change in all sectors is now on the agenda of national governments and development partners. As a result, development partners will continue to have an important role in enhancing the adaptive capacity of the Macedonian agricultural sector. Another key factor for FYR Macedonia's development of an adaptation plan for agriculture is furthering FYR Macedonia's work toward European Union (EU) accession, for which FYR Macedonia has been a candidate since 2005. The Macedonian government has already begun to focus on required EU reforms...

‣ Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change in the Mediterranean Region. Climate out of balance in Aiguamolls de l'Empordà?

Fatorić, Sandra
Fonte: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Publicador: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,
Tipo: Tesis i dissertacions electròniques; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2014 Português
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36.984512%
Aiguamolls de l' Empordà fue la primera área natural protegida creada en la Costa Brava y es la segunda zona de humedales más importante de Cataluña, después del Delta del Ebro. En esta tesis se ha investigado cómo los actores principales perciben y responden al cambio climático. Además se ha realizado un análisis de la variabilidad climática en los últimos cuarenta años en una de las zonas costeras económicamente más dinámicas de España. El enfoque adoptado apoya la necesidad de que el análisis de vulnerabilidad y adaptación deben ser participativos y deben incluir dimensiones sociales, culturales, ambientales, económicas y políticas. En la tesis se muestra, en primer lugar, que desde principios de 1970, las temperaturas medias del aire y del mar en los Aiguamolls de l'Empordà han seguido una tendencia de calentamiento o incremento. Por otra parte, la precipitación mostró una tendencia creciente no significativa. Mientras que la velocidad promedia anual del viento aumentó en el período de 1990–2012, la frecuencia de las tormentas disminuyó. En cuanto a los caudales de los ríos Fluvià y Muga, se observó una disminución en el período 1971–2011. Recientes datos marinos del nivel local del mar, cerca de los Aiguamolls de l'Empordà mostraron un aumento entre 1990 y 2012. Por otra parte...

‣ Projected Average Summer Air Temperature Increases and the Implications for Philadelphia's Surface Drinking Water Supply

Rockwell, Julia
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 05/12/2014 Português
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Water managers are faced with numerous uncertainties that need to be addressed in the development of long-term planning initiatives and large-scale investment decisions. One of the primary and perhaps most far-reaching of these uncertainties is climate change. The objective of this project is to utilize one aspect of projected climate change impacts, increasing average summer air temperature, to understand potential impacts to surface drinking water supply temperatures in the Schuylkill River at Philadelphia, PA. The project consists of three major components. As an initial step, climate model output from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) was evaluated for the Northeast US and Philadelphia by mapping and analyzing Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) files for near-surface air temperatures in Matlab. The evaluation of climate model output included model validation for six selected CMIP5 Global Climate Models (GCMs), as well as future projections using the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) climate scenario. Secondly, this project aimed to develop a statistical relationship between air and surface water temperatures in Philadelphia using publicly available data from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and Daymet. Following the aforementioned empirical analyses...

‣ Change Detection in Teletraffic Models

Jana, R; Dey, S
Fonte: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE Inc) Publicador: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE Inc)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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46.52121%
In this paper, we propose a likelihood-based ratio test to detect distributional changes in common teletraffic models. These include traditional models like the Markov modulated Poisson process and processes exhibiting long range dependency, in particular, Gaussian fractional ARIMA processes. A practical approach is also developed for the case where the parameter after the change is unknown. It is noticed that the algorithm is robust enough to detect slight perturbations of the parameter value after the change. A comprehensive set of numerical results including results for the mean detection delay is provided.