Página 1 dos resultados de 118 itens digitais encontrados em 0.011 segundos

‣ Identificação e caracterização de grupos de indivíduos segundo padrões de seqüências de atividades multidimensionais.; Identification and characterization of groups of individuals according to patterns of multidimensional activity sequences.

Dalmaso, Ricardo Curvello
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/04/2009 Português
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O presente estudo procura identificar grupos homogêneos de indivíduos quanto aos padrões de seqüências de atividades diárias que estes realizam. As atividades são caracterizadas por múltiplos atributos, fazendo com que as seqüências sejam multidimensionais. Como atributos, ou características, são considerados a natureza da atividade realizada, ou motivo da viagem, e o período de realização da mesma, ambos separados em categorias. É estudado o efeito da inclusão da forma de acesso à atividade, ou modo de viagem, como uma terceira dimensão. Este atributo, entretanto, dados os resultados obtidos, não é utilizado nas análises finais. É também considerada a adoção de diferentes categorizações para a dimensão motivo. São usados dados da pesquisa Origem e Destino realizada em 1997, na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo. No trabalho são considerados os indivíduos com 12 anos ou mais, com pelo menos duas viagens diárias e com seqüência de viagens iniciada e terminada em sua residência, sem inconsistências internas. O número de indivíduos que atende a estes critérios é 49.616. A classificação, ou agrupamento, das seqüências de atividades em classes ou grupos é feita considerando uma medida de distância ou dissimilaridade calculada entre as seqüências...

‣ Prophylaxis against hepatitis A for travel.

Moore, P; Oakeshott, P; Logan, J; Law, J; Harris, D M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/03/1990 Português
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OBJECTIVE--To develop a rational practice policy for prophylaxis against hepatitis A for travellers to high risk areas. DESIGN--18 Month prospective study of consecutive patients who requested prophylaxis against hepatitis A. SETTING--Inner city general practice. SUBJECTS--104 Patients aged 15-61 (mean 30) assessed for risk factors for hepatitis A and put into groups depending on predictions from the risk factors of their immunity. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES AND RESULTS--All patients were screened for antibody to hepatitis A virus. Of 52 patients with no risk factors 47 had no antibody and were thus susceptible to hepatitis A. All 27 patients with major risk factors (having been brought up in an endemic area or with a history of jaundice) were immune. Of 25 patients with minor risk factors (a history of previous travel in high risk areas, drug abuse, having lived in a squat or travelled rough, or having lived with someone who had jaundice) 12 were immune (p less than 0.001, chi 2 test). CONCLUSIONS--All travellers requesting prophylaxis against hepatitis A should be assessed for risk factors for previous exposure to hepatitis A. Those with no risk factors could be immunised with human normal immunoglobulin without screening. The remainder should be tested for hepatitis A antibody and those found to be susceptible should be immunised.

‣ Measuring exposure to injury risk in schoolchildren aged 11-14.

Towner, E. M.; Jarvis, S. N.; Walsh, S. S.; Aynsley-Green, A.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/02/1994 Português
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OBJECTIVE--To apply a measure of exposure to injury risk for schoolchildren aged 11-14 across a population and to examine how risk factors vary with sex, age, and affluence. DESIGN--Self completion questionnaire survey administered in schools in May 1990. SETTING--24 schools in Newcastle upon Tyne. SUBJECTS--5334 pupils aged 11-14, of whom 4637 (87%) completed the questionnaire. RESULTS--Boys were exposed to greater risk than girls in journeys to places to play outdoors; they took longer trips and were more likely to ride bicycles (relative risk 5.30 (95% confidence interval 4.23 to 6.64)) and less likely to travel by public transport or car. Younger pupils (aged 11-12) were less exposed to traffic during journeys to and from school: their journeys were shorter, they were less likely to walk (trip to school, relative risk 0.88 (0.83 to 0.94)), and they were more likely to travel by car (trip to school, relative risk 1.33 (1.13 to 1.56)) or school bus (1.33 (1.10 to 1.62)). Poorer children were exposed to greater risk than affluent children (from families that owned a car and a telephone): they were less likely to travel to school by car (relative risk 0.26 (0.20 to 0.33)) or to be accompanied by an adult (0.39 (0.32 to 0.48)). CONCLUSION--Injury risk data can provide useful information on child injury prevention and can be used to identify priorities and target resources for injury prevention on a citywide scale or for an individual school.

