Página 1 dos resultados de 29 itens digitais encontrados em 0.360 segundos

‣ Trade barriers and economic impact of organic beekeeping in Portugal

Gomes, Mário; Casaca, João; Cabo, Paula; Dias, L.G.; Vilas-Boas, Miguel
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Bragança Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Bragança
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.780051%
In Portugal, according to the official data provided by the Portuguese Veterinary Authority), available in the Report of the National Beekeeping Program 2010, beekeeping is carried out by 17.291 beekeepers, which own a total of 562.557 colonies. According to the Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL) this represents only 3,6% of the economic value of the Portuguese organic production, given that only 119 beekeepers were registered as organic operators, with a total of 15.927 colonies. Portuguese organic beekeeping are still far below other European countries average such as Italy (8%), and even if compared with the 5,8% of Portuguese organic farming, which should lead to more than 32.628 hives. Additionally, the great potential that Portugal has due to its soil, climate, but also environmental conditions (very suitable to organic beekeeping) and the consumer’s appreciation of organic products are key factors to strength the Portuguese organic beekeeping sector. With this study, and considering that organic beekeeping is already established in Portugal, we aim to encourage the conversion/initiation in organic beekeeping of a significant number of producers, providing them with a true picture of the Portuguese organic beekeeping sector and its potential...

‣ Trade Finance during the Great Trade Collapse

Chauffour, Jean-Pierre; Malouche, Mariem
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
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48.237324%
The bursting of the subprime mortgage market in the United States in 2008 and the ensuing global financial crisis were associated with a rapid decline in global trade. The extent of the trade collapse was unprecedented: trade flows fell at a faster rate than had been observed even in the early years of the great depression. G-20 leaders held their first crisis-related summit in November 2008. The goal was to understand the root causes of the global crisis and to reach consensus on actions to address its immediate effects. In the case of trade, a key question concerned the extent to which a drying up of trade finance caused the observed decline in trade flows. This book brings together a range of projects and studies undertaken by development institutions, export credit agencies, private bankers, and academics to shed light on the role of trade finance in the 2008-09 great trade collapse. It provides policy makers, analysts, and other interested parties with analyses and assessments of the role of governments and institutions in restoring trade finance markets. A deeper understanding of the complexity of trade finance remains critical as the world economy recovers and the supply of trade finance improves. The international community continues to know too little about the fragility of low income economies in response to trade finance developments and shocks...

‣ The Pattern of Growth and Poverty Reduction in China

Montalvo, Jose G.; Ravallion, Martin
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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47.888657%
China has seen a huge reduction in the incidence of extreme poverty since the economic reforms that started in the late 1970s. Yet, the growth process has been highly uneven across sectors and regions. The paper tests whether the pattern of China´s growth mattered to poverty reduction using a new provincial panel data set constructed for this purpose. The econometric tests support the view that the primary sector (mainly agriculture) has been the main driving force in poverty reduction over the period since 1980. It was the sectoral unevenness in the growth process, rather than its geographic unevenness, that handicapped poverty reduction. Yes, China has had great success in reducing poverty through economic growth, but this happened despite the unevenness in its sectoral pattern of growth. The idea of a trade-off between these sectors in terms of overall progress against poverty in China turns out to be a moot point, given how little evidence there is of any poverty impact of non-primary sector growth, controlling for primary-sector growth. While the non-primary sectors were key drivers of aggregate growth...

‣ An Assessment of the Investment Climate in South Africa

Clarke, George R.G.; Habyarimana, James; Ingram, Michael; Kaplan, David; Ramachandran, Vijaya
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
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58.6153%
The objective of the South Africa Investment Climate Assessment (ICA) is to evaluate the investment climate in South Africa in all its operational dimensions and to promote policies to strengthen the private sector. The investment climate is made up of the many location-specific factors that shape opportunities and incentives for firms to invest productively, create jobs, and expand. These factors include macroeconomic and regulatory policies, the security of property rights and the rule of law, and the quality of supporting institutions such as physical and financial infrastructure. The main source of information for the ICA is a survey of over 800 formal private enterprises. The survey includes data on firm productivity, the cost of doing business, the regulatory environment, the labor market, the financial sector, the trade regime, and levels of investment. The analysis links business environment constraints to firm-level costs and productivity. Also, the investment climate and performance of firms in South Africa can be compared with those of firms in the more than 70 low- and middle income countries in which Investment Climate Surveys (ICSs) have been conducted.