‣ Locomotor activity and gait in aged mice deficient for type IX collagen

Costello, Kerry E.; Guilak, Farshid; Setton, Lori A.; Griffin, Timothy M.
Fonte: American Physiological Society Publicador: American Physiological Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Osteoarthritis (OA) is a risk factor for physical inactivity and impaired mobility, but it is not well understood how these locomotor behaviors are affected by the age of onset of OA and disease severity. Male mice homozygous for a Col9a1 gene inactivation (Col9a1−/−) develop early onset knee OA, increased tactile pain sensitivity, and gait alterations by 9 mo of age. We hypothesized that aged Col9a1−/− mice would reduce joint pain by adopting locomotor behaviors that reduce both the magnitude and daily frequency of joint loading. We tested this hypothesis by evaluating gait and spontaneous locomotor activity in 15- to 17-mo-old male Col9a1−/− (n = 5) and Col9a1+/+(WT) (n = 5) mice using well-controlled measures of voluntary activity in overground and running wheel conditions, as well as studies of gait in a velocity-controlled treadmill. We found no difference due to genotype in freely chosen locomotor velocity, stride frequency, hindfoot duty factor, dark phase activity time, or dark-phase travel distance during overground, running wheel, or speed-matched treadmill locomotion. Interpretation of these findings is potentially confounded by the observation that WT mice have greater knee OA than Col9a1−/− mice in the lateral tibial plateau by 17 mo of age. When accounting for individual differences in knee OA...

‣ Molecular Typing and Resistance Analysis of Travel-Associated Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi

Tatavarthy, A.; Sanderson, R.; Peak, K.; Scilabro, G.; Davenhill, P.; Cannons, A.; Amuso, P.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2012 Português
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Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi is a human pathogen causing 12 to 30% mortality and requiring antibiotic therapy to control the severity of the infection. Typhoid fever in United States is often associated with foreign travel to areas of endemicity. Increasing resistance to multiple drugs, including quinolones, is associated with decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (DCS). We investigated 31 clinical strains isolated in Florida from 2007 to 2010, associated with travel to six countries, to examine the clonal distribution of the organism and apparent nalidixic acid (NAL) resistance. The strains were isolated from blood or stool of patients aged 2 to 68 years. The isolates were subtyped by ribotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Susceptibilities to 15 antimicrobials were determined, and the isolates were screened for integrons and gyrase A gene mutations. Both typing techniques effectively segregated the strains. Identical clones were associated with different countries, while diverse types coexisted in the same geographic location. Fifty-one percent of the strains were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, and five were resistant to three or more drugs (multidrug resistant [MDR]). All 12 isolates from the Indian subcontinent were resistant to at least one drug...

‣ Travel as a risk factor for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the highlands of western Kenya

Shanks, G.D.; Biomndo, K.; Guyatt, H.L.; Snow, R.W.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2005 Português
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In the 1980s, highland malaria returned to the tea estates of western Kenya after an absence of nearly a generation. In order to determine the importance of travel for the spread of malaria in this region, we prospectively collected blood films and travel, demographic and geographic information on well persons and outpatients on tea estates near the western rim of the Rift Valley. Risk factors for malaria asexual parasitaemia included: tribal/ethnic group, home province and home district malaria endemicity. Travel away from the Kericho tea estates within the previous two months showed an odds ratio (OR) for parasitaemia of 1.59 for well persons and 2.38 for outpatients. Sexual stages of malaria parasites (gametocytes) had an OR of 3.14 (well persons) and 2.22 (outpatients) for those who had travelled. Increased risk of malaria parasitaemia with travel was concentrated in children aged <5 years. An increase in population gametocytaemia is possibly due to increased chloroquine resistance and suppressed infections contracted outside of the tea estates.

‣ Health-Related Factors Associated with Mode of Travel to Work

Bopp, Melissa; Kaczynski, Andrew T.; Campbell, Matthew E.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Active commuting (AC) to the workplace is a potential strategy for incorporating physical activity into daily life and is associated with health benefits. This study examined the association between health-related factors and mode of travel to the workplace. Methods. A volunteer convenience sample of employed adults completed an online survey regarding demographics, health-related factors, and the number of times/week walking, biking, driving, and using public transit to work (dichotomized as no walk/bike/drive/PT and walk/bike/drive/PT 1 + x/week). Logistic regression was used to predict the likelihood of each mode of transport and meeting PA recommendations from AC according to demographics and health-related factors. Results. The sample (n = 1175) was aged 43.5 ± 11.4 years and was primarily White (92.7%) and female (67.9%). Respondents reported walking (7.3%), biking (14.4%), taking public transit (20.3%), and driving (78.3%) to work at least one time/week. Among those reporting AC, 9.6% met PA recommendations from AC alone. Mode of travel to work was associated with several demographic and health-related factors, including age, number of chronic diseases, weight status, and AC beliefs. Discussion. Mode of transportation to the workplace and health-related factors such as disease or weight status should be considered in future interventions targeting AC.

‣ Molecular Study of Dietary Heptadecane for the Anti-Inflammatory Modulation of NF-kB in the Aged Kidney

Kim, Dae Hyun; Park, Min Hi; Choi, Yeon Ja; Chung, Ki Wung; Park, Chan Hum; Jang, Eun Ji; An, Hye Jin; Yu, Byung Pal; Chung, Hae Young
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/03/2013 Português
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Heptadecane is a volatile component of Spirulina platensis, and blocks the de novo synthesis of fatty acids and ameliorates several oxidative stress-related diseases. In a redox state disrupted by oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory genes are upregulated by the activation of NF-kB via diverse kinases. Thus, the search and characterization of new substances that modulate NF-kB are lively research topics. In the present study, heptadecane was examined in terms of its ability to suppress inflammatory NF-kB activation via redox-related NIK/IKK and MAPKs pathway in aged rats. In the first part of the study, Fischer 344 rats, aged 9 and 20 months, were administered on average approximately 20 or 40 mg/Kg body weight over 10 days. The potency of heptadecane was investigated by examining its ability to suppress the gene expressions of COX-2 and iNOS (both NF-κB-related genes) and reactive species (RS) production in aged kidney tissue. In the second part of the study, YPEN-1 cells (an endothelial cell line) were used to explore the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory effect of heptadecane by examining its modulation of NF-kB and NF-kB signal pathway. Results showed that heptadecane exhibited a potent anti-oxidative effect by protecting YPEN-1 cells from tert-butylhydroperoxide induced oxidative stress. Further molecular investigations revealed that heptadecane attenuated RS-induced NF-kB via the NIK/IKK and MAPKs pathways in YPEN-1 cells and aged kidney tissues. Based on these results...

‣ Environnement bâti et transport actif scolaire : le cas des écoles de proximité de la région de Montréal

Fortin-Lacasse, Katerine
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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But La diminution du transport actif scolaire est une problématique préoccupante dont les déterminants sont encore mal connus. Nous nous sommes donc penchée sur la question suivante : Quelle est la contribution de l’environnement bâti pour le choix d’un mode de transport actif pour les déplacements scolaires des enfants demeurant à proximité de leur école ? Méthodologie Pour répondre à cette question, nous nous sommes basée sur le cadre conceptuel de Tracy McMillan. Nous avons caractérisé le voisinage de trois écoles en milieu urbain et de trois écoles en milieu suburbain de la région de Montréal. Également, nous avons analysé les données du Groupe de recherche Ville et mobilité concernant les comportements des enfants ainsi que les comportements et perceptions des parents. Résultats Quatre des cas à l’étude se démarquent en raison de leur forte proportion de transport actif scolaire, soit les trois milieux urbains et un milieu suburbain. Les points communs de ces quatre cas sont la perméabilité du réseau viaire pour les piétons et les cyclistes et la perception favorable des parents vis-à-vis le transport actif scolaire. Conclusion Les environnements suburbains génèrent des comportements de transport actif uniquement chez les enfants alors que les environnements urbains génèrent systématiquement des comportements de transport actif chez les adultes et les enfants. Ce faisant...