‣ Modeling Services Liberalization : The Case of Tanzania

Jensen, Jesper; Rutherford, Thomas F.; Tarr, David G.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
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48.62085%
This paper employs a 52-sector, small, open-economy computable general equilibrium model of the Tanzanian economy to assess the impact of the liberalization of regulatory barriers against foreign and domestic business service providers in Tanzania. The model incorporates productivity effects in both goods and services markets endogenously, through a Dixit-Stiglitz framework. It summarizes policy notes on the key business service sectors that were prepared for this work, and estimates the ad valorem equivalent of barriers to foreign direct investment based on these policy notes and detailed questionnaires completed by specialists in Tanzania. The authors estimate that Tanzania will gain about 5.3 percent of the value of Tanzanian consumption in the medium run (or about 4.8 percent of gross domestic product) from a full reform package that also includes uniform tariffs. The estimated gains increase to about 16 percent of consumption in the long-run, steady-state model, where the impact on the accumulation of capital from an improvement in the productivity of capital is taken into account. Decomposition exercises reveal that the largest gains to Tanzania will derive from liberalization of costly regulatory barriers that are non-discriminatory in their impacts between Tanzanian and multinational service providers.

‣ Tajikistan : Trade Diagnostic Study

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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48.680854%
This study examines how improvements in the internal and external trade regimes, and the transport and trade facilitation systems can contribute to sustain rapid growth and attract foreign investment to win the race against the capital stock decline. Key recommendations are presented in a simple matrix format at the end of this summary for a quick overview. Some of the recommendations are already under implementation as part of the Policy Based Credit currently under preparation. The findings of the trade study have also led to Government interest in additional analytical work in selected areas (e.g., remittances and air transportation) that is currently ongoing.

‣ Georgia : An Integrated Trade Development Strategy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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48.43557%
Georgia became a member of WTO in June 2000. It has low import tariffs and no quantitative restrictions. The VAT (20 percent) and excise taxes are equally applied to imports and domestic output. However, the implementation of trade policies is undermined by corruption and poor customs and tax administration. Moreover, a new tariff schedule adopted in January 2003 increased the number of tariffs from four to 22! and the top duty rate from 12 to 30 percent. Although the weighted average tariff will go up only by a fraction of a percent and the new tariffs are in line with the upper bounds agreed with the WTO upon accession, such a schedule is a step back from the previous, simpler schedule. Georgia faces no significant trade barriers in world markets and main export destinations include the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) region (45 percent)-e.g., Russia, Azerbaijan, Ukraine, and Armenia- where Georgia enjoys duty-free access, followed by Turkey (20 percent), and the EU (18 percent)-mainly Germany. Like most CIS countries...

‣ Institutional Arrangements for the Promotion of Regional Integration of Electricity Markets : International Experience

Oseni, Musiliu O.; Pollitt, Michael G.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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This paper focuses on the institutional arrangements needed for facilitating regional electricity cooperation. The paper begins by discussing the theory of international trade cooperation in electricity, with a view to discussing what preconditions might be important in facilitating wide area trading across national borders. It then discusses two sets of case studies. The first set focuses on three regional developing country power pools -- the Southern African Power Pool, the West African Power Pool, and the Central American Power Market. The second set focuses on three regional power pools in more developed countries -- one in the United States, the Single Electricity Market in Ireland, and the South East Europe market. These cases highlight the potential and difficulty of having cross-jurisdictional power pools. In the light of the theory and evidence presented, key lessons are drawn in the areas of preconditions for trading, necessary institutional arrangements, practicalities of timetabling, reasons to be hopeful about future prospects...