‣ A Longitudinal Study of Consumer Perceptions of Travel Websites: The Case of Hong Kong

Qui, ShanShan; Leung, Rosanna; Law, Rob; Buhalis, Dimitrois
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Knowing how consumers perceive travel websites can help practitioners better understand consumers’ online requirements. This paper reports the findings of a longitudinal study that investigated the changes and trends in the profile and behavior of online travel-website users in Hong Kong. The profiles of e-buyers and e-browsers in 2009, when compared with those established by prior studies conducted in 2000 and 2007, point in a new direction for practitioners and researchers investigating online travelwebsite user behavior. The results indicated that more middle-aged consumers have become online travel-website users, and that website security and price are perceived to be the most important factors for travel-website use by both e-browsers and e-buyers.

‣ The importance of surveillance for informing pretravel medical advice: Imported malaria in New Zealand 1997-2009

Lau, C.; Weinstein, P.; Slaney, D.
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 Português
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Malaria has never been endemic in New Zealand, and all cases have been diagnosed in international travelers. In this paper, we describe malaria cases reported from 1997 to 2009 and discuss epidemiological changes compared to a previous report from 1980 to 1992. From 1997 to 2009, 666 malaria infections were reported, with 410 cases (61.6%) in travelers aged 20-39 and 133 (20%) in military personnel. Infections were caused by Plasmodium vivax in 436 cases (72.7%) and Plasmodium falciparum in 163 (27.2%). In the 533 civilians, common countries of infection were Papua New Guinea (24.4%), India (18.6%), the Solomon Islands (8.8%), and Indonesia (6.1%). Most common regions of malaria acquisition for civilians were Papua New Guinea and Western Pacific (39.8%), Africa (24.7%), Indian subcontinent (19.5%), and Southeast Asia (13.6%). Compared to a previous report of malaria in New Zealand from 1980 to 1992, regions of malaria acquisition have changed significantly, with a lower percentage of cases acquired from Papua New Guinea and Western Pacific (from 59.2% to 39.3%), and a higher percentage from Africa (from 8.6% to 21.3%). The ethnic groups affected also differ significantly between the two surveillance periods, with a reduction in the percentage of cases reported in Caucasians (from 80.8 to 45.9%) and an increase in cases in Indians (from 7.0 to 15.7%)...

‣ Can Business Road Travel Be Safe? Experience of an International Organization; J Travel Med

Goldoni Laestadius, J.; Selod, A. G.; Ye, J.; Dimberg, L.; Bliss, A. G.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Journal Article; Journal Article
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BACKGROUND: Globally, more than 1.2 million people die on the roads every year, and unfortunately so do one or two operational travelers for the World Bank Group (WBG). METHODS: To investigate potentially preventable factors and improve the institution's road safety policies and practices, an electronic survey was designed in 2008 targeting about 16,000 WBG staff worldwide to inquire about road crashes and near crashes over the 3-year period. Also, questions were asked pertaining to contributing circumstances. Staff was encouraged to provide comments on prevention. A combined index based on the number of reported crashes and near crashes divided by person-days spent on mission in each country was used to rank the countries. RESULTS: A total of 3,760 responses were collected. There were 341 road crashes reported, about 1 in 175 missions. Seventy percent took place in taxis, and 40% of crash victims reported that seatbelts were not used. Contributing factors included driver's decision error, speeding, or road/weather conditions. On the basis of a combined index, a list of 36 high-risk countries is presented. A high correlation between crashes and near crashes (r = 0.89) justifies the method. CONCLUSIONS: Improved corporate policies will need to be developed to address preventable risk factors identified in the study.

‣ The Effectiveness of Policies to Control a Human Influenza Pandemic : A Literature Review

Dutta, Arin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
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The studies reviewed in this paper indicate that with adequate preparedness planning and execution it is possible to contain pandemic influenza outbreaks where they occur, for viral strains of moderate infectiousness. For viral strains of higher infectiousness, containment may be difficult, but it may be possible to mitigate the effects of the spread of pandemic influenza within a country and/or internationally with a combination of policies suited to the origins and nature of the initial outbreak. These results indicate the likelihood of containment success in 'frontline risk' countries, given specific resource availability and level of infectiousness; as well as mitigation success in 'secondary' risk countries, given the assumption of inevitable international transmission through air travel networks. However, from the analysis of the modeling results on interventions in the U.S. and U.K. after a global pandemic starts, there is a basis for arguing that the emphasis in the secondary risk countries could shift from mitigation towards containment. This follows since a mitigation-focused strategy in such developed countries presupposes that initial outbreak containment in these countries will necessarily fail. This is paradoxical if containment success at similar infectiousness of the virus is likely in developing countries with lower public health resources...

‣ Forecasting 65+ travel : an integration of cohort analysis and travel demand modeling

Bush, Sarah, 1973-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 104 leaves; 5012420 bytes; 5012228 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
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Over the next 30 years, the Boomers will double the 65+ population in the United States and comprise a new generation of older Americans. This study forecasts the aging Boomers' travel. Previous efforts to forecast 65+ travel are lacking in key two respects: they have failed to incorporate generation differences and have forecasted only broad travel characteristics (e.g. vehicle miles traveled). Drawing on the theory of generations, this study investigates empirically whether cohort differences in travel exist between the Boomers and the current 65+ population. It incorporates theoretically motivated cohort variables related to the historical processes of motorization, proxied by registered automobiles per person, and gender role evolution, proxied by labor force participation rates of women. The resulting forecast predicts the aging Boomers' travel demand with respect to activities requiring travel, person miles traveled, usage of transit and non-motorized modes, and trip chaining propensity. Data extracted from the 1977, 1983, 1990, and 1995 National Personal Transportation Surveys (NPTS) are used to estimate discrete and joint discrete/continuous demand models. Multiple imputation is used to impute missing survey data. Iterative proportional fitting is used to simulate future populations for forecasting purposes. Although 65+ travel is predicted to increase across all the modeled travel indicators...

‣ Influence of changing travel patterns on child death rates from injury: trend analysis.

DiGuiseppi, C.; Roberts, I.; Li, L.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/03/1997 Português
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OBJECTIVES: To examine trends in child mortality from unintentional injury between 1985 and 1992 and to find how changes in modes of travel contributed to these trends. DESIGN: Poisson regression modelling using data from death certificates, censuses, and national travel surveys. SETTING: England and Wales. SUBJECTS: Resident children aged 0-14. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Deaths from unintentional injury and poisoning. RESULTS: Child deaths from injury declined by 34% (95% confidence interval 28% to 40%) per 100,000 population between 1985 and 1992. Substantial decreases in each of the leading causes of death from injury contributed to this overall decline. On average, children walked and cycled less distance and travelled substantially more miles by car in 1992 compared with 1985. Deaths from road traffic accidents declined for pedestrians by 24% per mile walked and for cyclists by 20% per mile cycled, substantially less than the declines per 100,000 population of 37% and 38% respectively. In contrast, deaths of occupants of motor vehicles declined by 42% per mile travelled by car compared with a 21% decline per 100,000 population. CONCLUSIONS: If trends in child mortality from injury continue the government's target to reduce the rate by 33% by the year 2005 will be achieved. A substantial proportion of the decline in pedestrian traffic and pedal cycling deaths...

‣ Travellers' diarrhoea and the effect of pre-travel health advice in general practice.

McIntosh, I B; Reed, J M; Power, K G
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1997 Português
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BACKGROUND: Rates of travel-related diarrhoea vary from 8% to 50% depending on the country visited. Travellers' diarrhoea has social, health and economic costs. The impact of these may be reduced by relevant pre-travel advice. Little is known of the effect of pre-travel advice on the incidence of diarrhoea among travellers abroad. AIM: To determine the 'true' attack rate of travellers' diarrhoea and to assess the effectiveness of pre-travel health advice in reducing the incidence of diarrhoea and the need for subsequent GP consultation. METHOD: A retrospective study was carried out in a general practice in Stirling, Scotland, using a standardized, structured questionnaire to obtain demographic details and patients' home and foreign health experience in the previous 12 months. The questionnaire was administered to a 20% sample (n = 1771) of practice patients aged 16 years or over, stratified by age and sex. Main outcome measures were reported diarrhoeal illness while abroad, its management and outcome, and a record of diarrhoea in the two weeks prior to responding to the questionnaire. RESULTS: The response rate was 97% (n = 1649). Of those responding, 44% had travelled abroad in the past 12 months; 39% of travellers reported having diarrhoea while abroad...