‣ Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan - Development Policy Review : Improving Institutions, Fiscal Policies and Structural Reforms for Greater Growth Resilience and Sustained Job Creation (Vol. 1 of 2)

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Development Policy Review (DPR); Economic & Sector Work
Português
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38.615571%
Jordan's quest for long-term, inclusive and sustainable growth has remained largely elusive. By the Growth and Development Commission's measure of success, namely, an average growth rate of 7 percent over 30 years, Jordan's growth record cannot be dubbed 'successful'. This Development Policy Review (DPR) shows that sustaining growth and reducing unemployment is possible: Jordan has a strong human capital base, a large endowment in engineers, doctors, accountants, Information Technology (IT) specialists and a substantial highly-skilled diaspora (500,000 educated Jordanians abroad, 8 percent of the population). Furthermore, the market-oriented reforms of the early 2000s have made Jordan one of the most open economies in the Middle East and North Africa Region and have led to the emergence of dynamic non-traditional sectors (e.g., information and communication technologies, health tourism and business services). What is missing are: (i) an adequate and stable institutional framework for policymaking and long-term business development; (ii) good fiscal policies to manage shocks and maintain macroeconomic stability; good institutions and macroeconomic stability were identified by the growth commission as two of the five common characteristics of successful growth experiences; and (iii) further growth-enhancing structural reforms.

‣ Jordan - Policies for High and Sustained Growth for Job Creation : Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan 2012 Development Policy Review (Vol. 1 of 2) : Synthesis

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Development Policy Review (DPR); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
38.58165%
Jordan's quest for long-term, inclusive and sustainable growth has remained largely elusive. By the Growth and Development Commission's measure of success, namely, an average growth rate of 7 percent over 30 years, Jordan's growth record cannot be dubbed 'successful'. This Development Policy Review (DPR) shows that sustaining growth and reducing unemployment is possible: Jordan has a strong human capital base, a large endowment in engineers, doctors, accountants, Information Technology (IT) specialists and a substantial highly-skilled diaspora (500,000 educated Jordanians abroad, 8 percent of the population). Furthermore, the market-oriented reforms of the early 2000s have made Jordan one of the most open economies in the Middle East and North Africa Region and have led to the emergence of dynamic non-traditional sectors (e.g., information and communication technologies, health tourism and business services). What is missing are: (i) an adequate and stable institutional framework for policymaking and long-term business development; (ii) good fiscal policies to manage shocks and maintain macroeconomic stability; good institutions and macroeconomic stability were identified by the growth commission as two of the five common characteristics of successful growth experiences; and (iii) further growth-enhancing structural reforms.

‣ Poverty Reduction without Economic Growth? Explaining Brazil's Poverty Dynamics, 1985-2004

Ferreira, Francisco H.G.; Leite, Phillippe G.; Ravallion, Martin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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37.955752%
Brazil's slow pace of poverty reduction over the last two decades reflects both low growth and a low growth elasticity of poverty reduction. Using GDP data disaggregated by state and sector for a twenty-year period, this paper finds considerable variation in the poverty-reducing effectiveness of growth-across sectors, across space, and over time. Growth in the services sector was substantially more poverty-reducing than was growth in either agriculture or industry. Growth in industry had very different effects on poverty across different states and its impact varied with initial conditions related to human development and worker empowerment. The determinants of poverty reduction changed around 1994: positive growth rates and a greater (absolute) elasticity with respect to agricultural growth contributed to faster poverty reduction. But because there was so little of it, economic growth played a relatively small role in accounting for Brazil's poverty reduction between 1985 and 2004. The taming of hyperinflation (in 1994) and substantial expansions in social security and social assistance transfers...

‣ Exchange Rate Overvaluation and Trade Protection; Lessons from Experience

Shatz, Howard J.; Tarr, David G.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
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58.2128%
Despite a trend toward more flexible rates, more than half the world's countries maintain fixed or managed exchange rates. In the 1980s and 1990s, developing countries as a group progressively liberalized their trade regimes, but some governments defend their exchange rate in actions that run counter to long-run plans for liberalization. Without discussing the relative merits of fixed and flexible exchange rate systems, the authors note that exchange rate management in many countries has resulted in overvaluation of the real exchange rate. Roughly twenty five percent of the countries for which data are available have overvalued exchange rates, with black market premiums from 10 percent to more than 100 percent. After surveying the literature, the authors present lessons from experience about what has worked (or not) in response to crises involving external shocks and external trade deficits - and why. Trying to defend an overvalued exchange rate with protectionist trade policies is a classic pattern, but experience shows such protection does significantly retard the country's growth...

‣ Buildings Market Institutions in South Eastern Europe : Comparative Prospects for Investment and Private Sector Development

Broadman, Harry G.; Anderson, James; Claessens, Constantijn A.; Ryterman, Randi; Slavova, Stefka; Vagliasindi, Maria; Vincelette, Gallina A.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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47.876636%
This report studies impediments to investment and private sector development in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Moldova, Romania, and Serbia and Montenegro. It aims to yield fundamentally new insights for improving the region's business environment, economic development, and prospects for growth. It focuses on four core topics: 1) Business competition and economic barriers to entry and exit; 2) Access to regulated utilities and services; 3) Corporate ownership, transparency of business accounts, and access to finance; and 4) Mechanisms for commercial dispute resolution. Each topic is empirically investigated across all eight South Eastern European countries through the systematic use of data from multiple sources: Official data from each country in the region; results from two annual rounds of quantitative, firm-level surveys covering 1,600 firms; and results from 40 originally developed enterprise-level business case studies. The result is an innovative analysis of cross-country comparisons and the development of key policy challenges from a regional perspective. The report ends by making concrete recommendations for reforms that would ease the constraints on domestic and foreign investment...

‣ Regional Trade Policy Options for Tanzania : The Importance of Services Commitments

Jensen, Jesper; Tarr, David G.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
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58.603145%
Despite the growing importance of commitments to foreign investors in services in regional trade agreements, there are no applied general equilibrium models in the literature that assess these regional impacts. This paper develops a 52 sector applied general equilibrium model of Tanzania with foreign direct investment, and uses that model to assess Tanzania's regional and multilateral trade options. The model incorporates the features of the modern theory of international trade that has shown empirically that trade and foreign direct investment can increase productivity, and trade and foreign direct investment with technologically advanced countries is especially valuable for that purpose. To assess the sensitivity of the results to parameter values, the model is executed 30,000 times, and the results are reported as confidence intervals of the sample distributions. The analysis finds that a 50 percent preferential reduction in the ad valorem equivalents of barriers in all business services by Tanzania with respect to its African regional partners would be slightly beneficial for Tanzania. But wider liberalization...

‣ Putting Services and Foreign Direct Investment with Endogenous Productivity Effects in Computable General Equilibrium Models

Tarr, David G.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
48.177363%
With the growing importance of services and foreign direct investment in services, it is important to have a framework to analyze the impact of the liberalization of barriers to foreign direct investment in services. This paper summarizes several recent papers and builds policy-based computable general equilibrium models showing the dynamics of services, foreign direct investment and the endogenous productivity effect from services. The modeling framework shows that the liberalization of barriers against foreign direct investment in services yields welfare gains several times larger than the usual estimates from traditional computable general equilibrium models, which focus on goods trade, not foreign direct investment in services. The larger estimates are consistent with econometric evidence on the gains from services liberalization. The paper begins with a small stylized model to help understand the fundamental economics. Then it describes models developed at the request of the Russian government to assess the potential impact of Russia's accession to the WTO. Reviews of the work indicated that the modeling helped the Russian government gain public support for the WTO entry. The paper also describes a new technique that allows modelers to include tens of thousands of households in the model.

‣ Optimizing Fisheries Benefits in the Pacific Islands : Major Issues and Constraints

Gillett, R.; van Santen, G.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
48.04627%
In the last 10 years, World Bank activity in the fisheries sector of the Pacific Islands region has been limited to two regional economic reports, a study of coastal resources management, and a few technical assistance missions. The purpose of this study was to conduct a brief internal review of the Pacific fisheries sectors past performances, based on the existing literature and experience of the individuals involved. The report's main aim is to identify key constraints and past mitigating activities in fisheries in the Pacific Islands region, and activities supported by past donor, regional and national fisheries programs. In addition, the report examines the potential future role of the World Bank in the Pacific Islands region fisheries sector. This report's findings are intended as a starting point in this analysis. The next step is to facilitate a frank discussion about the potential World Bank role with key donors, regional institutions, and national government authorities currently involved in the sector. The record of past donor support suggests that while single donors have successfully implemented technical assistance and investment projects...