‣ Deep vein thrombosis and air travel: record linkage study

Kelman, Chris; Kortt, M.A; Becker, Niels; Li, Zheng Feng; Mathews, John; Guest, Charles; Holman, Cashel
Fonte: BMJ Publishing Group Publicador: BMJ Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Objective: To investigate the time relations between long haul air travel and venous thromboembolism. Design Record linkage study using the case crossover approach. Setting: Western Australia. Participants: 5408 patients admitted to hospital with venous t

‣ Environmental determinants of active travel in youth: A review and framework for future research

Panter, Jenna R.; Jones, Andrew P.; van Sluijs, Esther M. F.
Fonte: Universidade de Cambridge Publicador: Universidade de Cambridge
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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RIGHTS : This article is licensed under the BioMed Central licence at http://www.biomedcentral.com/about/license which is similar to the 'Creative Commons Attribution Licence'. In brief you may : copy, distribute, and display the work; make derivative works; or make commercial use of the work - under the following conditions: the original author must be given credit; for any reuse or distribution, it must be made clear to others what the license terms of this work are.; Abstract Background Many youth fail to meet the recommended guidelines for physical activity. Walking and cycling, forms of active travel, have the potential to contribute significantly towards overall physical activity levels. Recent research examining the associations between physical activity and the environment has shown that environmental factors play a role in determining behaviour in children and adolescents. However, links between the environment and active travel have received less attention. Methods Twenty four studies were identified which examined the associations between the environment (perceived or objectively measured) and active travel among youth aged 5?18 years. Findings were categorised according to the location of the environmental measure examined; attributes of the neighbourhood...

‣ Deep Vein Thrombosis and Air Travel: Record Linkage study

Kelman, Chris; Kortt, Michael A; Becker, Niels; Li, Zheng Feng; Mathews, John; Guest, Charles; Holman, Cashel
Fonte: BMJ Publishing Group Publicador: BMJ Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.478694%
Objective: To investigate the time relations between long haul air travel and venous thromboembolism. Design Record linkage study using the case crossover approach. Setting: Western Australia. Participants: 5408 patients admitted to hospital with venous thromboembolism and matched with data for arrivals of international flights during 1981-99. Results: The risk of venous thromboembolism is increased for only two weeks after a long haul flight; 46 Australian citizens and 200 non-Australian citizens had an episode of venous thromboembolism during this so called hazard period. The relative risk during this period for Australian citizens was 4.17 (95% confidence interval, 2.94 to 5.40), with 76% of cases (n = 35) attributable to the preceding flight. A "healthy traveller" effect was observed, particularly for Australian citizens. Conclusions: The annual risk of venous thromboembolism is increased by 12% if one long haul flight is taken yearly. The average risk of death from flight related venous thromboembolism is small compared with that from motor vehicle crashes and injuries at work. The individual risk of death from flight related venous thromboembolism for people with certain pre-existing medical conditions is, however, likely to be greater than the average risk of 1 per 2 million for passengers arriving from a flight. Airlines and health authorities should continue to advise passengers on how to minimise risk.

‣ On the buses: a mixed-method evaluation of the impact of free bus travel for young people on the public health

Green, Judith; Steinbach, Rebecca; Jones, Alasdair; Edwards, Phil; Kelly, Charlotte; Nellthorp, John; Goodman, Anna; Roberts, Helen; Petticrew, Mark; Wilkinson, Paul
Fonte: National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Publicador: National Institute for Health Research (NIHR)
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /02/2014 Português
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Background In September 2005 London introduced a policy granting young people aged < 17 years access to free bus and tram travel. A year later this policy was extended to people aged < 18 years in education, work or training. This intervention was part of a broader environmental strategy in London to reduce private car use, but its primary aim was to decrease ‘transport exclusion’, and ensure that access to goods, services, education and training opportunities were not denied to some young people because of transport poverty. However, there were also likely to be positive and negative health implications, which were difficult to assess in the absence of a robust evidence base on the impact of transport policies on health and well-being. Objectives To evaluate the impact of free bus travel for young people in London on the public health. Specifically, to provide empirical evidence for the impact of this ‘natural experiment’ on health outcomes and behaviours (e.g. injuries, active travel) for young people; explore the effects on the determinants of health; identify the effects on older citizens of increased access to bus travel for young people and to identify whether or not the intervention represented value for money. Design Quasi-experimental design...