‣ Conflict, Livelihoods, and Poverty in Guinea-Bissau

Boubacar-Sid, Barry; Creppy, Edward G.E.; Gacitua-Mario, Estanislao; Wodon, Quentin
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.752827%
Conflict and political instability have weakened Guinea-Bissau's productive infrastructure considerably during the past three decades. This situation contributes to an increase in the degree of vulnerability of the population, especially in rural areas where most economic activities continue to take place. As growth has been weak, poverty levels remain high. This book provides a collection of papers on conflict, livelihoods, and poverty in Guinea-Bissau based on both the nationally representative 2002 household survey and a small scale survey with both quantitative and qualitative components implemented in 2004. The chapters deal with growth and poverty, institutions and social networks, the determinants of poverty, the means of livelihoods of the population, and finally cashew production and taxation.

‣ What Do We Know about Growth Patterns in Pakistan?

López-Cálix, J.R.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Waheed, Muhammad
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper
Português
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37.883352%
This paper explores stylized facts of Pakistan's growth patterns. It identifies the short-lived predominant character of its increasingly scarce growth accelerations, the average volatility of the growth rate by international standards, the high but decreasing correlation between overall growth and agricultural growth, the long term decline of its growth (potential) rate to around 4.5 percent, well below the 6 percent rate of the 1960s or from the 7 percent rate required for absorbing the young labor force. It also explores the dramatically steady fall in productivity during the 2000s (measured by Total Factor Productivity) and, to a lesser extent, capital accumulation as main reasons of such decline. The paper analyzes the role factor accumulation plays in long-term labor reallocation across sectors, with industry stalling, agriculture still playing a major role that goes beyond its own contribution to GDP, and services playing an increasing role in creating employment, but on low productivity jobs. Growth acceleration is not assured and Pakistan will need to create more jobs moving from agriculture to industry and services in activities where productivity is higher...

‣ Financiamento de pequenas e médias empresas vs grandes empresas : evolução da dívida a instituições financeiras

Oliveira, Mónica Filipa Pérola de Azevedo Tarrinho de
Fonte: Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão Publicador: Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2012 Português
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68.089336%
Mestrado em Ciências Empresariais; Vários são os autores que defendem que as Pequenas e Médias Empresas (PMEs) recorrem à dívida a instituições financeiras de forma diferente das Grandes Empresas (GEs). O presente trabalho pretende averiguar a evolução da dívida a estas instituições por parte das PMEs e das GEs, tentando justificar as diferenças existentes. Para o efeito, foram utilizadas variáveis que definem os níveis de dívida às instituições financeiras e o nível de activos e de investimento destas empresas, reportando ao período entre 1996 e 2005, sendo posteriormente realizada a devida análise estatística. Os resultados obtidos comprovam as diferenças existentes entre as PMEs e as GEs no recurso à dívida a instituições financeiras, sendo que, as PMEs se endividam para financiarem os seus activos e os seus investimentos, ao passo que nas GEs não se verifica a mesma situação.; Several are the authors that defend that Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) appeal to the debt to financial institutions in a different way from Big Enterprises (BEs). The present work pretends to investigate the debt evolution to these institutions by the SMEs and by BEs trying to justify the existent differences. For that...

‣ Essays on international trade and firm organization

Berlingieri, Giuseppe
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /12/2013 Português
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48.048184%
This thesis analyses the impact of globalisation on the boundary of the firm and, in turn, how outsourcing policies have shaped the reallocation of labour across sectors. The first chapter ("Outsourcing and the Rise in Services") investigates the impact of out sourcing on sectoral reallocation in the U.S. over the period 1947-2007. Roughly 40% of the growth of the service sector comes from professional and business services, an industry highly specialized in the production of intermediates and where most of the service outsourcing activity is concentrated. As a result, business services have experienced an almost fourfold increase in their forward linkage, the largest change among all industries. I find that the overall change in input-output structure of the economy accounts for 33% of the increase in service employment, and business services outsourcing contributes almost half of that amount. The second chapter ("Exporting, Coordination Complexity, and Service Outsourcing") investigates the determinants of service outsourcing, and professional and business services in particular. Drawing on the insights of a model of the boundary of the firm based on adaptation costs and diminishing return to management, I argue that an increase in coordination complexity (e.g.: more inputs in the production process) leads firms to outsource a higher share of their total costs and to focus on their core competences. Since country-specific inputs are needed to export to a particular country (e.g.: a specific advertisement campaign)...